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French Polynesia
  • Polynésie française  ("French)
  • Pōrīnetia Farāni  ("Tahitian)
""Flag of French Polynesia
Motto: 
""Location of French Polynesia
Status "Overseas collectivity
Capital "Papeete
17°34′S 149°36′W / 17.567°S 149.600°W / -17.567; -149.600
Largest city "Fa'a'ā
Official languages "French
"Ethnic groups (1988[1])
"Demonym French Polynesian
"Government "Dependent territory
"Emmanuel Macron
"Édouard Fritch
"René Bidal
Legislature "Assembly
"Overseas collectivity of "France
1842
1946
• Overseas collectivity
2003
"Area
• Total
4,167 km2 (1,609 sq mi) ("unranked)
• Water (%)
12
• Land area[2]
3,521.2 km2
1,359.5 sq mi
"Population
• August 2017 census
275,918[3] ("177th)
• Density
78/km2 (202.0/sq mi) ("130th)
"GDP (nominal) 2014 estimate
• Total
US$5.623 billion[4] ("not ranked)
• Per capita
US$20,098[4] ("not ranked)
Currency "CFP franc ("XPF)
Time zone ("UTC-10, −9:30, -9)
"Drives on the right
"Calling code "+689
"ISO 3166 code "PF
"Internet TLD ".pf
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A two-franc "World War II emergency-issue banknote (1943), printed in "Papeete, and depicting the outline of "Tahiti on the reverse.

French Polynesia ("/ˈfrɛn pɒlɪˈnʒə/ (""About this sound listen); "French: Polynésie française "[pɔlinezi fʁɑ̃sɛz]; "Tahitian: Pōrīnetia Farāni) is an "overseas collectivity of the "French Republic; collectivité d'outre-mer de la République française ""About this sound pronunciation  (COM), sometimes unofficially referred to as an "overseas country; pays d'outre-mer (POM). It is composed of 118 geographically dispersed islands and atolls stretching over an expanse of more than 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) in the "South Pacific Ocean. Its total land area is 4,167 square kilometres (1,609 sq mi).

French Polynesia is divided into five groups of islands: the "Society Islands archipelago, composed of the "Windward Islands and the "Leeward Islands; the "Tuamotu Archipelago; the "Gambier Islands; the "Marquesas Islands; and the "Austral Islands. Among its 118 islands and atolls, 67 are inhabited. "Tahiti, which is located within the "Society Islands, is the most populous island and the seat of the capital of the collectivity, "Papeete. It has close to 69% of the population of the islands in 2017. Although not an integral part of its territory, "Clipperton Island was administered from French Polynesia until 2007.

Following the "Great Polynesian Migration, European explorers visited the islands of French Polynesia on several occasions. Traders and whaling ships also visited. In 1842, the French took over the islands and established a French "protectorate they called Etablissements des français en Océanie (EFO) (French Establishments/Settlements in Oceania).

In 1946, the EFOs became an "overseas territory under the constitution of the "French Fourth Republic, and Polynesians were granted the right to vote through citizenship. In 1957, the EFOs were renamed French Polynesia. Since 28 March 2003, French Polynesia has been an "overseas collectivity of the French Republic under the constitutional revision of article 74, and later gained, with law 2004-192 of 27 February 2004, an administrative autonomy, two symbolic manifestations of which are the title of the "President of French Polynesia and its additional designation as an "overseas country.[5]

Contents

History[edit]

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The French frigate "Floréal in November 2002, stationed in "Bora Bora lagoon.

