Increasingly concerned about public statements from General "Douglas MacArthur, commander of United Nations forces fighting in the Korean War, which contradicted President "Harry S. Truman's on prosecution of the war, on the morning of 6 April 1951 Truman held a meeting with Marshall, "Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Omar Bradley, Secretary of State "Acheson and advisor "W. Averell Harriman to discuss whether MacArthur should be removed from command.
Harriman was emphatically in favor of MacArthur's relief, but Bradley opposed it. Marshall asked for more time to consider the matter. Acheson was in favor but did not disclose this, instead warning Truman that if he did it, MacArthur's relief would cause "the biggest fight of your administration." At another meeting the following day, Marshall and Bradley continued to oppose MacArthur's relief. On 8 April, the "Joint Chiefs of Staff met with Marshall, and each expressed the view that MacArthur's relief was desirable from a "military point of view," suggesting that "if MacArthur were not relieved, a large segment of our people would charge that civil authorities no longer controlled the military."
Marshall, Bradley, Acheson and Harriman met with Truman again on 9 April. Bradley informed the President of the views of the Joint Chiefs, and Marshall added that he agreed with them. Truman wrote in his diary that "it is of unanimous opinion of all that MacArthur be relieved. All four so advise." (The Joint Chiefs would later insist that they had only "concurred" with the relief, not "recommended" it.)
On April 11, 1951, President Truman directed transmittal of an order to MacArthur, issued over Bradley's signature, relieving MacArthur of his assignment in Korea and directing him to turn over command to "Matthew Ridgway. In line with Marshall's view, and those of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, MacArthur's relief was looked upon by proponents as being necessary to reassert the tenet of "civilian control of the military.
Marshall retired in September 1951 to his home, "Dodona Manor, in "Leesburg, Virginia to tend to his gardens and continue his passion for horseback riding. He was head of the American delegation at "the coronation of "Queen Elizabeth II in 1953. He also served as Chairman of the "American Battle Monuments Commission from 1949 to 1959.
Death and burial
Marshall died at "Walter Reed Hospital in "Washington, D.C. on October 16, 1959 at the age of 78. He is interred at "Arlington National Cemetery in "Arlington, Virginia.
Reputation and legacy
Marshall's reputation for excellence as a military organizer and planner was recognized early in his career, and became known throughout the Army. In a performance appraisal prepared while Marshall was a lieutenant in the Philippines, his superior, Captain E. J. Williams responded to the routine question of whether he would want the evaluated officer to serve under his command again by writing of Marshall "Should the exigencies of active service place him in exalted command I would be glad to serve under him." (Emphasis added.)
In 1913 General "Johnson Hagood, then a lieutenant colonel, completed a written evaluation of Marshall's performance in which he called Marshall a military genius. Responding to the question of whether he would want his subordinate Marshall to serve under him again, Hagood wrote "Yes, but I would prefer to serve under his command." (Emphasis added.)
In addition to his military success, Marshall is primarily remembered as the driving force behind the "Marshall Plan, which provided billions in aid to post war Europe to restart the economies of the destroyed countries. In recent years, the cooperation required between former European adversaries as part of the Marshall Plan has been recognized as one of the earliest factors that led to formation of the "European Coal and Steel Community, and eventually the "European Union.
In a television interview after leaving office, "Harry S. Truman was asked which American he thought had made the greatest contribution of the preceding thirty years. Without hesitation, Truman picked Marshall, adding "I don't think in this age in which I have lived, that there has been a man who has been a greater administrator; a man with a knowledge of military affairs equal to General Marshall."
"Orson Welles said in an interview with "Dick Cavett that "Marshall is the greatest man I ever met... I think he was the greatest human being who was also a great man... He was a tremendous gentleman, an old fashioned institution which isn't with us anymore."
Marshall married Elizabeth Carter Coles, or "Lily", on Letcher Avenue at her mother's home in Lexington, Virginia, in 1902. She died in 1927 after a successful surgery that put significant strain on her weak heart. They did not have children.
