|Satellite launches||Currently in operational orbit
|* One partial launch failure resulting in 2 satellites orbiting in a degraded orbit
(Last update: 18 November 2016)
Galileo satellite test beds: GIOVE
In 2004 the Galileo System Test Bed Version 1 (GSTB-V1) project validated the on-ground algorithms for Orbit Determination and Time Synchronisation (OD&TS). This project, led by ESA and "European Satellite Navigation Industries, has provided industry with fundamental knowledge to develop the mission segment of the Galileo positioning system.
- "GIOVE-A is the first GIOVE ("Galileo In-Orbit Validation Element) test satellite. It was built by "Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL), and successfully launched on 28 December 2005 by the European Space Agency and the Galileo Joint. Operation of GIOVE-A ensured that Galileo meets the frequency-filing allocation and reservation requirements for the "International Telecommunication Union (ITU), a process that was required to be complete by June 2006.
- "GIOVE-B, built by "Astrium and "Thales Alenia Space, has a more advanced payload than GIOVE-A. It was successfully launched on 27 April 2008 at 22:16 "UTC (4.16 am "Baikonur time) aboard a "Soyuz-FG/"Fregat rocket provided by "Starsem.
A third satellite, "GIOVE-A2, was originally planned to be built by "SSTL for launch in the second half of 2008. Construction of "GIOVE-A2 was terminated due to the successful launch and in-orbit operation of "GIOVE-B.
The "GIOVE Mission segment operated by "European Satellite Navigation Industries used the "GIOVE-A/B satellites to provide experimental results based on real data to be used for risk mitigation for the IOV satellites that followed on from the testbeds. "ESA organised the global network of ground stations to collect the measurements of "GIOVE-A/B with the use of the GETR receivers for further systematic study. GETR receivers are supplied by "Septentrio as well as the first Galileo navigation receivers to be used to test the functioning of the system at further stages of its deployment. Signal analysis of "GIOVE-A/B data confirmed successful operation of all the Galileo signals with the tracking performance as expected.
In-Orbit Validation (IOV) satellites
These testbed satellites were followed by four IOV Galileo satellites that are much closer to the final Galileo satellite design. The Search & Rescue feature is also installed. The first two satellites were launched on 21 October 2011 from "Guiana Space Centre using a "Soyuz launcher, the other two on 12 October 2012. This enables key validation tests, since earth-based receivers such as those in cars and phones need to "see" a minimum of four satellites in order to calculate their position in three dimensions. Those 4 IOV Galileo satellites were constructed by Astrium GmbH and Thales Alenia Space. On 12 March 2013, a first fix was performed using those four IOV satellites. Once this In-Orbit Validation (IOV) phase has been completed, the remaining satellites will be installed to reach the Full Operational Capability.
Full Operational Capability (FOC) satellites
On 7 January 2010, it was announced that the contract to build the first 14 FOC satellites was awarded to "OHB System and "Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL). Fourteen satellites will be built at a cost of €566M (£510M; $811M). "Arianespace will launch the satellites for a cost of €397M (£358M; $569M). The European Commission also announced that the €85 million contract for system support covering industrial services required by "ESA for integration and validation of the Galileo system had been awarded to "Thales Alenia Space. Thales Alenia Space subcontract performances to "Astrium GmbH and security to "Thales Communications.
In February 2012, an additional order of eight satellites was awarded to OHB Systems for €250M ($327M), after outbidding EADS Astrium tender offer. Thus bringing the total to 22 FOC satellites.
On 7 May 2014, the first two FOC satellites landed in Guyana for their joint launch planned in summer Originally planned for launch during 2013, problems tooling and establishing the production line for assembly led to a delay of a year in serial production of Galileo satellites. These two satellites (Galileo satellites GSAT-201 and GSAT-202) were launched on 22 August 2014. The names of these satellites are Doresa and Milena named after European children who had previously won a drawing contest. On 23 August 2014, launch service provider Arianespace announced that the "flight VS09 experienced anomaly and satellites were injected into an incorrect orbit.
