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The freedom of movement for workers is a policy chapter of the "acquis communautaire of the "European Union. It is part of the "free movement of persons and one of the "four economic freedoms: "free movement of goods, "services, "labour and "capital. Article 45 "TFEU (ex 39 and 48) states that:

The right to free movement has both 'horizontal' and 'vertical' "direct effect,[2][3] such that a private citizen can invoke the right, without more, in an ordinary court, against other persons, both governmental and non-governmental.

Contents

History[edit]

The "Treaty of Paris (1951)[4] establishing the "European Coal and Steel Community established a right to free movement for workers in these industries and the "Treaty of Rome (1957)[5] provided a right for the free movement of workers within the "European Economic Community. The "Directive 2004/38/EC on the right to move and reside freely assembles the different aspects of the right of movement in one document, replacing inter alia the directive 1968/360/EEC. It also clarifies procedural issues, and it strengthens the rights of family members of "European citizens using the freedom of movement. According to the official site of the European Parliament, the explanation of the freedom of workers goes as follows:

Freedom of movement and residence for persons in the EU is the cornerstone of Union citizenship, which was established by the Treaty of Maastricht in 1992. Its practical implementation in EU law, however, has not been straightforward. It first involved the gradual phasing out, of internal borders under the Schengen agreements, initially in just a handful of Member States. Today, the provisions governing the free movement of persons are laid down in Directive 2004/38/EC on the right of EU citizens and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States. However, the implementation of this directive continues to face many obstacles.[6]

Definition of "worker"[edit]

The meaning of '"worker' is a matter of European Union law.[7] "The essential feature of an "employment relationship, however, is that for a certain period of time a person performs "services for and under the direction of another person in return for which he receives "remuneration."[8]

Extent of the right[edit]

The right to free movement applies where the legal relationship of employment is entered into in or shall take effect within the territory of the European Community.[14][15] The precise legal scope of the right to free movement for workers has been shaped by the "European Court of Justice and by "directives and "regulations. Underlying these developments is a tension "between the image of the Community worker as a mobile "unit of production, contributing to the creation of a single market and to the economic prosperity of Europe" and the "image of the worker as a human being, exercising a "personal right to live in another state and to take up employment there without discrimination, to improve the standard of living of his or her family".[16]

Discrimination and market access[edit]

Public service exception[edit]

Directives and regulations[edit]

Social rights[edit]

Transitional provisions in new member states[edit]

In both the "Treaty of Accession 2003 and the "Treaty of Accession 2005, there is a clause about a transition period before "workers from the new member states can be "employed on an equal, non-discriminatory terms in the old member states. The old member states have the right to impose such transitional period for 2 years, then to decide to extend it for additional 3 years, and then, if there is serious proof that "labour from new member states would be disruptive to the market in the old member states then the period can be extended for the last time for 2 more years.[23]

According to the principle of reciprocity, new member states have the right to impose restrictions for all the countries that introduced restrictions and transitional periods to their citizens. Croatia has decided to apply this rule.[24]

Freedom of movement in the European Economic Area[edit]

The citizens of the member states of the "European Economic Area (which includes the EU) have the same right of freedom of movement in the EEA as do EU citizens do within the Union. Additionally, the "European Union and "Switzerland have concluded a bilateral agreement with the same meaning. The EEA member states outside the EU ("Norway, "Iceland and "Liechtenstein) and "Switzerland are treated as "old member states" in regard to the Treaty of Accession of the new EU members, so they can impose such 2+3+2 transitional periods.

Switzerland initially granted freedom of movement to EEA citizens in 2005-2011. It briefly reimposed restrictions in 2012-2013, but lifted them again in 2014. A "2014 Referendum directed the Swiss government to impose permanent quotas on residence/work permits for citizens of all EEA countries except Liechtenstein, starting from 2017 at the latest.[25][26][27] However, on 22 December 2016, Switzerland and the EU concluded an agreement that a new Swiss law (in response to the referendum) may require Swiss employers to give priority to Swiss-based job seekers (Swiss nationals and foreigners registered in Swiss job agencies) but does not limit the free movement of EU workers to Switzerland.[28]