In 1930, Marshall married Katherine Boyce Tupper (October 8, 1882 – December 18, 1978), widow of "Baltimore lawyer Clifton Stevenson Brown, who was murdered by a disgruntled client, and the mother of three children. One of Marshall's stepsons with Tupper was US Army Lieutenant Allen Tupper Brown, who was killed by a German sniper in Italy on May 29, 1944. Another stepson was Major Clifton Stevenson Brown, Jr. (1914–1952). Step-daughter Molly Brown Winn, who is the mother of actress "Kitty Winn, was married to US Army Major James J. Winn (former aide to General Marshall).
Marshall was a "Freemason, having been made a Mason "at sight" in 1941 by the Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of the "District of Columbia. 
George Marshall maintained a home, known as Dodona Manor and later as "The Marshall House, in "Leesburg, Virginia. This was his first and only permanent residence owned by Marshall who later said "this is Home...a real home after 41 years of wandering." The restored home and its surrounding gardens are open to the public as a museum.
Marshall has played in film and television by
- "Keith Andes in the 1970 film "Tora! Tora! Tora!
- "Ward Costello in the 1977 film "MacArthur
- "Dana Andrews in the 1979 film Ike, The War Years.
- "Norman Burton in the 1988 miniseries "War and Remembrance.
- "Hal Holbrook in the 1989 television film "Day One.
- "Harris Yulin in the 1995 television movie "Truman.
- "Harve Presnell in the 1998 film "Saving Private Ryan.
- "Scott Wilson in the 2001 film "Pearl Harbor.
- Donald Eugene McCoy in the 2009 Chinese movie "The Founding of a Republic.
- Richard DuVal in the 2012 Russian mini-series "Chkalov".
Marshall is a character in three different "alternate history timelines in novels by "Harry Turtledove: "Worldwar, "Joe Steele, and The Hot War.
Dates of rank
|No pin insignia in 1902||"Second Lieutenant, "United States Army: February 2, 1902|
|""||"First Lieutenant, United States Army: March 7, 1907|
|""||"Captain, United States Army: July 1, 1916|
|""||"Major, "National Army: August 5, 1917|
|""||"Lieutenant Colonel, National Army: January 5, 1918|
|""||"Colonel, National Army: August 27, 1918|
|""||Captain, "Regular Army (reverted to permanent rank): June 30, 1920|
|""||Major, "Regular Army : July 1, 1920|
|""||Lieutenant Colonel, Regular Army: August 21, 1923|
|""||Colonel, Regular Army: September 1, 1933|
|""||"Brigadier General, Regular Army: October 1, 1936|
|""||"Major General, Regular Army: September 1, 1939|
|""||"General, Regular Army, for service as "Army Chief of Staff: September 1, 1939|
|""||"General of the Army, "Army of the United States: December 16, 1944|
|General of the Army rank made permanent in the Regular Army: April 11, 1946|
Awards and decorations
U.S. military honors
|""||Honorary Knight Grand Cross "Order of the Bath (United Kingdom)|
|""||Grand Cross "Legion of Honor (France)|
|""||"Order of Military Merit (Brazil) (Presented by General Franciso José Pinto on behalf of President Getullo Vargas on 3 June 1939)|
|""||Grand Cross of the "Order of Merit (Chile)|
|""||Grand Cross of the "Order of Boyacá Cherifien (Colombia) (Given by President Ospina Perez as he opened the IX Panamerican Conference, March 1948)|
|""||Order of Military Merit, First Class (Cuba)|
|""||"Star of Abdon Calderon, First Class (Ecuador)|
|""||Grand Cross "Order of George I with swords (Greece)|
|""||"Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus (Italy)|
|""||"Order of the Crown of Italy (Italy)|
|""||"Grand Cross of the Order of Ouissam Alaouite (Morocco)|
|""||Grand Cross with Swords "Order of Orange-Nassau (Netherlands)|
|""||Gran Official del "Sol del Peru (Peru)|
|""||"Order of Suvorov, 1st class (Soviet Union)|
Foreign decorations and medals
|""||"Croix de Guerre (France)|
|""||Medal for the Centennial of the Republic of Liberia|
|""||Silver Medal for Bravery (Montenegro)|
|""||Medal of Solidarity, 2nd Class (Panama)|
- In 1946, he was awarded the United States Congressional Gold Medal.