Satellites GSAT-203 and GSAT-204 were launched successfully on 27 March 2015 from Guiana Space Centre using a Soyuz four stage launcher. Using the same Soyuz launcher and launchpad, satellites GSAT-205 and GSAT-206 were launched successfully on 11 September 2015.
Satellites GSAT-208 and GSAT-209 were successfully launched from Kourou, French Guiana, using the Soyuz launcher on December 17, 2015.
Satellites GSAT-210 and GSAT-211 were launched on 24 May 2016 and are being commissioned.
Starting in November 2016, deployment of the last twelve satellites will use a modified Ariane 5 launcher, named Ariane 5 ES, capable of placing four Galileo satellites into orbit per launch.
Satellites GSAT-207, GSAT-212, GSAT-213, GSAT-214 were successfully launched from Kourou, French Guiana, on 17 November 2016 on an Ariane 5 ES.
On 15 December 2016, Galileo started offering Initial Operational Capability (IOC). The services currently offered are Open Service, Public Regulated Service and Search and Rescue Service.
As of 2014, ESA and its industry partners have begun studies on Galileo Second Generation (G2G) satellites, which will be presented to the EC for the 2020s launch period. One idea is to employ "electric propulsion, which would eliminate the need for an upper stage during launch and allow satellites from a single batch to be inserted into more than one orbital plane.
Applications and impact
Science projects using Galileo
In July 2006 an international consortium of universities and research institutions embarked on a study of potential scientific applications of the Galileo constellation. This project, named GEO6, is a broad study oriented to the general scientific community, aiming to define and implement new applications of Galileo.
Among the various GNSS users identified by the Galileo Joint Undertaking, the GEO6, project addresses the Scientific User Community (UC).
The GEO6 project aims at fostering possible novel applications within the scientific UC of GNSS signals, and particularly of Galileo.
The AGILE project is an EU-funded project devoted to the study of the technical and commercial aspects of "location-based services (LBS). It includes technical analysis of the benefits brought by Galileo (and EGNOS) and studies the hybridisation of Galileo with other positioning technologies (network-based, WLAN, etc.). Within these project, some pilot prototypes were implemented and demonstrated.
On the basis of the potential number of users, potential revenues for Galileo Operating Company or Concessionaire (GOC), international relevance, and level of innovation, a set of Priority Applications (PA) will be selected by the consortium and developed within the time-frame of the same project.
These applications will help to increase and optimise the use of the "EGNOS services and the opportunities offered by the Galileo Signal Test-Bed (GSTB-V2) and the Galileo (IOV) phase.
The European Satellite Navigation project was selected as the main motif of a very high-value collectors' coin: the Austrian "European Satellite Navigation commemorative coin, minted on 1 March 2006. The coin has a silver ring and gold-brown "niobium "pill". In the reverse, the niobium portion depicts navigation satellites orbiting the Earth. The ring shows different modes of transport, for which satellite navigation was developed: an airplane, a car, a lorry, a train and a container ship.
|""||This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (February 2017)|
A number of devices are compatible with Galileo.
- "Binary Offset Carrier modulation – the modulation family used in "Galileo
- "Commercialization of space
- "European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service
- "Multiplexed binary offset carrier modulation - the modulation type chosen for "Galileo Open Service signals and modernized "GPS signals
- Orbital periods and speeds are calculated using the relations 4π²R³ = T²GM and V²R = GM, where R = radius of orbit in metres, T = orbital period in seconds, V = orbital speed in m/s, G = gravitational constant ≈ 6.673×10−11 Nm²/kg², M = mass of Earth ≈ 5.98×1024 kg.
- Approximately 8.6 times (in radius and length) when the moon is nearest (363 104 km ÷ 42 164 km) to 9.6 times when the moon is farthest (405 696 km ÷ 42 164 km).
- "Galileo begins serving the globe". European Space Agency. Retrieved 15 December 2016.