Liechtenstein imposes a permanent quota for all EEA citizens (issuing 56 residence permits per year)[29][30] and a separate quota for Swiss citizens (a further 12 residence permits per year).[29]

Summary[edit]

Establishment of rights of nationals of each EEA member state to work in each other member state
The citizens of →
can be "employed in ↓
starting ↘
"European Union members Other "EEA
members
""Switzerland The citizens of ←
can be "employed in ↓
starting ∠
""Portugal ""Spain ""Italy ""Greece ""France ""Germany ""Austria ""Belgium ""Netherlands ""Luxembourg ""Denmark ""Finland ""Ireland ""United Kingdom ""Sweden ""Cyprus ""Malta ""Estonia ""Latvia ""Lithuania ""Poland ""Hungary ""Czech Republic ""Slovakia ""Slovenia ""Bulgaria ""Romania ""Croatia ""Norway ""Iceland ""Liechtenstein
"Portugal 1986 1986 1986 1986 1986 1994 1986 1986 1986 1986 1994 1986 1986 1994 2004 2004 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2009 2009 2013 1994 1994 1995 2004 "Portugal
"Spain 1986 1986 1986 1986 1986 1994 1986 1986 1986 1986 1994 1986 1986 1994 2004 2004 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2009 2014 2015 1994 1994 1995 2004 "Spain
"Italy 1986 1986 1981 1958 1958 1994 1958 1958 1958 1973 1994 1973 1973 1994 2004 2004 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2012 2012 2015 1994 1994 1995 2004 "Italy
"Greece 1986 1986 1981 1981 1981 1994 1981 1981 1981 1981 1994 1981 1981 1994 2004 2004 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2009 2009 2015 1994 1994 1995 2004 "Greece
"France 1986 1986 1958 1981 1958 1994 1958 1958 1958 1973 1994 1973 1973 1994 2004 2004 2008 2008 2008 2008 2008 2008 2008 2008 2014 2014 2015 1994 1994 1995 2004 "France
"Germany 1986 1986 1958 1981 1958 1994 1958 1958 1958 1973 1994 1973 1973 1994 2004 2004 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2014 2014 2015 1994 1994 1995 2004 "Germany
"Austria 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 2004 2004 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2014 2014 (2018) 1994 1994 1995 2004 "Austria
"Belgium 1986 1986 1958 1981 1958 1958 1994 1958 1958 1973 1994 1973 1973 1994 2004 2004 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2014 2014 2015 1994 1994 1995 2004 "Belgium
"Netherlands[31] 1986 1986 1958 1981 1958 1958 1994 1958 1958 1973 1994 1973 1973 1994 2004 2004 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2014 2014 (2020) 1994 1994 1995 2004 "Netherlands
"Luxembourg 1986 1986 1958 1981 1958 1958 1994 1958 1958 1973 1994 1973 1973 1994 2004 2004 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2014 2014 2015 1994 1994 1995 2004 "Luxembourg
"Denmark[a] 1986 1986 1973 1981 1973 1973 1994 1973 1973 1973 1954 1973 1973 1954 2004 2004 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2013 1954 1954 1995 2004 "Denmark
"Finland[a] 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1954 1994 1994 1954 2004 2004 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2007 2007 2013 1954 1954 1995 2004 "Finland
"Ireland[b] 1986 1986 1973 1981 1973 1973 1994 1973 1973 1973 1973 1994 1973 1994 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2012 2012 2013 1994 1994 1995 2004 "Ireland
"United Kingdom[b] 1986 1986 1973 1981 1973 1973 1994 1973 1973 1973 1973 1994 1973 1994 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2014 2014 (2018) 1994 1994 1995 2004 "United Kingdom
"Sweden[a] 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1954 1954 1994 1994 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2007 2007 2013 1954 1954 1995 2004 "Sweden
"Cyprus 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2007 2007 2015 2004 2004 2004 2005 "Cyprus
"Malta 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2014 2014 (2018) 2004 2004 2004 2005 "Malta
"Estonia 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2007 2007 2013 2004 2004 2004 2005 "Estonia
"Latvia 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2007 2007 2013 2004 2004 2004 2005 "Latvia
"Lithuania 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2007 2007 2013 2004 2004 2004 2005 "Lithuania