- In 1948, he was awarded the "Grand Lodge of New York's Distinguished Achievement Award for his role and contributions during and after World War II.
- "Nobel Peace Prize 1953 for the Marshall Plan.
- The "United States Postal Service honored him with a "Prominent Americans series (1965–1978) 20¢ postage stamp.
- 1959 "Karlspreis (International Charlemagne Prize of the city of Aachen).
- 1960 George C. "Marshall Space Flight Center, originally the Army Ballistics Missile Agency at Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville Alabama, became a NASA field center and was renamed.
- The British Parliament established the "Marshall Scholarship in recognition of Marshall's contributions to Anglo-American relations.
- Many buildings and streets throughout the U.S. and other nations are named in his honor.
- George C. Marshall Award, the highest award given to a chapter in Kappa Alpha Order.
- "George C. Marshall High School, founded in 1962 and located in "Falls Church, Virginia, is the only public high school in the United States named for Marshall. The nickname of the school – "The Statesmen" – appropriately reflects his life and contributions.
- The Marshall Elementary School is in the Laurel Highlands School District, Uniontown, Pennsylvania.
- George C. Marshall Elementary School: located in Vancouver, Washington.
- The George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany
- George Catlett Marshall Medal, awarded by the Association of the United States Army. Awarded to "Bob Hope in 1972.
- Behrman, Greg. The Most Noble Adventure: The Marshall Plan and How America Helped Rebuild Europe. New York: Free Press, 2008.
- Cray, Ed. General of the Army: George C. Marshall, Soldier and Statesman. Norton, 1990. 847 pp.
- Harold I. Gullan; "Expectations of Infamy: Roosevelt and Marshall Prepare for War, 1938–41." Presidential Studies Quarterly Volume: 28#3 1998. pp 510+ online edition
- Hein, David. "A Case Study in Principled Leadership: General George C. Marshall's Core Beliefs". Lecture delivered at the John Jay Institute, Philadelphia, PA, May 8, 2013.
- Hein, David. "In War for Peace: General George C. Marshall's Core Convictions and Ethical Leadership". Touchstone 26, no. 2 (March/April 2013): 41–48.
- Hein, David. "General George C. Marshall: Why He Still Matters." Marshall magazine (George C. Marshall Foundation, Lexington, VA), Fall 2016, pp. 12–17.
- Jordan, Jonathan W., American Warlords: How Roosevelt's High Command Led America to Victory in World War II (NAL/Caliber 2015).
- May, Ernest R. "1947–48: When Marshall Kept the U.S. Out of War in China". Journal of Military History 2002 66(4): 1001–1010. "ISSN 0899-3718
- Levine, Steven I. "A New Look at American Mediation in the Chinese Civil War: the Marshall Mission and Manchuria." Diplomatic History 1979 3(4): 349–375. "ISSN 0145-2096
- Parrish, Thomas. Roosevelt and Marshall: Partners in Politics and War. 1989. 608 pp.
- "Forrest Pogue, Viking, (1963–87) Four-volume authorized biography: complete text is online
- Steele, Richard W. The First Offensive, 1942: Roosevelt, Marshall, and the Making of American Strategy. 1973. 239 pp.
- Mark C. Stoler, George C. Marshall: Soldier-Statesman of the American Century. (1989) 252pp
- Unger, Debi and Irwin with Stanley Hirshson. George Marshall: a Biography. Harper, 2014. "ISBN 9780060577193
- "German Marshall Fund
- "George C. Marshall Center for European Security Studies
- "George C. Marshall High School
- "Marshall Mission to China
- "Marshall Scholarship
- "Marshall Space Flight Center
- Task Force Marshall a training organization of the "South Carolina Army National Guard, was named in his honor
- "The George C. Marshall Foundation
- "USS George C. Marshall (SSBN-654)
- George C. Marshall International Center
- "George C. Marshall - Harry S. Truman Administration". Office of the Secretary of Defense - Historical Office.