French Polynesia as we know it today was one of the last places on Earth to be settled by humans. Scientists believe the Great Polynesian Migration happened around 1500 BC as "Austronesian people went on a journey using celestial navigation to find islands in the South Pacific Ocean. The first islands of French Polynesia to be settled were the "Marquesas Islands in about 200 BC. The Polynesians later ventured southwest and discovered the "Society Islands around AD 300.[6]

European encounters began in 1521 when Portuguese explorer "Ferdinand Magellan, sailing at the service of the "Spanish Crown, sighted "Puka-Puka in the "Tuāmotu-Gambier Archipelago. In 1606 another Spanish expedition under "Pedro Fernandes de Queirós sailed through Polynesia sighting an inhabited island on 10 February[7] which they called Sagitaria (or Sagittaria), probably the island of "Rekareka to the south-east of Tahiti.[8]

Over a century later, British explorer "Samuel Wallis visited "Tahiti in 1767. French explorer "Louis Antoine de Bougainville also visited Tahiti in 1768, while British explorer "James Cook arrived in 1769.[6] In 1772, the Spanish "Viceroy of Peru Don "Manuel de Amat ordered a number of expeditions to Tahiti under the command of "Domingo de Bonechea who was the first European to explore all of the main islands beyond Tahiti.[9] A short-lived Spanish settlement was created in 1774,[6] and for a time some maps bore the name Isla de Amat after Viceroy Amat.[10] In 1772, Dutchman "Jakob Roggeveen came across "Bora Bora in the Society Islands. "Christian missions began with Spanish priests who stayed in Tahiti for a year. Protestants from the "London Missionary Society settled permanently in Polynesia in 1797.

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Society Island kingdoms.

King "Pōmare II of Tahiti was forced to flee to "Mo'orea in 1803; he and his subjects were converted to Protestantism in 1812. French Catholic missionaries arrived on Tahiti in 1834; their expulsion in 1836 caused France to send a gunboat in 1838. In 1842, Tahiti and "Tahuata were declared a "French protectorate, to allow Catholic missionaries to work undisturbed. The capital of "Papeetē was founded in 1843. In 1880, France annexed Tahiti, changing the status from that of a protectorate to that of a "colony. The island groups were not officially united until the establishment of the French "protectorate in 1889.[11]

After France declared a protectorate over Tahiti in 1840, the British and French signed the Jarnac Convention, in 1847, declaring that the kingdoms of "Raiatea, "Huahine and "Bora Bora were to remain independent from either powers and that no single chief was to be allowed to reign over the entire archipelago. France eventually broke the agreement, and the islands were annexed and became a "colony in 1888 (eight years after the "Windward Islands) after many native resistances and conflicts called the Leewards War, lasting until 1897.[12][13]

In the 1880s, France claimed the "Tuamotu Archipelago, which formerly belonged to the "Pōmare Dynasty, without formally annexing it. Having declared a protectorate over Tahuata in 1842, the French regarded the entire "Marquesas Islands as French. In 1885, France appointed a governor and established a general council, thus giving it the proper administration for a colony. The islands of "Rimatara and "Rūrutu unsuccessfully lobbied for British protection in 1888, so in 1889 they were annexed by France. Postage stamps were first issued in the colony in 1892. The first official name for the colony was Établissements de l'Océanie (Establishments in Oceania); in 1903 the general council was changed to an advisory council and the colony's name was changed to Établissements Français de l'Océanie (French Establishments in Oceania).[14]

In 1940, the administration of French Polynesia recognised the "Free French Forces and many Polynesians served in "World War II. Unknown at the time to the French and Polynesians, the "Konoe Cabinet in "Imperial Japan on 16 September 1940 included French Polynesia among the many territories which were to become "Japanese possessions, as part of the "Eastern Pacific Government-General" in "the post-war world.[15] However, in the course of the war in the Pacific the Japanese were not able to launch an actual invasion of the French islands.

In 1946, Polynesians were granted French citizenship and the islands' status was changed to an "overseas territory; the islands' name was changed in 1957 to Polynésie Française (French Polynesia). In 1962, France's early "nuclear testing ground of "Algeria became independent and the "Moruroa atoll in the Tuamotu Archipelago was selected as the new testing site; tests were conducted underground after 1974.[16] In 1977, French Polynesia was granted partial internal autonomy; in 1984, the autonomy was extended. French Polynesia became a full "overseas collectivity of France in 2003.[17]

In September 1995, France stirred up widespread protests by resuming "nuclear testing at "Fangataufa atoll after a three-year "moratorium. The last test was on 27 January 1996. On 29 January 1996, France announced that it would accede to the "Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, and no longer test nuclear weapons.[18]