"Poland 2006 2006 2006 2006 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2006 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2007 2007 2013 2006 2006 2007 2007 "Poland
"Hungary 2006 2006 2006 2006 2008 2009 2009 2009 2007 2007 2009 2006 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2009 2009 2013 2006 2006 2009 2009 "Hungary
"Czech Republic 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2007 2007 2013 2004 2004 2004 2005 "Czech Republic
"Slovakia 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2007 2007 2013 2004 2004 2004 2005 "Slovakia
"Slovenia 2006 2006 2006 2006 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2006 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2007 2007 (2018) 2006 2006 2007 2007 "Slovenia
"Bulgaria 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2013 2007 2007 2007 2007 "Bulgaria
"Romania 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2013 2007 2007 2007 2007 "Romania
"Croatia[32][33][34] 2013 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 (2018) 2015 (2018) 2015 2013 2013 2013 (2018) 2013 2015 (2018) 2013 2013 2013 2013 2013 2013 2013 (2018) 2013 2013 2014 2015 (2018) (2024) "Croatia
"Norway[a] 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1954 1954 1994 1994 1954 2004 2004 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2012 2012 2014 1954 1995 2004 "Norway
"Iceland[a] 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1954 1954 1994 1994 1954 2004 2004 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2012 2012 2015 1954 1995 2004 "Iceland
"Liechtenstein 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 2004 2004 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2014 2014 (2018) 1995 1995 2005 "Liechtenstein
"Switzerland[c] 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2016 2016 (2024) 2007 2007 2005 "Switzerland
  no restriction on freedom of movement of workers; year of initial lifting of restrictions
  restricted movement of workers; earliest date for lifting of the restrictions for Croatian citizens is 1 July 2018 (1 January 2024 in case of Switzerland[35])
  Liechtenstein imposes a permanent annual quota on residence permits issued, for all EEA citizens and (separately) Swiss citizens[29]
Notes
  1. ^ a b c d e See also the parallel, concurrent "Nordic Passport Union between the "Kingdom of Denmark (for Denmark and the "Faroe Islands), "Sweden, "Norway, "Iceland and "Finland.
  2. ^ a b Date of applicability as member states of the "EEC. See also the parallel, concurrent "Common Travel Area between the United Kingdom and "Islands and the "Republic of Ireland ("Great Britain and Islands and all of the "island of Ireland).
  3. ^ For the countries that joined the EU before 2004, plus Cyprus and Malta, restrictions on freedom of movement were initially lifted on 1 June 2007, but Switzerland decided to reimpose them from 1 June 2013 to 31 May 2014 under a safeguard clause. Similarly, for the countries that joined the EU in 2004, except Cyprus and Malta, restrictions on freedom of movement were initially lifted on 1 May 2011, but Switzerland decided to reimpose them from 1 May 2012 to 30 April 2014 under a safeguard clause. Also, according to the Protocol to the Agreement between the European Community and Switzerland regarding the participation of Bulgaria and Romania, Switzerland applied the 2+3+2 transitional period formula to these two countries starting from 1 June 2009, an may enforce some exclusions for an additional 3 years, until 31 May 2019.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Treaty of Rome (consolidated version). EUR-Lex
  2. ^ Union royale belge des sociétés de football association ASBL v Jean-Marc Bosman, Case C-415/93. EUR-Lex
  3. ^ "Angonese v Cassa di Risparmio di Bolzano SpA, Case C-281/98 (2000). EUR-Lex
  4. ^ Article 69 part of Treaty establishing the European Economic Community (Rome, 25 March 1957) on CVCE website.
  5. ^ Title 3 part of Treaty establishing the European Economic Community (Rome, 25 March 1957) on CVCE website.
  6. ^ "Free movement of persons". Europarl.europa.eu. Retrieved 2016-02-17. 