- "Constellation Information | European GNSS Service Centre". www.gsc-europa.eu. Retrieved 2017-01-27.
- "On a Civil Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) between the European Community and its Member States and Ukraine" (PDF). Retrieved 12 January 2015.
- "Galileo navigational system enters testing stage". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 13 October 2012.
- "Why Europe needs Galileo". "ESA. 12 April 2010. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
- "What is Galileo?". "ESA. 11 April 2010. Retrieved 21 December 2010.
- Space Daily
- "Galileo's contribution to the MEOSAR system". European Commission. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
- Launch of first 2 operational Galileo IOV Satellites Archived 1 October 2011 at the "Wayback Machine.. Ec.europa.eu (21 October 2011). Retrieved on 29 October 2011.
- Christine Johnson U.S., EU to Sign Landmark GPS-Galileo Agreement Archived 21 January 2012 at the "Wayback Machine.. dublin.usembassy.gov. U.S.-EU Summit: County Clare 25–26 June 2004
- Van Der Jagt, Culver "Galileo: The Declaration of European Independence" a presentation at the Royal Institute of Navigation 7 November 2001
- Ian Sample Europe and US clash on satellite system. Guardian.co.uk. 8 December 2003. Retrieved 29 October 2011.
- Johnson, Chalmers (2008). Nemesis: The Last Days of the American Republic. Holt. p. 235. "ISBN "0-8050-8728-1.
- Taverna, Michael A. (1 February 2011). "Completing Galileo To Cost $2.5 Billion". Aviation Weekly.
- German Aerospace Center DLR - Neustrelitz, Mecklenburg
- "GPS & Selective Availability Q&A" (PDF). NOAA]. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 21, 2005. Retrieved May 28, 2010.
- "EU, U.S. split over Galileo M-code overlay". GPS World. FindArticles.com. December 2002. Retrieved 9 December 2008.
- "US Could Shoot Down EU Satellites if Used by Foes in Wartime". "AFP. 24 October 2004. Retrieved 9 September 2008.
- Giegerich, Bastian (2005). "Satellite States – Transatlantic Conflict and the Galileo System". Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Hilton Hawaiian Village, Honolulu, Hawaii, Mar 05, 2005. Unpublished Manuscript.
- Selective Availability. Retrieved 31 August 2007.
- "DoD Permanently Discontinues Procurement of Global Positioning System Selective Availability". DefenseLink. 18 September 2007. Archived from the original on 18 February 2008. Retrieved 17 December 2007.
- "'Unanimous backing' for Galileo". BBC. 30 November 2007. Retrieved 19 April 2010.
- "Commission awards major contracts to make Galileo operational early 2014". 7 January 2010. Retrieved 19 April 2010.
- http://www.insidegnss.com/node/1426 "Inside GNSS
- EU: Galileo project in deep 'crisis'. CNN. 8 May 2007
- MSN.com["dead link]
- EU agrees 2008 budget to include Galileo financing. EUbusiness.com – business, legal and financial news and information from the European Union. 26 November 2007
- "Galileo 'compromise' is emerging". BBC News. 23 November 2007. Retrieved 3 May 2010.
- "Galileo legal process ticks over". BBC News. 7 April 2008. Retrieved 3 May 2010.
- European Court of Auditors – Special Report on the management of the Galileo programme's development and validation phase Archived 28 November 2009 at the "Wayback Machine.
- Europe Cuts Galileo Sats Order. Aviation Week (26 October 2009). Retrieved 29 October 2011.
- "The EU's Galileo satellite project could cost UK taxpayers £2.6 billion more than originally planned" (Press release). openeurope.org.uk. 17 October 2010. Retrieved 24 November 2010.
- Inauguration of site of Galileo station at Kourou, official website of "esa
- Initial Galileo Validation Satellites Delayed. Spacenews.com (10 March 2010). Retrieved 29 October 2011.
- "EU Expects Galileo Project Costs to Explode". Spiegel. 2011.