- Marshall Papers Pentagon Office Selected Correspondence Box 69 Folder 18 George C. Marshall Foundation http://www.marshallfoundation.org
- George Catlett Marshall, General of the Army
- U.S. officers holding five-star rank never retire; they draw full active duty pay for life.Spencer C. Tucker (2011). The Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. pp. 1685. "ISBN "978-1-85109-961-0.
- "George Catlett Marshall, U.S. Army Chief of Staff, Secretary of State". CNN. Archived from the original on 2007-11-13. Retrieved 2007-12-12.
- "General George C Marshall". general-wedemeyer.com. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
- W. Del Testa, David; Florence Lemoine; John Strickland (2001). Government Leaders, Military Rulers, and Political Activists. p. 120.
- New York Times: January 8, 1949, p. 1.
- George Marshall Childhood
- Higginbotham, Don (1985). George Washington and the American Military Tradition. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press. p. 106. "ISBN "978-0-8203-2400-5.
- Uldrich, Jack (2005). Soldier, Statesman, Peacemaker: Leadership Lessons From George C. Marshall. pp. 14–15.
- Groom, Winston (2015). The Generals: Patton, MacArthur, Marshall, and the Winning of World War II. Washington, DC: National Geographic. p. 36. "ISBN "978-1-4262-1549-0.
- "All-Southern Football Team". The Times. February 10, 1901. p. 10. Retrieved March 10, 2015 – via "Newspapers.com. "
- W. H. Hoge (1901). "All Southern Football Team". Spalding's Football Guide: 123. Retrieved March 10, 2015 – via "Google books. "
- Risjord, Norman K. (2006). Giants in Their Time: Representative Americans from the Jazz Age to the Cold War. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 183. "ISBN "978-0-7425-2784-3.
- Pops, Gerald M. (2009). Ethical Leadership in Turbulent Times: Modeling the Public Career of George. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 307. "ISBN "978-0-7391-2476-5.
- Axelrod, Alan; Kingston, Jack A. (2007). Encyclopedia of World War II. 1. New York, NY: Facts on File. p. 547. "ISBN "978-0-8160-6022-1.
- Stoler, Mark (1989). George C. Marshall: Soldier-Statesman of the American Century. pp. 21–25.
- "George Catlett Marshall: A Chronology". Biography: George C. Marshall. Lexington, VA: The George C. Marshall Foundation. Retrieved August 24, 2016.
- Davenport, Matthew J. (2015). First Over There. New York: St. Martins. "ISBN "1250056446.
- Lengel, Edward G. (2008). To Conquer Hell. New York: Henry Holt. "ISBN "0-8050-7931-9.
- Campbell, James (September 30, 2008). The Ghost Mountain Boys: Their Epic March and the Terrifying Battle for New Guinea—The Forgotten War of the South Pacific. Three Rivers Press. p. 400. "ISBN "978-0-307-33597-5.
- "Home". www.georgecmarshall.org. Retrieved 2016-07-04.
- George C. Marshall's Early Career. georgecmarshall.org
- Bland, Larry I., George C. Marshall and the Education of Army Leaders, Military Review 68 (October 1988) 27–51, "Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas
- Ossad, Steven L., Command Failures: Lessons Learned from Lloyd R. Fredendall, Army Magazine, March 2003
- "Ambrose, Stephen, "Citizen Soldiers: The U.S. Army from the Normandy Beaches to the Bulge to the Surrender of Germany June 7, 1944 – May 7, 1945, New York: "Simon & Schuster (1997), pp. 271–284
- Keast, William R. (Maj), Provision of Enlisted Replacements, Army Ground Forces Study No. 7, Washington, D.C.: Historical Section – Headquarters Army Ground Forces, 314.7(1 Sept 1946)GNHIS September 1, 1945
- George, John B. (Lt. Col), Shots Fired In Anger, NRA Press (1981), "ISBN 0-935998-42-X, pp. 13–21
- Keast, William R. (Maj), Provision of Enlisted Replacements
- Hanford, William B., A Dangerous Assignment, Stackpole Books, "ISBN 978-0-8117-3485-1, p. viii
- Vandergriff, Donald E., Seven Wars and a Century Later, a Failed System, Article
- Ambrose, Stephen, Citizen Soldiers, pp. 277–284
- Henry, Mark R., The US Army in World War II: Northwest Europe, "Osprey Publishing (2001), "ISBN 1-84176-086-2, "ISBN 978-1-84176-086-5, pp. 12–14
- Henry, Mark R., The US Army in World War II: Northwest Europe, Osprey Publishing (2001), "ISBN 1-84176-086-2, "ISBN 978-1-84176-086-5, pp. 12–14
- Ambrose, Stephen, Citizen Soldiers, pp. 271–284
- Ambrose, Stephen, Citizen Soldiers, p. 277
- Buell, Thomas B.; John H. Bradley. The Second World War: Europe and the Mediterranean. p. 258.
