See more Gay bashing articles on AOD.

Powered by
TTSReader
Share this page on
Article provided by Wikipedia


( => ( => ( => Gay bashing [pageid] => 102866 ) =>

Gay bashing and gay bullying is "verbal or "physical abuse against a person who is perceived by the aggressor to be "gay, "lesbian, "bisexual, "transgender, including persons who are actually "heterosexual or of non-specific or unknown "sexual orientation.

A ""bashing" may be a specific incident, and one could also use the verb to bash (e.g. "I was gay bashed."). A verbal gay bashing might use sexual slurs, expletives, "intimidation, and threatened or actual violence. It also might take place in a political forum and include one or more common "anti-gay slogans.

Gay bullying involves intentional and unprovoked actions toward the victim, repeated negative actions by one or more people against another person, and an imbalance of physical or psychological power.[1] Similar terms such as lesbian bullying, "queer bullying, and queer bashing may also be formed.[2]

Contents

Context[edit]

Gay bashing has occurred worldwide for many decades and continues today.[3] "Homophobia in the United States was especially serious in the late 1940s and early 1950s, when many gay people were forced out of government by boards set up by Presidents "Harry S. Truman and "Dwight D. Eisenhower.[4] As historian David K. Johnson explains:[5]

The "Lavender Scare helped fan the flames of the "Red Scare. In popular discourse, "communists and homosexuals were often conflated. Both groups were perceived as hidden "subcultures with their own meeting places, literature, cultural codes, and bonds of loyalty. Both groups were thought to recruit to their ranks the psychologically weak or disturbed. And both groups were considered immoral and godless. Many people believed that the two groups were working together to undermine the government.

Johnson concludes that Senator "Joe McCarthy, notorious for his attacks on alleged communists in government, was often pressured by his allies to denounce homosexuals in government, but he resisted and did not do so.[5] Using rumors collected by "Drew Pearson, one "Nevada publisher wrote in 1952 that both McCarthy and his chief counsel, "Roy Cohn, were homosexuals.[note 1] "Washington Post editor "Benjamin C. Bradlee said, "There was a lot of time spent investigating" these allegations, "although no one came close to proving it." No reputable McCarthy biographer has accepted it as probable.[note 2]

Queer bullying[edit]

"Egale Canada conducted a survey of more than 3700 high school students in Canada between December 2007 and June 2009. The final report of the survey, "Every Class in Every School",[6] published in 2011, found that 70% of all students participating heard "that's so gay" daily at school, and 48% of respondents heard "faggot", "lezbo" and "dyke" daily. 58% or about 1400 of the 2400 heterosexual students participating in EGALE's survey found homophobic comments upsetting. Further, EGALE found that students not directly affected by "homophobia, "biphobia or "transphobia were less aware of it. This finding relates to research done in the area of "empathy gaps for social pain which suggests that those not directly experiencing social pain (in this case, bullying) consistently underestimate its effects and thus may not adequately respond to the needs of one experiencing social pain.[7]

EGALE, along with previous research[8][9][10][11] has found teachers and school administration may be complicit in queer bullying through their silence and/or inaction.

Graffiti found on school grounds and property, and its "relative permanence",[10] is another form of queer bullying.

Some researchers suggest including youth questioning their sexuality in any research on queer bullying because they may be as susceptible to its effects[11][12][13] as queer students.

A research study of 78 eleven to fourteen-year-old boys conducted in twelve schools in London, England between 1998 and 1999[9] revealed that respondents who used the word "gay" to label another boy in a derogatory manner intended the word as "just a joke", "just a cuss" and not as a statement of one's perceived "sexual orientation.[10][14] American sociologist "Michael Kimmel and American psychologist "Gregory Herek write that "masculinity is a renunciation of the feminine and that males shore up their sense of their masculinity by denigrating the feminine and ultimately the homosexual.[15][16] Building on the notion of masculinity defining itself by what it is not, some researchers suggest that in fact the renunciation of the feminine may be "misogyny.[9][10] These intertwining issues were examined in 2007, when American sociologist "CJ Pascoe described what she calls the ""fag discourse" at an American high school in her book, "Dude, You're a Fag.