French Polynesia was relisted in the UN List of Non-Self Governing Territories in 2013, making it eligible for a UN-backed independence referendum. The relisting was made after its indigenous government was voiced and supported by the Polynesian Leaders Group, Pacific Conference of Churches, Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom, Non-Aligned Movement, World Council of Churches, and Melanesian Spearhead Group.[19]

Governance[edit]

Under the terms of Article 74 of the "French constitution and the "Organic Law 2014-192 on the statute of autonomy of French Polynesia, politics of French Polynesia takes place in a framework of a "parliamentary "representative democratic French "overseas collectivity, whereby the President of French Polynesia is the "head of government, and of a "multi-party system. "Executive power is exercised by the government. "Legislative power is vested in both the government and the "Assembly of French Polynesia (the territorial assembly).

Political life in French Polynesia has been marked by great instability since the mid-2000s. On 14 September 2007, the pro-independence leader "Oscar Temaru, was elected president of French Polynesia for the third time in three years (with 27 of 44 "votes cast in the territorial assembly).[20] He replaced former president "Gaston Tong Sang, opposed to independence, who lost a "no-confidence vote in the Assembly of French Polynesia on 31 August after the longtime former president of French Polynesia, "Gaston Flosse, hitherto opposed to independence, sided with his long enemy Oscar Temaru to topple the government of Gaston Tong Sang. Oscar Temaru, however, had no stable majority in the Assembly of French Polynesia, and new territorial elections were held in February 2008 to solve the political crisis.

The party of Gaston Tong Sang won the territorial elections, but that did not solve the political crisis: the two minority parties of Oscar Temaru and Gaston Flosse, who together have one more member in the territorial assembly than the political party of Gaston Tong Sang, allied to prevent Gaston Tong Sang from becoming president of French Polynesia. Gaston Flosse was then elected president of French Polynesia by the territorial assembly on 23 February 2008 with the support of the pro-independence party led by Oscar Temaru, while Oscar Temaru was elected speaker of the territorial assembly with the support of the anti-independence party led by Gaston Flosse. Both formed a coalition cabinet. Many observers doubted that the alliance between the anti-independence Gaston Flosse and the pro-independence Oscar Temaru, designed to prevent Gaston Tong Sang from becoming president of French Polynesia, could last very long.[21]

At the "French municipal elections held in March 2008, several prominent mayors who are member of the Flosse-Temaru coalition lost their offices in key municipalities of French Polynesia, which was interpreted as a disapproval of the way Gaston Tong Sang, whose party French Polynesian voters had placed first in the territorial elections the month before, had been prevented from becoming president of French Polynesia by the last minute alliance between Flosse and Temaru's parties. Eventually, on 15 April 2008 the government of Gaston Flosse was toppled by a "constructive vote of no confidence in the territorial assembly when two members of the Flosse-Temaru coalition left the coalition and sided with Tong Sang's party. Gaston Tong Sang was elected president of French Polynesia as a result of this constructive vote of no confidence, but his majority in the territorial assembly is very narrow. He offered posts in his cabinet to Flosse and Temaru's parties which they both refused. Gaston Tong Sang has called all parties to help end the instability in local politics, a prerequisite to attract foreign investors needed to develop the local economy.

Administration[edit]

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Between 1946 and 2003, French Polynesia had the status of an overseas territory ("territoire d'outre-mer, or TOM). In 2003, it became an overseas collectivity ("collectivité d'outre-mer, or COM). Its statutory law of 27 February 2004 gives it the particular designation of "overseas country inside the Republic (pays d'outre-mer au sein de la République, or POM), but without legal modification of its status.

Relations with mainland France[edit]

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High Commission of the "French Fifth Republic.

Despite a local assembly and government, French Polynesia is not in a "free association with France, like the "Cook Islands with New Zealand. As a French overseas collectivity, the local government has no competence in justice, university education, security and defense. Services in these areas are directly provided and administered by the Government of France, including the "National Gendarmerie (which also polices rural and border areas in European France), and "French military forces. The collectivity government retains control over primary and secondary education, health, town planning, and the environment.[22] The highest representative of the State in the territory is the "High Commissioner of the Republic in French Polynesia ("French: Haut commissaire de la République).