- "Galileo's navigation control hub opens in Fucino". "ESA. 20 December 2010. Retrieved 20 December 2010.
- Prague To Host EU Satellite Navigation Agency – Radio Free Europe, 13 December 2010
- OHB-System CEO Calls Galileo a Waste of German Tax Payer Money["permanent dead link] Date 22 October 2009. Aftenposten.no. Retrieved 29 October 2011.
- "Europe's Galileo sat-nav in big cash boost". BBC News. 22 June 2011.
- Arianespace website Archived 22 October 2011 at the "Wayback Machine.. Arianespace.com. Retrieved 29 October 2011.
- Arianespace website Archived 16 October 2012 at the "Wayback Machine.. Arianespace.com. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
- "Galileo clock anomalies under investigation". European Space Agency (ESA). 19 January 2017. Retrieved 19 January 2017.
- "Atomic clocks 'failed' onboard Galileo navigation satellites". Agence France-Presse AFP. 18 January 2017. Retrieved 19 January 2017.
- "Galileo satellites experiencing multiple clock failures". British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). 17 January 2017. Retrieved 18 January 2017.
- "Rash of Galileo clock failures cast doubt on timing of upcoming launches". spacenews.com. 19 January 2017. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
- D.S., Madhumathi. "Atomic clocks on indigenous navigation satellite develop snag". The Hindu. Retrieved 2017-03-06.
- Mukunth, Vasudevan. "3 Atomic Clocks Fail Onboard India's 'Regional GPS' Constellation". thewire.in. Retrieved 2017-03-06.
- China joins EU's satellite network – BBC News, 19 September 2003
- Israel joins Galileo. The Israel Entity MATIMOP, on the way to becoming a Member of the Galileo Joint Undertaking. eu-del.org.il. 18 May 2005
- Press release. Europa.eu (3 June 2005). Retrieved 29 October 2011.
- Marks, Paul. "China's satellite navigation plans threaten Galileo". "NewScientist.com. Retrieved 19 November 2006.
- "'Unanimous backing' for Galileo". BBC News. 30 November 2007. Retrieved 3 May 2010.
- Norway joins EU's Galileo satnav project. GPSdaily.com. 3 April 2009. Retrieved 29 October 2011.
- Switzerland joins the EU's Galileo satellite navigation programme europa.eu Press release, 18 December 2013. Retrieved
- "Galileo fact sheet" (PDF). ESA. 15 February 2013. Retrieved 8 December 2015.
- "Passive Hydrogen Maser (PHM)". spectratime.com.
- "Rb Atomic Frequency Standard (RAFS)". spectratime.com.
- "Galileo's clocks". European Space Agency. Retrieved 16 January 2017.
- "What about errors". European Space Agency. Retrieved 16 January 2017.
- Galileo System Test Bed Version 1 experimentation is now complete, ESA News release, 7 January 2005
- GIOVE-A2 to secure the Galileo programme, ESA News release, 5 March 2007
- GIOVE mission core infrastructure, ESA press release, 26 February 2007.
- One year of Galileo signals; new website opens, ESA press release, 12 January 2007.
- Galileo IOV Satellites. (2014, November 3). Navipedia, . Retrieved 21:22, May 1, 2015 from http://navipedia.net/index.php?title=Galileo_IOV_Satellites&oldid=13446.
- Soyuz carrying Galileo satellites launched. Bangkok Post (21 October 2011). Retrieved 29 October 2011.
- "Galileo: Europe's version of GPS reaches key phase". "BBC. 12 October 2012. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
- Galileo fixes Europe's position in history
- Amos, Jonathan (7 January 2010). "EU awards Galileo satellite-navigation contracts". "BBC News.
- Dunmore, Charlie (1 February 2012). "UPDATE 1-OHB beats EADS to Galileo satellite contract -sources". "Reuters.
- Next Galileo satellites arrive at Europe's Spaceport
- Rhian, Jason (22 August 2014). "Doresa and Milena Galileo spacecraft rise into morning sky via Soyuz ST-B". Spaceflight Insider.
