|Satellite launches||Currently in operational orbit
|* One partial launch failure resulting in 2 satellites orbiting in a degraded orbit
(Last update: 18 November 2016)
Galileo satellite test beds: GIOVE
In 2004 the Galileo System Test Bed Version 1 (GSTB-V1) project validated the on-ground algorithms for Orbit Determination and Time Synchronisation (OD&TS). This project, led by ESA and "European Satellite Navigation Industries, has provided industry with fundamental knowledge to develop the mission segment of the Galileo positioning system.
- "GIOVE-A is the first GIOVE ("Galileo In-Orbit Validation Element) test satellite. It was built by "Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL), and successfully launched on 28 December 2005 by the European Space Agency and the Galileo Joint. Operation of GIOVE-A ensured that Galileo meets the frequency-filing allocation and reservation requirements for the "International Telecommunication Union (ITU), a process that was required to be complete by June 2006.
- "GIOVE-B, built by "Astrium and "Thales Alenia Space, has a more advanced payload than GIOVE-A. It was successfully launched on 27 April 2008 at 22:16 "UTC (4.16 am "Baikonur time) aboard a "Soyuz-FG/"Fregat rocket provided by "Starsem.
A third satellite, "GIOVE-A2, was originally planned to be built by "SSTL for launch in the second half of 2008. Construction of "GIOVE-A2 was terminated due to the successful launch and in-orbit operation of "GIOVE-B.
The "GIOVE Mission segment operated by "European Satellite Navigation Industries used the "GIOVE-A/B satellites to provide experimental results based on real data to be used for risk mitigation for the IOV satellites that followed on from the testbeds. "ESA organised the global network of ground stations to collect the measurements of "GIOVE-A/B with the use of the GETR receivers for further systematic study. GETR receivers are supplied by "Septentrio as well as the first Galileo navigation receivers to be used to test the functioning of the system at further stages of its deployment. Signal analysis of "GIOVE-A/B data confirmed successful operation of all the Galileo signals with the tracking performance as expected.
In-Orbit Validation (IOV) satellites
These testbed satellites were followed by four IOV Galileo satellites that are much closer to the final Galileo satellite design. The Search & Rescue feature is also installed. The first two satellites were launched on 21 October 2011 from "Guiana Space Centre using a "Soyuz launcher, the other two on 12 October 2012. This enables key validation tests, since earth-based receivers such as those in cars and phones need to "see" a minimum of four satellites in order to calculate their position in three dimensions. Those 4 IOV Galileo satellites were constructed by Astrium GmbH and Thales Alenia Space. On 12 March 2013, a first fix was performed using those four IOV satellites. Once this In-Orbit Validation (IOV) phase has been completed, the remaining satellites will be installed to reach the Full Operational Capability.
Full Operational Capability (FOC) satellites
On 7 January 2010, it was announced that the contract to build the first 14 FOC satellites was awarded to "OHB System and "Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL). Fourteen satellites will be built at a cost of €566M (£510M; $811M). "Arianespace will launch the satellites for a cost of €397M (£358M; $569M). The European Commission also announced that the €85 million contract for system support covering industrial services required by "ESA for integration and validation of the Galileo system had been awarded to "Thales Alenia Space. Thales Alenia Space subcontract performances to "Astrium GmbH and security to "Thales Communications.
In February 2012, an additional order of eight satellites was awarded to OHB Systems for €250M ($327M), after outbidding EADS Astrium tender offer. Thus bringing the total to 22 FOC satellites.
On 7 May 2014, the first two FOC satellites landed in Guyana for their joint launch planned in summer Originally planned for launch during 2013, problems tooling and establishing the production line for assembly led to a delay of a year in serial production of Galileo satellites. These two satellites (Galileo satellites GSAT-201 and GSAT-202) were launched on 22 August 2014. The names of these satellites are Doresa and Milena named after European children who had previously won a drawing contest. On 23 August 2014, launch service provider Arianespace announced that the "flight VS09 experienced anomaly and satellites were injected into an incorrect orbit.
Satellites GSAT-203 and GSAT-204 were launched successfully on 27 March 2015 from Guiana Space Centre using a Soyuz four stage launcher. Using the same Soyuz launcher and launchpad, satellites GSAT-205 and GSAT-206 were launched successfully on 11 September 2015.
