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Garden of the "Taj Mahal, "India
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Royal gardens of "Reggia di Caserta, "Italy
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A kaiyu-shiki or strolling "Japanese garden
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"Chehel Sotoun Garden, "Esfahan, "Iran

A garden is a planned space, usually outdoors, set aside for the display, cultivation and enjoyment of "plants and other forms of "nature. The garden can incorporate both natural and man-made materials. The most common form today is known as a "residential garden, but the term garden has traditionally been a more general one. "Zoos, which display "wild animals in simulated natural habitats, were formerly called "zoological gardens.[1][2] Western gardens are almost universally based on plants, with garden often signifying a shortened form of "botanical garden.

Some traditional types of eastern gardens, such as "Zen gardens, use plants sparsely or not at all. "Xeriscape gardens use local native plants that do not require irrigation or extensive use of other resources while still providing the benefits of a garden environment. Gardens may exhibit structural enhancements, sometimes called "follies, including "water features such as "fountains, ponds (with or without fish), waterfalls or creeks, dry creek beds, statuary, arbors, trellises and more.

Some gardens are for ornamental purposes only, while some gardens also produce food crops, sometimes in separate areas, or sometimes intermixed with the ornamental plants. Food-producing gardens are distinguished from "farms by their smaller scale, more labor-intensive methods, and their purpose (enjoyment of a hobby rather than produce for sale). Flower gardens combine plants of different heights, colors, textures, and fragrances to create interest and delight the senses.

"Gardening is the activity of growing and maintaining the garden. This work is done by an amateur or professional "gardener. A gardener might also work in a non-garden setting, such as a park, a roadside embankment, or other "public space. "Landscape architecture is a related professional activity with landscape architects tending to specialise in design for public and corporate clients.

Contents

Etymology[edit]

The etymology of the word gardening refers to enclosure: it is from Middle English gardin, from Anglo-French gardin, jardin, of Germanic origin; akin to Old High German gard, gart, an enclosure or compound, as in "Stuttgart. See "Grad (Slavic settlement) for more complete etymology.[3] The words yard, court, and Latin hortus (meaning "garden," hence horticulture and orchard), are cognates—all referring to an enclosed space.[4]

The term "garden" in "British English refers to a small enclosed area of land, usually adjoining a building.[5] This would be referred to as a "yard in "American English.

Garden design[edit]

Garden design is the creation of plans for the layout and planting of gardens and landscapes. Gardens may be designed by garden owners themselves, or by professionals. Professional garden designers tend to be trained in principles of design and horticulture, and have a knowledge and experience of using plants. Some professional garden designers are also "landscape architects, a more formal level of training that usually requires an advanced degree and often a state license.

Elements of garden design include the layout of hard landscape, such as paths, rockeries, walls, water features, sitting areas and decking, as well as the plants themselves, with consideration for their "horticultural requirements, their season-to-season appearance, lifespan, "growth habit, size, speed of growth, and combinations with other plants and landscape features. Consideration is also given to the maintenance needs of the garden, including the time or funds available for regular maintenance, which can affect the choices of plants regarding speed of growth, spreading or self-seeding of the plants, whether "annual or "perennial, and bloom-time, and many other characteristics. Garden design can be roughly divided into two groups, formal and naturalistic gardens.[6]

The most important consideration in any garden design is, how the garden will be used, followed closely by the desired stylistic genres, and the way the garden space will connect to the home or other structures in the surrounding areas. All of these considerations are subject to the limitations of the budget. Budget limitations can be addressed by a simpler garden style with fewer plants and less costly hardscape materials, seeds rather than sod for lawns, and plants that grow quickly; alternatively, garden owners may choose to create their garden over time, area by area.

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Example of a garden attached to a place of worship: the cloister of the "Abbey of Monreale, "Sicily, "Italy 
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Tropical garden in the Faculty of Science, "National University of Singapore in "Singapore 
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Flower-bed with the date in "Lignano Sabbiadoro, "Italy 
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Gardens at "Colonial Williamsburg, "Williamsburg, Virginia, feature many heirloom varieties of plants. 
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"Shitennō-ji Honbo Garden in "Osaka, "Osaka prefecture, "Japan - an example of a "zen garden

Elements of a garden[edit]

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Garden at the centre of intersection in "Shanghai.
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Naturalistic design of a "Chinese garden incorporated into the landscape, including a pavilion
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Garden with Fountains, "Villa d'Este, "Italy.

Most gardens consist of a mix of natural and constructed elements, although even very 'natural' gardens are always an inherently artificial creation. Natural elements present in a garden principally comprise flora (such as trees and "weeds), fauna (such as "arthropods and birds), soil, water, air and light. Constructed elements include paths, patios, decking, sculptures, "drainage systems, lights and buildings (such as "sheds, "gazebos, "pergolas and "follies), but also living constructions such as flower beds, ponds and "lawns.

Uses for the garden space[edit]

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Partial view from the "Botanical Garden of Curitiba ("Southern Brazil): "parterres, "flowers, "fountains, "sculptures, "greenhouses and "tracks composes the place used for recreation and to study and protect the flora.

