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Main article: "Hacktivismo

The "digital rights group "Hacktivismo, founded in 1999, argues that access to information is a basic "human right. The group's beliefs are described fully in the "Hacktivismo Declaration" which calls for the "Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the "International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) to be applied to the "Internet. The Declaration recalls the duty of member states to the ICCPR to protect the right to "freedom of expression with regard to the internet and in this context freedom of information.[17] The Hacktivismo Declaration recognises "the importance to fight against human rights abuses with respect to reasonable access to information on the Internet" and calls upon the "hacker community to "study ways and means of circumventing state sponsored "censorship of the internet" and "implement technologies to challenge information rights violations". The Hacktivismo Declaration does, however, recognise that the right to "freedom of expression is subject to limitations, stating "we recognised the right of governments to forbid the publication of properly categorized "state secrets, "child pornography, and matters related to personal "privacy and "privilege, among other accepted restrictions." However, the Hacktivismo Declaration states "but we oppose the use of state power to control access to the works of critics, "intellectuals, "artists, or religious figures."[17]

Global Network Initiative[edit]

On October 29, 2008 the "Global Network Initiative (GNI) was founded upon its "Principles on Freedom of Expression and Privacy". The Initiative was launched in the 60th Anniversary year of the "Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and is based on internationally recognized laws and standards for "human rights on "freedom of expression and "privacy set out in the UDHR, the "International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) and the "International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR).[18] Participants in the Initiative include the "Electronic Frontier Foundation, "Human Rights Watch, "Google, "Microsoft, "Yahoo, other major companies, human rights NGOs, investors, and academics.[19][20]

According to reports "Cisco Systems was invited to the initial discussions but didn't take part in the initiative. Harrington Investments, which proposed that Cisco establish a human rights board, has dismissed the GNI as a voluntary code of conduct not having any impact. Chief executive John Harrington called the GNI "meaningless noise" and instead calls for bylaws to be introduced that force boards of directors to accept human rights responsibilities.[21]

Internet censorship[edit]

Internet censorship

Jo Glanville, editor of the "Index on Censorship, states that "the internet has been a revolution for censorship as much as for free speech".[21] The concept of freedom of information has emerged in response to state sponsored censorship, monitoring and surveillance of the internet. Internet censorship includes the control or suppression of the publishing or accessing of information on the "Internet.

According to the "Reporters without Borders (RSF) "internet enemy list" the following states engage in pervasive internet censorship: "Cuba, "Iran, "Maldives, "Myanmar/"Burma, "North Korea, "Syria, "Tunisia, "Uzbekistan and "Vietnam.[22] A widely publicised example is the "Great Firewall of China (in reference both to its role as a "network firewall and to the ancient "Great Wall of China). The system blocks content by preventing "IP addresses from being routed through and consists of standard firewall and "proxy servers at the "Internet "gateways. The system also selectively engages in "DNS poisoning when particular sites are requested. The government does not appear to be systematically examining Internet content, as this appears to be technically impractical.[23] "Internet censorship in the People's Republic of China is conducted under a wide variety of laws and administrative regulations. In accordance with these laws, more than sixty Internet regulations have been made by the People's Republic of China (PRC) government, and censorship systems are vigorously implemented by provincial branches of state-owned "ISPs, business companies, and organizations.[24][25]

In 2010, U.S. Secretary of State "Hillary Clinton, speaking on behalf of the "United States, declared 'we stand for a single internet where all of humanity has equal access to knowledge and ideas'. In her 'Remarks on Internet Freedom' she also draws attention to how 'even in authoritarian countries, information networks are helping people discover new facts and making governments more accountable', while reporting President "Barack Obama's pronouncement 'the more freely information flows, the stronger societies become'.[26]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Andrew Puddephatt, Freedom of Expression, The essentials of Human Rights, Hodder Arnold, 2005, pg.128
  2. ^ Protecting Free Expression Online with Freenet - Internet Computing, IEEE
  3. ^ "Freedom of Information vs. Protection of Intellectual Property". 
  4. ^ "Avast Network, What is the Pirate Party—and why is it helping Wikileaks?". 
  5. ^ Mazhar Siraj (2010). "Exclusion of Private Sector from Freedom of Information Laws: Implications from a Human Rights Perspective" (PDF). Journal of Alternative Perspectives on Social Sciences. 2 (1): 211 & 223. 
  6. ^ a b Mazhar Siraj (2010). "Exclusion of Private Sector from Freedom of Information Laws: Implications from a Human Rights Perspective" (PDF). Journal of Alternative Perspectives on Social Sciences. 2 (1): 213. 
  7. ^ Mazhar Siraj (2010). "Exclusion of Private Sector from Freedom of Information Laws: Implications from a Human Rights Perspective" (PDF). Journal of Alternative Perspectives on Social Sciences. 2 (1): 222. 
  8. ^ Mazhar Siraj (2010). "Exclusion of Private Sector from Freedom of Information Laws: Implications from a Human Rights Perspective" (PDF). Journal of Alternative Perspectives on Social Sciences. 2 (1): 223. 
  9. ^ Mazhar Siraj (2010). "Exclusion of Private Sector from Freedom of Information Laws: Implications from a Human Rights Perspective" (PDF). Journal of Alternative Perspectives on Social Sciences. 2 (1): 223–224. 
  10. ^ Mazhar Siraj (2010). "Exclusion of Private Sector from Freedom of Information Laws: Implications from a Human Rights Perspective" (PDF). Journal of Alternative Perspectives in the Social Sciences. 2 (1): 216. 
  11. ^ Mazhar Siraj (2010). "Exclusion of Private Sector from Freedom of Information Laws: Implications from a Human Rights Perspective" (PDF). Journal of Alternative Perspectives on Social Sciences. 2 (1): 216–217. 
  12. ^ Mazhar Siraj (2010). "Exclusion of Private Sector from Freedom of Information Laws: Implications from a Human Rights Perspective" (PDF). Journal of Alternative Perspectives on Social Sciences. 2 (1): 219. 
  13. ^ Mazhar Siraj (2010). "Exclusion of Private Sector from Freedom of Information Laws: Implications from a Human Rights Perspective" (PDF). Journal of Alternative Perspectives on Social Sciences. 2 (1): 220. 
  14. ^ Klang, Mathias; Murray, Andrew (2005). Human Rights in the Digital Age. Routledge. p. 1. 
  15. ^ Klang, Mathias; Murray, Andrew (2005). Human Rights in the Digital Age. Routledge. p. 2. 
  16. ^ Benedek, Wolfgang; Veronika Bauer; Matthias Kettemann (2008). Internet Governance and the Information Society. Eleven International Publishing. p. 36. "ISBN "90-77596-56-9. 
  17. ^ a b http://www.cultdeadcow.com/cDc_files/declaration.html
  18. ^ Global Network Initiative, FAQ
  19. ^ Internet Rights Protection Initiative Launches
  20. ^ Global Network Initiative, Participants
  21. ^ a b Glanville, Jo (17 November 2008). "The big business of net censorship". London: The Guardian. 
  22. ^ List of the 13 Internet enemies Archived January 2, 2008, at the "Wayback Machine. RSF, 2006 November
  23. ^ Watts, Jonathan (2006-02-20). "War of the words". London: "The Guardian. Retrieved 2010-05-02. 
  24. ^ "II. How Censorship Works in China: A Brief Overview". "Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 2006-08-30. 
  25. ^ Chinese Laws and Regulations Regarding Internet
  26. ^ "Remarks on Internet Freedom". US Department of State website. Retrieved December 18, 2010. 

External links[edit]

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