Satellites GSAT-208 and GSAT-209 were successfully launched from Kourou, French Guiana, using the Soyuz launcher on December 17, 2015.
Satellites GSAT-210 and GSAT-211 were launched on 24 May 2016 and are being commissioned.
Starting in November 2016, deployment of the last twelve satellites will use a modified Ariane 5 launcher, named Ariane 5 ES, capable of placing four Galileo satellites into orbit per launch.
Satellites GSAT-207, GSAT-212, GSAT-213, GSAT-214 were successfully launched from Kourou, French Guiana, on 17 November 2016 on an Ariane 5 ES.
On 15 December 2016, Galileo started offering Initial Operational Capability (IOC). The services currently offered are Open Service, Public Regulated Service and Search and Rescue Service.
As of 2014, ESA and its industry partners have begun studies on Galileo Second Generation (G2G) satellites, which will be presented to the EC for the 2020s launch period. One idea is to employ "electric propulsion, which would eliminate the need for an upper stage during launch and allow satellites from a single batch to be inserted into more than one orbital plane.
Applications and impact
Science projects using Galileo
In July 2006 an international consortium of universities and research institutions embarked on a study of potential scientific applications of the Galileo constellation. This project, named GEO6, is a broad study oriented to the general scientific community, aiming to define and implement new applications of Galileo.
Among the various GNSS users identified by the Galileo Joint Undertaking, the GEO6, project addresses the Scientific User Community (UC).
The GEO6 project aims at fostering possible novel applications within the scientific UC of GNSS signals, and particularly of Galileo.
The AGILE project is an EU-funded project devoted to the study of the technical and commercial aspects of "location-based services (LBS). It includes technical analysis of the benefits brought by Galileo (and EGNOS) and studies the hybridisation of Galileo with other positioning technologies (network-based, WLAN, etc.). Within these project, some pilot prototypes were implemented and demonstrated.
On the basis of the potential number of users, potential revenues for Galileo Operating Company or Concessionaire (GOC), international relevance, and level of innovation, a set of Priority Applications (PA) will be selected by the consortium and developed within the time-frame of the same project.
These applications will help to increase and optimise the use of the "EGNOS services and the opportunities offered by the Galileo Signal Test-Bed (GSTB-V2) and the Galileo (IOV) phase.
The European Satellite Navigation project was selected as the main motif of a very high-value collectors' coin: the Austrian "European Satellite Navigation commemorative coin, minted on 1 March 2006. The coin has a silver ring and gold-brown "niobium "pill". In the reverse, the niobium portion depicts navigation satellites orbiting the Earth. The ring shows different modes of transport, for which satellite navigation was developed: an airplane, a car, a lorry, a train and a container ship.
A number of devices are compatible with Galileo. "Samsung Galaxy S8 smartphones are compatible with Galileo, the first mainstream smartphones advertised with this capability.
- "Binary Offset Carrier modulation – the modulation family used in "Galileo
- "Commercialization of space
- "European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service
- "Multiplexed binary offset carrier modulation - the modulation type chosen for "Galileo Open Service signals and modernized "GPS signals
- Orbital periods and speeds are calculated using the relations 4π²R³ = T²GM and V²R = GM, where R = radius of orbit in metres, T = orbital period in seconds, V = orbital speed in m/s, G = gravitational constant ≈ 6.673×10−11 Nm²/kg², M = mass of Earth ≈ 5.98×1024 kg.
- Approximately 8.6 times (in radius and length) when the moon is nearest (363 104 km ÷ 42 164 km) to 9.6 times when the moon is farthest (405 696 km ÷ 42 164 km).
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Launch [...] is scheduled for 17 December. Soyuz Flight VS13 will orbit two more satellites for Europe’s Galileo navigation system.
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|""||Wikimedia Commons has media related to Galileo (satellite navigation).|
- Official website
- Galileo ESA website
- European GNSS Supervisory Authority (GSA) – "Europa
- Navipedia information on Galileo—Wiki initiated by the European Space Agency
- Galileo 11 Real Time Tracking
- Galileo 12 Real Time Tracking
- Europe’s New Galileo Satellite System Will Improve Your Phone - "Galileo will increase geo-localisation precision tenfold," European Commission vice-president Maros Sefcovic - by Saint