A garden can have "aesthetic, functional, and recreational uses:

Types of gardens[edit]

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A typical "Italian garden at Villa Garzoni, near "Pistoia

"Back garden

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Checkered garden in "Tours, France

"Cactus garden

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"Bristol Zoo, England
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The "Italian gardens of "El Escorial, Spain
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Gardens may feature a particular plant or plant type(s);

Gardens may feature a particular style or aesthetic:

Types of garden:

Environmental impacts of gardens[edit]

Gardeners may cause environmental damage by the way they garden, or they may enhance their local environment. Damage by gardeners can include direct "destruction of natural habitats when houses and gardens are created; indirect "habitat destruction and damage to provide garden materials such as "peat, rock for rock gardens, and by the use of tapwater to irrigate gardens; the death of living beings in the garden itself, such as the killing not only of "slugs and "snails but also their predators such as "hedgehogs and "song thrushes by "metaldehyde slug killer; the death of living beings outside the garden, such as local species extinction by indiscriminate "plant collectors; and "climate change caused by "greenhouse gases produced by gardening.

Watering gardens[edit]

Some gardeners manage their gardens without using any water from outside the garden, and therefore do not deprive wetland habitats of the water they need to survive. Examples in Britain include "Ventnor Botanic Garden on the Isle of Wight, and parts of "Beth Chatto's garden in Essex, Sticky Wicket garden in Dorset, and the Royal Horticultural Society's gardens at "Harlow Carr and "Hyde Hall. "Rain gardens absorb rainfall falling onto nearby hard surfaces, rather than sending it into stormwater drains.[7] For irrigation, see "rainwater, "sprinkler system, "drip irrigation, "tap water, "greywater, "hand pump and "watering can.

Wildlife in gardens[edit]

"Chris Baines's classic book 'How to make a wildlife garden'[8] was first published in 1985, and is still a good source of advice on how to create and manage a "wildlife garden.

Climate change and gardens[edit]

Climate change will have many impacts on gardens, most of them negative, and these are detailed in 'Gardening in the Global Greenhouse' by Richard Bisgrove and Paul Hadley.[9] Gardens also contribute to climate change. Greenhouse gases can be produced by gardeners in many ways. The three main "greenhouse gases are "carbon dioxide, "methane, and "nitrous oxide. Gardeners produce carbon dioxide directly by "overcultivating soil and destroying soil carbon, by burning garden 'waste' on "bonfires, by using power tools which burn "fossil fuel or use electricity generated by fossil fuels, and by using "peat. Gardeners produce methane by compacting the soil and making it anaerobic, and by allowing their "compost heaps to become compacted and anaerobic. Gardeners produce nitrous oxide by applying excess "nitrogen fertiliser when plants are not actively growing so that the nitrogen in the fertiliser is converted by "soil bacteria to nitrous oxide. Gardeners can help to prevent climate change in many ways, including the use of trees, shrubs, "ground cover plants and other perennial plants in their gardens, turning garden 'waste' into "soil organic matter instead of burning it, keeping soil and compost heaps aerated, avoiding peat, switching from power tools to hand tools or changing their garden design so that power tools are not needed, and using "nitrogen-fixing plants instead of nitrogen fertiliser.[10]

In religion, art, and literature[edit]

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"Great Maytham Hall Garden, Kent, England, inspiration for Frances Hodgson Burnett's "The Secret Garden

Other similar spaces[edit]

Other outdoor spaces that are similar to gardens include:

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Garden history : philosophy and design, 2000 BC--2000 AD, Tom Turner. New York: Spon Press, 2005. "ISBN "0-415-31748-7
  2. ^ The earth knows my name : food, culture, and sustainability in the gardens of ethnic Americans, Patricia Klindienst. Boston: Beacon Press, c2006. "ISBN "0-8070-8562-6
  3. ^ "Etymology of the modern word gardin". "Merriam Webster. 
  4. ^ "Etymology of words referring to enclosures, probably from a Sanskrit stem. In German, for example, Stuttgart. The word is generic for compounds and walled cities, as in Stalingrad, and the Russian word for city, gorod. Gird and girdle are also related". Yourdictionary.com. Archived from the original on 2010-02-13. 
  5. ^ The Compact Oxford English Dictionary
  6. ^ Chen, Gang (2010). Planting design illustrated (2nd ed.). Outskirts Press, Inc. p. 3. "ISBN "978-1-4327-4197-6. 
  7. ^ Dunnett and Clayden, Nigel and Andy (2007). Rain Gardens: Managing Water Sustainably in the Garden and Designed Landscape. Portland, Oregon, USA: Timber Press. "ISBN "978-0881928266. 
  8. ^ Baines, Chris (2000). How to make a wildlife garden. London: Frances Lincoln. "ISBN "978-0711217119. 
  9. ^ Bisgrove and Hadley, Richard and Paul (2002). Gardening in the Global Greenhouse: The impacts of climate change on gardens in the UK. Oxford: UK Climate Impacts Programme. 
  10. ^ Ingram, Vince-Prue, and Gregory (editors), David S., Daphne, and Peter J. (2008). Science and the Garden: The scientific basis of horticultural practice. Oxford: Blackwell. "ISBN "9781405160636. 
  11. ^ See: Jakob Fischel, Prag's K. K. Irrenanstalt und ihr Wirken seit ihrem Entstehen bis incl. 1850. Erlangen: Enke, 1853, "OCLC 14844310 (in German)

External links[edit]

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