French Polynesia also sends three "deputies to the "French National Assembly, one representing the "Leeward Islands "administrative subdivision and the south-western suburbs of "Papeete, another one representing Papeete and its north-eastern suburbs, plus the "commune (municipality) of "Mo'orea-Mai'ao, the "Tuāmotu-Gambier administrative division, and the "Marquesas Islands administrative division, and the last one representing the rest of "Tahiti and the "Austral Islands administrative subdivision. French Polynesia also sends two senators to the "French Senate.

French Polynesians vote in the French presidential elections and at the "2007 French presidential election, in which the pro-independence leader Oscar Temaru openly called to vote for the Socialist candidate "Ségolène Royal while the parties opposed to independence generally supported the center-right candidate "Nicolas Sarkozy, the "turnout in French Polynesia was 69.12% in the first round of the election and 74.67% in the second round in favour of Nicolas Sarkozy ahead in both rounds of the election expressing their will to remain in the French Republic. (versus in Metropolitan France in the 2nd round: Nicolas Sarkozy 51.9%; Ségolène Royal 48.1%).[23]

Geography[edit]

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Map of French Polynesia.

The islands of French Polynesia make up a total land area of 3,521 square kilometres (1,359 sq mi),[2] scattered over more than 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) of ocean. There are 118 islands in French Polynesia (and many more islets or motus around "atolls). The highest point is "Mount Orohena on Tahiti.

It is made up of six archipelagos. The largest and most populated island is "Tahiti, in the Society Islands.

The archipelagos are :

Aside from "Tahiti, some other important "atolls, islands, and island groups in French Polynesia are: "Ahē, "Bora Bora, "Hiva 'Oa, "Huahine, "Mai'ao, "Maupiti, "Meheti'a, "Mo'orea, "Nuku Hiva, "Raiatea, "Taha'a, "Tetiaroa, "Tupua'i, and "Tūpai.

Top three largest communes
Commune Island Population
(2012)
"Fa'a'ā "Tahiti 29,687
"Punaauia "Tahiti 27,613
"Pape'ete "Tahiti 25,769

Administrative divisions[edit]

French Polynesia has five administrative subdivisions (subdivisions administratives):

Demographics[edit]

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Tahitian girls, "circa 1860–1879.

Total population at the August 2017 census was 275,918 inhabitants.[3] At the 2017 census, 68.7% of the population of French Polynesia lived on the island of "Tahiti alone.[3] The urban area of "Papeete, the capital city, has 136,771 inhabitants (2017 census).

At the 2012 census, 88.7% of people living in French Polynesia were born in French Polynesia, 8.3% were born in "metropolitan France, 1.3% were born in "overseas France outside of French Polynesia, and 1.7% were born in foreign countries.[24] The population of natives of metropolitan France living in French Polynesia has declined in relative terms since the 1980s, but in absolute terms their population peaked at the 2007 census with 24,265 natives of metropolitan France living in French Polynesia that year (not counting their children born in French Polynesia).[25] With the local economic crisis, their population declined to 22,278 at the 2012 census, and later evolution is not yet known.[25]

Place of birth of residents of French Polynesia
(at the 1983, 1988, 1996, 2002, 2007, and 2012 censuses)
Census Born in
French Polynesia
Born in
"Metropolitan France
Born in
"Overseas France
Born in foreign
countries with French
citizenship at birth¹
Immigrants²
2012 88.7% 8.3% 1.3% 0.9% 0.8%
2007 87.3% 9.3% 1.4% 1.1% 0.9%
2002 87.2% 9.5% 1.4% 1.2% 0.8%
1996 86.9% 9.3% 1.5% 1.3% 0.9%
1988 86.7% 9.2% 1.5% 1.5% 1.0%
1983 86.1% 10.1% 1.0% 1.5% 1.3%
¹Persons born abroad of French parents, such as "Pieds-Noirs and children of French "expatriates.
²An immigrant is by French definition a person born in a foreign country and who didn't have French citizenship at birth. Note that an immigrant may have acquired French citizenship since moving to France, but is still listed as an immigrant in French statistics. On the other hand, persons born in France with foreign citizenship (the children of immigrants) are not listed as immigrants.
Source: ISPF[25]