- Pogue, Forrest C. "The Supreme Commander". ibiblio.org. OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OF MILITARY HISTORY. Retrieved 9 September 2015.
- Hearings before the Joint Committee on the Investigation of the Pearl Harbor Attack, Congress of the United States, Seventy-Ninth Congress (Washington, D.C.), Part 39, P 144-145.
- Conclusions and Recommendations of the Joint Committee on the Investigation of the Pearl Harbor Attack, Congress of the United States, Seventy-Ninth Congress (Washington, D.C.)P. 252, 265
- Stoler, Mark A. (1989). George C. Marshall. pp. 145–51.
- Tsou, Tang (1963). America's Failure in China, 1941–50.
- Harold M. Tanner (18 March 2013). The Battle for Manchuria and the Fate of China: Siping, 1946. Indiana University Press. p. 15. "ISBN "978-0-253-00734-6.
- "蔣介石敗退台灣最恨誰？日記顯示並非毛澤東" [Who did Chiang Kai-shek hate most with his withdraw to Taiwan? Diary says it's not Mao Zedong]. Xin Hua Net. July 31, 2013.
- "The Marshall Plan". georgecmarshall.org. Archived from the original on January 9, 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-17.
- "McCullough, David (1992). "Truman. New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 717. "ISBN "0-671-86920-5.
- Behrman, Greg (2007). The Most Noble Adventure: The Marshall Plan and the Time When America Helped Save Europe. Free Press. "ISBN "0-7432-8263-9.
- "President Truman's Decision to Recognize Israel". Retrieved 2009-02-17.
- "Truman Adviser Recalls May 14, 1948 US Decision to Recognize Israel". Washington Report on Middle East Affairs. May–June 1991. p. 17. Retrieved 2009-02-17.
- "Recognition of Israel". The Truman Library. Retrieved 2009-02-17.
- Uldrich, Jack (2005). Soldier, Statesman, Peacemaker: Leadership Lessons from George C. Marshall. AMACOM Books. "ISBN "9780814415962.
Marshall even went to great lengths to prevent himself from falling prey to the allures of power. He had always refused to vote because he subscribed to the belief that a professional soldier should remain above politics, but he took a number of other steps to insulate himself from the corrupting influence of power once he became chief of staff.
- "Diary entries, 6–7,April 1951, Truman Papers.". Harry S. Truman Library and Museum. Retrieved 5 June 2011.
- "1-070, Editorial Note on Becoming General Liggett's Aide, February 1915". marshallfoundation.org. George C. Marshall Foundation. Retrieved July 4, 2016.
- Puryear, Edgar F., Jr. (2000). American Generalship: Character Is Everything: The Art of Command. New York, NY: Random House. p. 191. "ISBN "978-0-89141-770-5.
- "History of the Marshall Plan". marshallfoundation.org. George C. Marshall Foundation. Retrieved July 4, 2016.
- Farinacci, Donald J. (2010). Truman and MacArthur: Adversaries for a Common Cause. Bennington, VT: Merriam Press. p. 253. "ISBN "978-0-557-40902-0.
- "Orson Welles talks about Cornelia Lunt". YouTube.
- "Famous Masons". MWGLNY. January 2014. Archived from the original on 2013-11-10.
- "The Marshall House". www.georgecmarshall.org. Retrieved 11 July 2016.