Gay and lesbian youth are more likely to report bullying.[17] In one study, boys who were bullied with taunts of being gay suffered more bullying and more negative effects compared with boys who were bullied with other categories of taunting.[18]

Causes of queer bullying[edit]

Gay and lesbian youth can develop severe forms of depression and anxiety as they grow up. In fact, 71.4% of LGBT folk experience major depression disorder (MDD).[19] For LGBT individuals, MDD can be caused by any of the following: self-esteem, pressure to conform, minority stress, coming out, family rejection, parenting, relationship formation, and violence.[20] Self-esteem and pressure to conform go hand in hand. When an LGBT individual is told what to look like and who to love, it puts a toll on their self-esteem. When people make comments about who they are, what they look like, who they love, etc. it begins to make them feel insecure. It makes them feel as though they aren't good enough the way they are. "Coming-out" is a terms that is used to describe when an LGBT individual makes it known that they are gay, lesbian, etc. Coming out is usually the first factor that will affect a person involved in the LGBT community because when they first discover who they really are, their instinct is to confide in their parents to help them through it (Markheim, Personal Interview). When they experience family rejection after coming out, they automatically feel unwanted and unloved. This can set them into a downward spiral of depression. Parenting and relationship formation are very closely related because usually, people feel more comfortable parenting with their significant other rather than alone, especially if they are involved in the LGBT community. Just recently, in March 2016, is became legal for LGBT parents to adopt in all 50 states.[21] Not being able to conceive their own child can already cause depression, but when they were denied the right to adopt, it caused even more pain. Minority stress is not the biggest of all the factors, but it doesn't make anybody feel better. Minority stress is defined as a stress experienced by LGBT individuals due to their sexual orientation/gender identity.[22] Violence can slip anybody into a depressed state whether the violence is a type of physical abuse, mental abuse, or verbal abuse. A person can be harassed to the point where their depression becomes to much and they no longer experience any happiness. These factors all work together and make it extremely hard to avoid MDD.

Effects of queer bullying[edit]

Queer bullying may make some victims feel sad and unsafe in the world.[23][24] Bullying will affect a student's experience of school. Some victims might feel paralyzed and withdraw socially as a coping mechanism.[8] Other victims of queer bullying may begin to live the effects of "learned helplessness.[24] Queer or "questioning students may try to pass as heterosexual in order to avoid queer bullying. "Passing isolates the student from other queer or questioning students, potential "allies, and support.[10] Adults who try to pass also may feel the effects emotionally and psychologically, of this effort to conceal their true identities.[16] Queer and questioning youth who experience bullying have a higher incidence of substance abuse and STI and HIV infection,[12][25][26] which may carry through to adulthood. Queer bullying may also be seen as a manifestation of what American academic "Ilan Meyer calls "minority stress,[27] which may affect sexual and ethno-racial minorities attempting to exist within a challenging broader society.

Explicit and implicit homophobic and transphobic violence in educational settings[edit]

Homophobic and transphobic violence in educational settings can be categorized as explicit and implicit. Explicit homophobic and transphobic violence consists of overt acts that make subjects feel uncomfortable, hurt, humiliated or intimidated. Peers and educational staff are unlikely to intervene when witnessing these incidents. This contributes to normalizing such acts that become accepted as either a routine disciplinary measure or a means to resolve con icts among students. Homophobic and transphobic violence – as with all school-related gender-based violence – is acutely underreported due to subjects’ fear of retribution, combined with inadequate or non-existent reporting, support and redress systems.[28][29][30][31] The absence of effective policies, protection or remedies contributes to a vicious cycle where incidents become increasingly normal.[32]

Implicit homophobic and transphobic violence, sometimes called ‘symbolic violence’ or ‘institutional’ violence, is subtler than explicit violence. It consists of pervasive representations or attitudes that sometimes feel harmless or natural to the school community, but that allow or encourage homophobia and transphobia, including perpetuating harmful stereotypes. Policies and guidelines can reinforce or embed these representations or attitudes, whether in an individual institution or across an entire education sector. This way, they can become part of everyday practices and rules guiding school behaviour.[33][34][32] Examples of implicit homophobic and transphobic violence include:

Statistics and examples[edit]

Teens face harassment, threats, and violence. A 1998 study in the US by "Mental Health America found that students heard anti-gay slurs such as "homo", "faggot" and "sissy" about 26 times a day on average, or once every 14 minutes.[35] In a study conducted by the Association of Teachers and Lecturers, a union for UK professionals, the word "gay" was reported to be the most popular term of abuse heard by teachers on a regular basis.[36]

About two-thirds of gay and lesbian students in "British schools have suffered from gay bullying in 2007, according to a study done by the Schools Education Unit for "LGB activist group "Stonewall. Almost all that had been bullied had experienced verbal attacks, 41 percent had been physically attacked, and 17 percent had received death threats. It also showed that over 50% of teachers did not respond to homophobic language which they had explicitly heard in the classroom, and only 25% of schools had told their students that homophobic bullying was wrong, showing "a shocking picture of the extent of homophobic bullying undertaken by fellow pupils and, alarmingly, school staff",[37] with further studies conducted by the same charity in 2012 stated that 90% of teachers had had no training on the prevention of homophobic bullying. However, Ofsted's new 2012 framework did ask schools what they would be doing in order to combat the issue.[38]

The rate of suicide is higher among LGBT people. According to a 1979 Jay and Young study, 40 percent of gay men and 39 percent of gay women in the US had attempted or seriously thought about suicide.[39] In the same study conducted by the Schools Education Unit for LGB activist group Stonewall, an online survey reported that 71 percent of the girl participants who identified as LGBTQ, and 57 percent of the boy participants who identified as LGBTQ had seriously considered suicide.[40] In 1985, F. Paris estimated that suicides by gay youth may comprise up to 30 percent of all youth suicides in the US. This contributes to suicide being the third leading cause for death among youth aged 10–24, reported by the CDC.[41] The "American Foundation for Suicide Prevention has found that gay, lesbian and bisexual youth attempt suicide at a rate three to six times that of similar-age heterosexual youth.[42] The Schools Education Unit also reports that in the same online survey, 25 percent of the people who identified as LGBTQ, have attempted to commit suicide.[43]

Cases[edit]

Legislation[edit]

""
""
Some U.S. states have implemented laws to address school bullying.
  Law that prohibits discrimination against students based on sexual orientation and gender identity
  Law that prohibits discrimination against students based on sexual orientation only
  Law that prohibits bullying of students based on sexual orientation and gender identity
  School regulation or ethical code for teachers that address discrimination and/or bullying of students based on sexual orientation and gender identity
  School regulation or ethical code for teachers that address discrimination and/or bullying of students based on sexual orientation only
  Law that forbids school-based instruction of LGBT issues in a positive manner
  Law that prohibits bullying in school but lists no categories of protection
  No statewide law that specifically prohibits bullying in schools

The state of "Illinois passed a law (SB3266) in June 2010 that prohibits gay bullying and other forms of bullying in schools.[65]

In the "Philippines, legislators implemented Republic Act No. 10627, otherwise known as the Anti-Bullying Act of 2013, in schools. According to the said law, gender-based bullying is defined as ˮany act that humiliates or excludes a person on the basis of perceived or actual sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI)ˮ.[66]

Support[edit]

In response to growing awareness of gay bashing and bullying, a number of support groups have been founded to help LGBT people cope with their abuse.["citation needed] In Europe "Stonewall UK,[67] and Anti-Bullying Network[68] are active in the "UK, while "Russia has the "Russian LGBT network.[69]