At the 1988 census, the last census which asked questions regarding ethnicity, 66.5% of people were ethnically unmixed "Polynesians, 7.1% were ethnically Polynesians with light European and/or East Asian mixing, 11.9% were "Europeans (mostly "French), 9.3% were people of mixed European and Polynesian descent, the so-called Demis (literally meaning "Half"), and 4.7% were "East Asians (mainly "Chinese).[1]

Chinese, Demis, and the white populace are essentially concentrated on the island of Tahiti, particularly in the urban area of Papeete, where their share of the population is thus much greater than in French Polynesia overall.[1] Despite a long history of ethnic mixing, ethnic tensions have been growing in recent years, with politicians using a "xenophobic discourse and fanning the flame of nationalism.[26][27]

Historical population[edit]

1907 1911 1921 1926 1931 1936 1941 1946 1951 1956
30,600 31,900 31,600 35,900 40,400 44,000 51,200 58,200 63,300 76,323
1962 1971 1977 1983 1988 1996 2002 2007 2012 2017
84,551 119,168 137,382 166,753 188,814 219,521 245,516 259,596 268,270 275,918
Official figures from past censuses.[3][28][29][30]

Culture[edit]

Languages[edit]

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Cemetery in the "Tuāmotu.

"French is the only official language of French Polynesia.[31] An "organic law of 12 April 1996 states that "French is the official language, Tahitian and other Polynesian languages can be used." At the 2012 census, among the population whose age was 15 and older, 70.1% of people reported that the language they spoke the most at home was French (up from 68.5% at the 2007 census), 23.1% reported that the language they spoke the most at home was "Tahitian (down from 24.2% at the 2007 census), 2.5% reported "Marquesan and 0.2% the related "Mangareva language, 1.3% reported "Tuamotuan, 1.2% reported any of the "Austral languages, 0.8% reported a "Chinese dialect (almost half of which was "Hakka), and 0.8% another language (two-third of which were "English, "Arabic, and "Fijian, in that order).[32]

At the same census, 94.9% of people whose age was 15 or older reported that they could speak, read and write French (up from 94.7% at the 2007 census), whereas only 1.4% reported that they had no knowledge of French (down from 2.0% at the 2007 census).[32] 87.8% of people whose age was 15 or older reported that they had some form of knowledge of at least one Polynesian language (up from 86.4% at the 2007 census), whereas 12.2% reported that they had no knowledge of any of the Polynesian languages (down from 13.6% at the 2007 census).[32]

Music[edit]

French Polynesia came to the forefront of the "world music scene in 1992,["citation needed] with the release of "The Tahitian Choir's recordings of unaccompanied vocal Christian music called himene tārava, recorded by French musicologist Pascal Nabet-Meyer. This form of singing is common in French Polynesia and the "Cook Islands, and is distinguished by a unique drop in pitch at the end of the phrases, which is a characteristic formed by several different voices; it is also accompanied by steady grunting of staccato, nonsensical syllables.

Religion[edit]

"Christianity is the main religion of the islands. A majority of 54% belongs to various "Protestant churches, especially the "Maohi Protestant Church, which is the largest and accounts for more than 50% of the population.[33] It traces its origins to "Pomare II, the king of Tahiti, who converted from traditional beliefs to the "Reformed tradition brought to the islands by the "London Missionary Society.

Latin rite "Roman Catholics constitute a large minority with 30% of the population, which has its own "ecclesiastical province, comprising the Metropolitan "Archdiocese of Papeete and its only suffragan, the "Diocese of Taiohae.[34] "The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints had 25,841 members as of 2017.[35] "Community of Christ, another denomination within the "Latter-Day Saint tradition, claimed 7,990 total French Polynesian members as of 2015[36] including "Mareva Arnaud Tchong who serves in the church's governing "Council of Twelve Apostles. There were about 3,000 "Jehovah's Witnesses in Tahiti as of 2014.[37]

Sports[edit]

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Va'a (traditional Polynesian outrigger canoe) during the Hawaiki Nui Va'a race.