  7. ^ Hoekstra (née Unger) v Bestuur der Bedrijfsvereniging voor Detailhandel en Ambachten, Case 75-63 (1964). EUR-Lex
  8. ^ Deborah Lawrie-Blum v Land Baden-Württemberg, Case 66/85 (1986). EUR-Lex
  9. ^ a b c Levin v Staatssecretaris van Justitie, Case 53/81 (1982). EUR-Lex
  10. ^ Bettray v Staatssecretaris van Justitie, Case 344/87 (1989). EUR-Lex
  11. ^ Raulin v Minister van Onderwijs en Wetenschappen, Case C-357/89 (1992). EUR-Lex
  12. ^ Kempf v Staatssecretaris van Justitie, Case 139/85 (1986). EUR-Lex
  13. ^ Udo Steymann v Staatssecretaris van Justitie, Case 196/87 (1988). EUR-Lex
  14. ^ Walrave and Koch v Association Union cycliste internationale, Koninklijke Nederlandsche Wielren Unie et Federación Española Ciclismo, Case 36-74 (1974). EUR-Lex
  15. ^ See alsoIngrid Boukhalfa v Bundesrepublik Deutschland, C-214/94 (1996). EUR-Lex
  16. ^ Craig & de Búrca 2003, p. 701
  17. ^ http://eur-lex.europa.eu/smartapi/cgi/sga_doc?smartapi!celexplus!prod!CELEXnumdoc&numdoc=61987J0379&lg=en "Anita Groener v Minister for Education and the City of Dublin Vocational Educational Committee. Judgment of the Court of 28 November 1989.
  18. ^ http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:61991CJ0267:EN:HTML Judgment of the Court of 24 November 1993. - Criminal proceedings against Bernard Keck and Daniel Mithouard. - References for a preliminary ruling: Tribunal de grande instance de Strasbourg - France. - Free movement of goods - Prohibition of resale at a loss. - Joined cases C-267/91 and C-268/91.
  19. ^ http://eur-lex.europa.eu/smartapi/cgi/sga_doc?smartapi!celexplus!prod!CELEXnumdoc&lg=en&numdoc=61995J0018 F.C. Terhoeve v Inspecteur van de Belastingdienst Particulieren/Ondernemingen buitenland. Judgment of the Court of 26 January 1999.
  20. ^ Council Directive 68/360/EEC of 15 October 1968 on the abolition of restrictions on movement and residence within the Community for workers of Member States and their families
  21. ^ Regulation (EEC) No 1612/68 of the Council of 15 October 1968 on freedom of movement for workers within the Community
  22. ^ "Regulation (EU) No 492/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2011 on freedom of movement for workers within the Union Text with EEA relevance". Eur-lex.europa.eu. Retrieved 17 April 2015. 
  23. ^ European Commission. "FAQ on the Commission's free movement of workers report". Retrieved 2010-07-28. 
  24. ^ "Croatia - Employment, Social Affairs & Inclusion - European Commission". ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 2015-06-08. 
  25. ^ "Free movement of persons". Directorate for European Affairs. "Bern: "Federal Department of Foreign Affairs. May 2014. Retrieved 6 June 2014. 
  26. ^ "Free Movement of Persons Switzerland – EU/EFTA". Federal Office for Migration. "Bern: "Federal Department of Justice and Police. May 2014. Retrieved 6 June 2014. 
  27. ^ "Working in Switzerland as a citizen of an EU/EFTA member state - www.ch.ch". www.ch.ch. Retrieved 2015-06-08. 
  28. ^ EU and Switzerland agree on free movement – "euobserver, 22 Dec 2016
  29. ^ a b c Liechtenstein Wirtschaft Work permits and residence
  30. ^ "Work permits and labour market restrictions in some EU countries". "Europa. 27 May 2014. Retrieved 2 June 2014. 
  31. ^ Werkgelegenheid, Ministerie van Sociale Zaken en. "Employment permits for foreign nationals - New in the Netherlands - Government.nl". www.government.nl. Retrieved 2017-01-24. 
  32. ^ "Croatia to become part of the EEA". Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2014. Retrieved 7 November 2014. 
  33. ^ "Citizens of Croatia will not need residence permits from the 1st of July 2015". The Directorate of Immigration. Retrieved 28 May 2015. 
  34. ^ "Croatia - Employment, Social Affairs & Inclusion - European Commission". ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 2015-07-03. 
  35. ^ "Free Movement of Persons Switzerland – EU/EFTA". sem.admin.ch. Retrieved 2017-01-13. 

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

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