Notable in the "United States is the "It Gets Better Project, for which celebrities and ordinary LGBT people make "YouTube videos and share messages of hope for gay teens.[70][71][72] The organization works with USA, The Trevor Project[71] and the "Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network.[72] The Safe Schools Coalition provides resources for teachers and students where bullying is a problem. Egale Canada works with LGBT "Canadian citizens.[73] In "Brazil, the Gay Group of Bahia ("Grupo Gay da Bahia) provides support.[74][75][76] LGBT "South Africans can turn to the South African Human Rights Commission.[77]["not in citation given]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ After McCarthy called him an ex-Communist, "Hank Greenspun wrote: "It is common talk among homosexuals in "Milwaukee who rendezvous in the White Horse Inn that Senator Joe McCarthy has often engaged in homosexual activities." "Las Vegas Sun, October 25, 1952. McCarthy later explained he meant to call Greenspun an ex-convict (which was true), rather than an ex-Communist (which was false).
  2. ^ The allegations are specifically rejected in Richard Rovere, Senator Joe McCarthy (1969), p. 68; see also Robert D. Dean, Imperial Brotherhood: Gender and the Making of Cold War Foreign Policy (2001) p. 149 (includes Bradlee quote); Kyle A. Cuordileone, Manhood and American Political Culture in the Cold War (2003), p. 94; Thomas Patrick Doherty, Cold War, Cool Medium: Television, McCarthyism, and American Culture, (2003), p. 228. Geoff Schumacher, Sun, Sin & Suburbia: An Essential History of Modern Las Vegas (2004), p. 144, concludes, "Greenspun descended into mud-spewing rhetoric that would make the "National Enquirer blanch." Knowing that McCarthy would not dare enter Nevada, where he would be served with a lawsuit for defaming Greenspun, Greenspun punished McCarthy with his own weapon of anonymous, scandalous accusations.

Sources[edit]

This article incorporates text from a "free content work. Licensed under CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0 Licence statement: Out in the Open: Education sector responses to violence based on sexual orientation and gender identity/expression, 26, UNESCO, UNESCO. UNESCO.