Va'a[edit]

The Polynesian traditional sport "va'a is practiced in all the islands. French Polynesia hosts the Hawaiki nui va'a (fr) an international race between Tahiti, Huahine and Bora Bora.

Surfing[edit]

French Polynesia is famous for its "reef break waves. "Teahupo'o is probably the most renowned, regularly ranked in the best waves of the world.[38] This site hosts the annual "Billabong Pro Tahiti surf competition, the 7th stop of the "World Championship Tour.

Kitesurfing[edit]

There are many spots to practice kitesurfing in French Polynesia. Tahiti, Moorea, Bora-Bora, Maupiti and Raivavae are the most iconic spots.[39]

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Fakarava atoll, South pass

Diving[edit]

French Polynesia is internationally known for diving. Each archipelago offers opportunities for divers. "Rangiroa and "Fakarava in the "Tuamotu islands are the most famous spots in the area.[40]

Economy and infrastructure[edit]

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Tourism is an important source of income for French Polynesia

The legal tender of French Polynesia is the "CFP Franc which has a fixed exchange rate with the Euro. The nominal "gross domestic product (or GDP) of French Polynesia in 2014 was 5.623 billion US dollars at market local prices, the sixth-largest economy in Oceania after "Australia, "New Zealand, "Hawaii, "New Caledonia, and "Papua New Guinea.[4] The GDP per capita was $20,098 in 2014 (at market exchange rates, not at "PPP), lower than in Hawaii, Australia, New Zealand, and New Caledonia, but higher than all the independent insular states of Oceania. Both per capita and total figures were significantly lower than those recorded before the "financial crisis of 2007–08.[4]

French Polynesia has a moderately developed economy, which is dependent on imported goods, tourism, and the financial assistance of "mainland France. Tourist facilities are well developed and are available on the major islands. Main agricultural productions are "coconuts ("copra), vegetables and fruits. French Polynesia exports "noni juice, a high quality "vanilla, and the famous "black Tahitian pearls which accounted for 55% of exports (in value) in 2008.[41]

French Polynesia's seafloor contains rich deposits of nickel, cobalt, manganese, and copper that are not exploited.[42]

In 2008, French Polynesia's imports amounted to 2.2 billion US dollars and exports amounted to 0.2 billion US dollars.[41]

Transportation[edit]

There are 53 airports in French Polynesia; 46 are paved.[17] "Fa'a'ā International Airport is the only international airport in French Polynesia. Each island has its own airport that serves flights to other islands. "Air Tahiti is the main airline that flies around the islands.

Notable people[edit]

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Painting of "Two Women of Tahiti by "Paul Gauguin