- "Galileo satellites experience orbital injection anomaly on Soyuz launch: Initial report" (Press release). 23 August 2014. Archived from the original on 27 August 2014. Retrieved 27 August 2014.
- "Galileo satellites well on way to working orbit". "European Space Agency. 2015-04-10. Retrieved 2015-05-31.
- "Arianespace continues deployment of Galileo, a flagship project for Europe" (PDF). "Arianespace. March 2015. Retrieved 2015-05-31.
- "Galileo taking flight: ten satellites now in orbit". "European Space Agency. 2015-09-11.
- "Galileo pair preparing for December launch". European Space Agency. 2 November 2015. Retrieved 13 December 2015.
- "Vega light rocket makes sixth successful launch".
Launch [...] is scheduled for 17 December. Soyuz Flight VS13 will orbit two more satellites for Europe’s Galileo navigation system.
- "Europe adds two more satellites to Galileo sat-nav system". Retrieved 2015-12-17.
- Correspondent, Jonathan Amos BBC Science. "Two more Galileo satellites launched". BBC News. Retrieved 2015-12-17.
- "Galileo constellation deployment: Arianespace to orbit two more satellites on a Soyuz launcher in May 2016 - Arianespace". Arianespace. Retrieved 2016-11-15.
- "Galileo satellite launches - Growth - European Commission". Growth. Retrieved 2016-11-15.
- "Arianespace serves the Galileo constellation and Europe's ambitions in space with the signature of three new launch services using Ariane 5 ES". "Arianespace. 2014-08-20.
- "Ariane Flight VA233 - Arianespace". Arianespace. Retrieved 2016-11-15.
- Space Flight Now launchschedule Archived 24 December 2016 at the "Wayback Machine.
- Electric thrusters may steer Galileo in future - ESA
- galileo-in-lbs.com Archived 6 June 2008 at the "Wayback Machine.
- "Galileo-enabled devices | European GNSS Service Centre". www.gsc-europa.eu. Retrieved 2017-02-22.
- "UseGalileo - Find a galileo-enabled device to use today". www.usegalileo.eu. Retrieved 2017-02-22.
- The Galileo Project – Galileo Design consolidation, European Commission, 2003
- Guenter W. Hein, Jeremie Godet, et al.: Status of Galileo Frequency and Signal Design, Proc. ION GPS 2002.
- Dee Ann Divis: Military role for Galileo emerges. GPS World, May 2002, Vol. 13, No. 5, p. 10.
- Dr Richard North: Galileo – The Military and Political Dimensions. 2004.
- Jaizki Mendizabal; Roc Berenguer; Juan Melendez (2009). GPS and Galileo. McGraw Hill. "ISBN "978-0-07-159869-9.
- Psiaki, M. L., "Block Acquisition of weak GPS signals in a software receiver", Proceedings of ION GPS 2001, the 14th International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of the Institute of Navigation, Salt Lake City, Utah, 11–14 September 2001, pp. 2838–2850.
- Bandemer, B., Denks, H., Hornbostel, A., Konovaltsev, A., "Performance of acquisition methods for Galileo SW receivers", European Journal of Navigation, Vol.4, No. 3, pp 17–9, July 2006
- Van Der Jagt, Culver W. Galileo : The Declaration of European Independence : a dissertation (2002). CALL #JZ1254 .V36 2002, Description xxv, 850 p. : ill. ; 30 cm. + 1 CD-ROM
|""||Wikimedia Commons has media related to Galileo (satellite navigation).|
- Official website
- Galileo ESA website
- European GNSS Supervisory Authority (GSA) – "Europa
- Navipedia information on Galileo—Wiki initiated by the European Space Agency
- Galileo 11 Real Time Tracking
- Galileo 12 Real Time Tracking
- Europe’s New Galileo Satellite System Will Improve Your Phone - "Galileo will increase geo-localisation precision tenfold," European Commission vice-president Maros Sefcovic - by Saint