To learn how to add freely licensed text to Wikipedia articles, please see the terms of use.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Bullying Myths and Facts". US Dept of Education. Archived from the original on March 25, 2010. Retrieved October 2, 2010. 
  2. ^ Meyer, Doug (2015). Violence against Queer People. Rutgers University Press. 
  3. ^ Rogers, Thomas. "Explaining American schools' gay bullying epidemic". Salon.com. Retrieved December 12, 2010. 
  4. ^ Sears, Brad; Hunter, Nan D.; Mallory, Christy (September 2009). Documenting Discrimination on the Basis of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in State Employment (PDF). Los Angeles: The Williams Institute on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Law and Public Policy at UCLA School of Law. p. 5-3. From 1947 to 1961, more than 5,000 allegedly homosexual federal civil servants lost their jobs in the purges for no reason other than sexual orientation, and thousands of applicants were also rejected for federal employment for the same reason. During this period, more than 1,000 men and women were fired for suspected homosexuality from the State Department alone—a far greater number than were dismissed for their membership in the Communist party. The Cold War and anti-communist efforts provided the setting in which a sustained attack upon gay men and lesbians took place. The history of this 'Lavender Scare' by the federal government has been extensively documented by historian David Johnson. Johnson has demonstrated that during this era government officials intentionally engaged in campaigns to associate homosexuality with Communism: 'homosexual' and 'pervert' became synonyms for 'Communist' and 'traitor.' LGBT people were treated as a national security threat, demanding the attention of Congress, the courts, statehouses, and the media. 
  5. ^ a b "An interview with David K. Johnson". University of Chicago Press. 
  6. ^ Every Class in Every School, Final Report on the First National Climate Survey on Homophobia, Biphobia, and Transphobia in Canadian Schools, Egale Canada
  7. ^ Nordgren, L. F.; Banas, K.; MacDonald, G. (2011). "Empathy Gaps for Social Pain: Why People Underestimate the Pain of Social Suffering". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 100 (1): 120–128. "doi:10.1037/a0020938. "PMID 21219077. 
  8. ^ a b Crozier, W. R.; Skliopidou, E. (2002). "Adult Recollections of Name-calling at School". Educational Psychology. 22 (1): 113–124. "doi:10.1080/01443410120101288. 
  9. ^ a b c Phoenix, A.; Frosh, S.; Pattman, R. (2003). "Producing Contradictory Masculine Subject Positions: Narratives of Threat, Homophobia and Bullying in 11-14 Year Old Boys". Journal of Social Issues. 59 (1): 179–195. "doi:10.1111/1540-4560.t01-1-00011. 
  10. ^ a b c d e Smith, G. W. (1998). "The Ideology of "Fag": The School Experience of Gay Students". The Sociological Quarterly. 39 (2): 309–335. "doi:10.1111/j.1533-8525.1998.tb00506.x. 
  11. ^ a b Swearer, S. M.; Turner, R. K.; Givens, J. E.; Pollack, W. S. (2008). "You're So Gay!": Do Different Forms of Bullying Matter for Adolescent Males?". School Psychology Review. 37 (2): 160–173. 
  12. ^ a b Russell, S. T.; Joyner, K. (2001). "Adolescent Sexual Orientation and Suicide Risk: Evidence From a National Study". American Journal of Public Health. 91 (8): 1276–1281. "doi:10.2105/ajph.91.8.1276. "PMC 1446760Freely accessible. "PMID 11499118. 
  13. ^ Williams, T.; Connolly, J.; Pepler, D.; Craig, W. (2005). "Peer Victimization, Social Support, and Psychosocial Adjustment of Sexual Minority Adolescents" (PDF). Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 34 (5): 471–482. "doi:10.1007/s10964-005-7264-x. 
  14. ^ Pascoe, C. J. (2007). Dude You're a Fag, Masculinity and Sexuality in High School. Berkeley & Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press
  15. ^ Kimmel, M. (2010). Masculinity as Homophobia, Fear, Shame and Silence in the Construction of Gender Identity. In M. S. Kimmel & A. L. Ferber (Eds.), Privilege, A Reader (pp.107-131). Boulder: Westview Press
  16. ^ a b Herek, G. M. (1986). "On Heterosexual Masculinity, Some Psychical Consequences of the Social Construction of Gender and Sexuality". American Behavioral Scientist. 29 (5): 563–577. "doi:10.1177/000276486029005005. 