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Light European and/or East Asian mixing
  2. ^ Mostly "French.
  3. ^ Mixed European and Polynesian descent.
  4. ^ Mostly "Chinese.
  1. ^ a b c Most recent ethinc census, in 1988. "Frontières ethniques et redéfinition du cadre politique à Tahiti" (PDF). Retrieved 31 May 2011. 
  2. ^ a b "R1- Population sans doubles comptes, des subdivisions, communes et communes associées de Polynésie française, de 1971 à 1996". ISPF. Archived from the original on 14 November 2012. Retrieved 13 October 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c d "La population légale au 17 août 2017 : 275 918 habitants". ISPF. Retrieved 2018-02-16. 
  4. ^ a b c d "French Polynesia". United Nations. Retrieved 19 August 2016. 
  5. ^ "Les statuts de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et de la Polynésie". Retrieved 17 December 2015. 
  6. ^ a b c Ganse, Alexander. "History of Polynesia, before 1797". Archived from the original on 30 December 2007. Retrieved 20 October 2007. 
  7. ^ James Burney (1803) A Chronological History of the Voyages or Discoveries in the South Sea or Pacific Ocean, Vol. 5, London, p. 222
  8. ^ Geo. Collingridge (1903). "Who Discovered Tahiti?". Journal of the Polynesian Society. 12 (3): 184–186. 
  9. ^ Kirk, Robert K. Paradise Past: The Transformation of the South Pacific, 1520–1920. Retrieved 5 May 2013. 
  10. ^ Manso Porto, Carmen (1997). Cartografía histórica de América: catálogo de manuscritos (in Spanish). Madrid: Real Academia de la Historia. p. 10. "ISBN "9788489512023. 
  11. ^ Ganse, Alexander. "History of French Polynesia, 1797 to 1889". Archived from the original on 30 December 2007. Retrieved 20 October 2007. 
  12. ^ Robert D. Craig (2002). Historical Dictionary of Polynesia. 39 (2 ed.). Scarecrow Press. p. 107. "ISBN "0-8108-4237-8. 
  13. ^ Matt K. Matsuda (2005). "Society Islands: Tahitian Archives". Empire of Love: Histories of France and the Pacific. Oxford University Press. pp. 91–112. "ISBN "0-19-516294-3. 
  14. ^ Ganse, Alexander. "History of French Polynesia, 1889 to 1918". Archived from the original on 30 December 2007. Retrieved 20 October 2007. 
  15. ^ The Japanese claim to the French Pacific islands, along with many other vast territories, appears in 16 September 1940 "Sphere of survival for the Establishment of a New Order in Greater East Asia by Imperial Japan", published in 1955 by Japan's Foreign Ministry as part of the two-volume "Chronology and major documents of Diplomacy of Japan 1840–1945" – here quoted from "Interview with Tetsuzo Fuwa: Japan's War: History of Expansionism", Japan Press Service, July 2007
  16. ^ Ganse, Alexander. "History of Polynesia, 1939 to 1977". Archived from the original on 30 December 2007. Retrieved 20 October 2007. 
  17. ^ a b "French Polynesia". "The World Factbook. "Central Intelligence Agency. . Retrieved 25 September 2012.
  18. ^ Whitney, Craig R (30 January 1996). "France Ending Nuclear Tests That Caused Broad Protests". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 October 2007. 
  19. ^ Reeves, Rachel; Hunt, Luke (10 October 2012). "French Polynesia Battles for Independence". "The Diplomat. Retrieved 30 June 2017. 
  20. ^ "BBC NEWS, French Polynesia gets new leader". BBC News. 14 September 2007. Retrieved 31 May 2011. 
  21. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 4 March 2008. Retrieved 23 March 2008. 
  22. ^ Rachel Reeves; Luke Hunt; The Diplomat. "French Polynesia Battles for Independence". The Diplomat. Retrieved 17 December 2015. 
  23. ^ "Minister of the Interior, "Government of France. "POLYNESIE FRANCAISE (987) (résultats officiels)" (in French). Retrieved 14 September 2007. 
  24. ^ Institut Statistique de Polynésie Française (ISPF). "Recensement 2012 – Données détaillées - Population" (in French). Retrieved 2018-02-16. 
  25. ^ a b c "Recensements de la population - Evolution des caractéristiques socio-démographiques". ISPF. Retrieved 2018-02-18. 
  26. ^ "Logiques " autonomiste " et " indépendantiste " en Polynésie française". Conflits.org. Retrieved 31 May 2011. 
  27. ^ "Temaru-Flosse: le rebond du nationalisme tahitien". Rue89.com. 19 January 2011. Retrieved 31 May 2011. 
  28. ^ "Population des communes de Polynésie française au RP 2007". INSEE. Retrieved 13 October 2013. 
  29. ^ "Population statistique des communes et communes associées aux recensements de 1971 à 2002". ISPF. Archived from the original on 18 December 2012. Retrieved 13 October 2013. 
  30. ^ Censuses from 1907 to 1962 in Population, 1972, #4–5, pp. 705–706, published by INED
  31. ^ Le tahitien reste interdit à l'assemblée de Polynésie, RFO, 6 October 2010
  32. ^ a b c Institut Statistique de Polynésie Française (ISPF). "Recensement 2012 – Données détaillées Langues". Retrieved 2018-02-16. 
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