  17. ^ Berlan, ED; Corliss, HL; Field, AE; et al. (April 2010). "Sexual Orientation and Bullying Among Adolescents in the Growing Up Today Study". Journal of Adolescent Health. 46 (4): 366–71. "doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2009.10.015. "PMC 2844864Freely accessible. "PMID 20307826. 
  18. ^ Swearer, SM; Turner, RT; Givens, JE (2008). ""You're so gay!": Do different forms of bullying matter for adolescent males?". School Psychology Review. 37. 
  19. ^ Sweet, Matt. "Depression and Anxiety in LGBT People: What You Need to Know" (PDF). Retrieved July 18, 2017. 
  20. ^ Sweet, Matt. "Depression and Anxiety in the LGBT People: What You Need to Know" (PDF). 
  21. ^ Reilly, Mollie. "Same-Sex Couples Can Now Adopt Children in All 50 States". Huffington Post. Retrieved July 18, 2017. 
  22. ^ Meyer, Ilan (March 1995). "Minority Stress and Mental Health in Gay Men" (PDF). Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 36 (1): 38. Retrieved July 24, 2017. 
  23. ^ Glew, G. M.; Fan, M.; Katon, W.; Rivara, F. P.; Kernic, M. A. (2005). "Bullying, Psychosocial Adjustment, and Academic Performance in Elementary School". Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine. 159 (11): 1026–1031. "doi:10.1001/archpedi.159.11.1026. 
  24. ^ a b Roth, D. A.; Coles, M. E.; Heimberg, R. G. (2002). "The relationship between memories for childhood teasing and anxiety and depression in adulthood". Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 16 (2): 149–164. "doi:10.1016/s0887-6185(01)00096-2. 
  25. ^ Russell, S. T.; Ryan, C.; Toomey, R. B.; Diaz, R. M.; Sanchez, J. (2011). "Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Adolescent School Victimization: Implications for Young Adult Health and Adjustment". Journal of School Health. 81 (5): 223–230. "doi:10.1111/j.1746-1561.2011.00583.x. 
  26. ^ Rivers, I (2004). "Recollections of Bullying at School and Their Long-Term Implications for Lesbians, Gay Men and Bisexuals". Crisis. 25 (4): 169–175. "doi:10.1027/0227-5910.25.4.169. 
  27. ^ Meyer, I. H. (1995). "Minority Stress and Mental Health in Gay Men". Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 36 (1): 38–56. "doi:10.2307/2137286. "JSTOR 2137286. "PMID 7738327. 
  28. ^ GMR, UNESCO, and UNGEI, ‘School-related gender-based violence is preventing the achievement of quality education for all: Policy Paper 17 at 59th session of the Commission on the Status of Women in New York City’, 59th session of the Commission on the Status of Women in New York City. UNESCO, p. 16, 2015.
  29. ^ Plan International, ‘A Girl’s Right to Learn Without Fear: Working to end gender-based violence at school’, Plan Limited, Surrey, 2013.
  30. ^ S. Bloom, J. Levy, N. Karim, L. Stefanik, M. Kincaid, D. Bartel, and K. Grimes, ‘Guidance for Gender Based Violence (GBV) Monitoring and Mitigation within Non-GBV Focused Sectoral Programming’, CARE USA, 2014.
  31. ^ Plan UK, ‘Ending school-related gender-based violence: Brie ng paper’, London, 2013.
  32. ^ a b c UNESCO (2016). Out in the Open: Education sector responses to violence based on sexual orientation and gender identity/expression (PDF). Paris, UNESCO. p. 26. "ISBN "978-92-3-100150-5. 
  33. ^ ICGBV, ‘Addressing School Related Gender Based Violence: Learning from Practice: Learning Brief No. 10’, Irish Consortium on Gender Based Violence, Dublin, 2013.
  34. ^ F. Leach, M. Dunne, and F. Salvi, ‘School-Related Gender based Violence: A global review of current issues and approaches in policy, programming and implementation responses to School-Related Gender-Based Violence (SRGBV) for the Education Sector’, UNESCO, 2014.
  35. ^ "Mental Health American, Bullying and Gay Youth". National Mental Health Association. Archived from the original on April 14, 2012. 
  36. ^ "How 'gay' Became Children's Insult of Choice". BBC News. 
  37. ^ "Gay Bullying in Schools Common". BBC News. June 26, 2007. 
  38. ^ "Homophobic bullying". stonewall.org.uk. Stonewall. Retrieved December 25, 2014. 
  39. ^ "Gay Male and Lesbian Youth Suicide" (PDF). 1989. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 14, 2011. 
  40. ^ "The School Report" (PDF). Stonewall. 
  41. ^ "Suicide Prevention". Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on May 4, 2017. 
  42. ^ "Statistics". "American Foundation for Suicide Prevention. Archived from the original on December 6, 2010. Retrieved October 2, 2010. 
  43. ^ "The School Report" (PDF). Stonewall. 
  44. ^ "Nabozny v. Podlesny". "Lambda Legal. Archived from the original on July 25, 2012. Retrieved December 12, 2010. 
  45. ^ Merjian, Armen H. (Fall 2009). "Henkle v. Gregory: A Landmark Struggle against Student Gay Bashing" (PDF). Cardozo Journal of Law & Gender. 16 (1): 41–64. Retrieved September 4, 2012. 
  46. ^ "Damilola's grieving father speaks out". BBC News. November 30, 2000. 
  47. ^ a b Hopkins, Nick (November 29, 2000). "Death of a schoolboy". The Guardian. 
  48. ^ Bennetto, Jason (November 29, 2000). "His mother told teachers he was being bullied. Now she must bury him". Independent. 
  49. ^ Steele, John (June 19, 2001). "Damilola's father attacks loss of values". "The Telegraph. 
  50. ^ Tatchell, Peter (January 13, 2003). "A victim of homophobia?". New Statesman. 
  51. ^ "Hoover". WCVB TV, Boston. Archived from the original on October 5, 2010. Retrieved October 20, 2010. 
  52. ^ "Cameroon Denies Homosexuals Face Persecution". BBC News. July 8, 2010. 
  53. ^ Parker, Ian (February 6, 2012). "The Story of a Suicide". The New Yorker. Retrieved February 5, 2012. 
  54. ^ "Harassed gay man's £120,000 award". BBC News. October 2, 2010. 
  55. ^ "15-year-old Jamie Hubley's lonely cry for acceptance". "Ottawa Citizen, October 17, 2011.
  56. ^ "Mallick: Meet the boy the bullies broke". "Toronto Star, October 18, 2011.
  57. ^ "'Please help me mom': Last words of gay teen who committed suicide after relentless bullying". Daily Mail Reporter. January 23, 2012. Retrieved November 16, 2012. 
  58. ^ "Phillip Parker, Gay Tennessee Teen, Commits Suicide After Enduring Bullying (VIDEO)". Huffigton Post. January 23, 2012. Retrieved November 16, 2012. 
  59. ^ "Phillip Parker Suicide: Bullied Teen's Final Words Were 'Please Help Me Mom'". International Business Times. January 23, 2012. Retrieved November 16, 2012. 
  60. ^ "About Us - Matthew Shepard Foundation". 
  61. ^ Nichols, James. "Jadin Bell's Father, Joe Bell, Killed While Walking Cross Country For Tribute To Dead Gay Teen". Huffington Post. Retrieved March 20, 2014. 
  62. ^ "Jadin Bell's father Joe Bell of La Grande killed by truck while walking in memory of son". Oregon Live. October 10, 2013. Retrieved March 20, 2014. 
  63. ^ "Kenneth Weishuhn, Gay Iowa Teen, Commits Suicide After Allegedly Receiving Death Threats". Huffington Post. Retrieved March 21, 2014. 
  64. ^ Mulvihill, Evan. "Heartbreaking Details Emerge In Suicide Of Out Iowa Teen Kenneth Weishuhn". Queerty. Retrieved March 21, 2014. 
  65. ^ "SB3266 Text". Archived from the original on March 11, 2011. 
  66. ^ "Implementing Rules and Regulations of Republic Act No. 10627". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Government of the Philippines. Retrieved November 10, 2014. 
  67. ^ "Stonewall, Mayor of London Launch Anti-Homophobic Bullying DVD". Uk gay news. Archived from the original on March 28, 2012. Retrieved August 21, 2011. 
  68. ^ "Information for Schools on Homophobic Bullying". www.antibullying.net. 
  69. ^ "The Russian LGBT Network". Ilga. Archived from the original on March 20, 2012. Retrieved August 21, 2011. 
  70. ^ "CBS employees join the It Gets Better Project". CNET. Retrieved August 21, 2011. 
  71. ^ a b "Adam Lambert Revamps 'Aftermath' for The Trevor Project". MTV. Retrieved August 21, 2011. 
  72. ^ a b "Dan Savage: For Gay Teens, Life 'Gets Better'". NPR. Retrieved August 21, 2011. 
  73. ^ "Gay Rights Organization Egale Canada Applauds Decision On Dire Straits Song". City news. Archived from the original on January 27, 2012. Retrieved August 21, 2011. 
  74. ^ "Grupo Gay da Bahia - GGB". www.ggb.org.br. 
  75. ^ "Grupo Gay da Bahia "premia" Dilma como inimiga número 1 dos homossexuais". Repórter Alagoas (in Portuguese). March 9, 2012. Archived from the original on May 16, 2013. Retrieved July 25, 2017. 
  76. ^ "kit anti-homofobia: grupo Gay da Bahia dá troféu de "inimiga da causa" a presidente Dilma Rousseff". TV Recôncavo (in Portuguese). October 3, 2012. Archived from the original on April 4, 2013. Retrieved July 25, 2017. 
  77. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 7, 2013. Retrieved March 30, 2013. 

Further reading[edit]

) )