- Wheeler, Linda (20 February 2015). "Restoration of Marshall House in Leesburg Enters Home Stretch". www.washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 11 July 2016.
- "Homenagem á Missão Militar Norte Americana". Correio Paulistano. VASP. 4 June 1939. Retrieved 13 October 2015.
- Office of the Clerk, U.S. House of Representatives Archived July 23, 2011, at the "Wayback Machine.
- The Papers of George Catlett Marshall: (Larry I. Bland and Sharon Ritenour Stevens, eds.)
- Vol. 1: The Soldierly Spirit," December 1880 – June 1939. (1981)
- Vol. 2: "We Cannot Delay," July 1, 1939 – December 6, 1941. (1986)
- Vol. 3: The Right Man for the Job, December 7, 1941 – May 31, 1943. (1991)
- Vol. 4: "Aggressive and Determined Leadership," June 1, 1943 – December 31, 1944. (1996)
- Vol. 5: "The Finest Soldier," January 1, 1945 – January 7, 1947. (2003)
- Vol. 6: "The Whole World Hangs in the Balance," January 8, 1947 – September 30, 1949. (2012)
- Vol. 7: "The Man of the Age," October 1, 1949 – October 16, 1959. (2016), xxxviii, 1046 pp.
- Bland, Larry; Jeans, Roger B.; and Wilkinson, Mark, ed. George C. Marshall's Mediation Mission to China, December 1945 – January 1947. Lexington, Va.: George C. Marshall Found., 1998. 661 pp.
- Marshall, George C. George C. Marshall: Interviews and Reminiscences for Forrest C. Pogue. Lexington, Va.: George C. Marshall Found., 1991. 698 pp. online edition
- George Catlett Marshall. Memoirs of My Services in the World War, 1917 – 1918 (1976)
- Thompson, Rachel Yarnell. Marshall - A Statesman Shaped in the Crucible of War. George C. Marshall International Center, 2014.
- The Infantry Journal Incorporated (1939). Infantry in Battle (PDF). Washington, DC: Garrett and Massey. "ISBN "0-940328-04-6.
|""||Wikiquote has quotations related to: George Marshall|
|""||Wikimedia Commons has media related to George Marshall.|
|""||"Wikisource has original works written by or about:
- Brief biography at the official Nobel Prize site
- The Marshall Foundation
- George C. Marshall Center, Garmisch Germany
- The Marshall Plan Speech MP3
- The Marshall Films Collection
- Marshall Scholarships
- The Marshall Plan Speech
- The Marshall House (Dodona Manor)
- "George C. Marshall: Soldier of Peace" ("Smithsonian Institution)
- Annotated bibliography for George Marshall from the "Alsos Digital Library for Nuclear Issues
- The Last Salute: Civil and Military Funeral, 1921–1969, CHAPTER XIX, General of the Army George C. Marshall, Special Military Funeral, 16 – October 20, 1959 by B. C. Mossman and M. W. Stark. "United States Army Center of Military History, 1991. CMH Pub 90-1.
- The George C. Marshall Index at the "Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum, Part 1 and Part 2
- "General George C. Marshall and Vancouver". "City of Vancouver Washington. Retrieved January 25, 2017.
- Task Force Marshall Information Page
- Joint Committee on The Investigation of Pearl Harbor, 79th Congress
- The short film Big Picture: The General Marshall Story is available for free download at the "Internet Archive
- Rachel Yarnell Thompson's Marshall Biography: Marshall - A Statesman Shaped in the Crucible of War
- George Marshall at the "Internet Movie Database
- General George C. Marshall (Character) at the "Internet Movie Database
|"Chief of Staff of the United States Army
1939 – 1945
"Dwight D. Eisenhower
"James F. Byrnes
|"U.S. Secretary of State
Served under: "Harry S. Truman
"Louis A. Johnson
|"U.S. Secretary of Defense
Served under: "Harry S. Truman
"Robert A. Lovett
|Awards and achievements|
|"Cover of Time Magazine
July 29, 1940
"Sir Alan F. Brooke
|"Cover of Time Magazine
October 19, 1942
"John Vereker, 6th Viscount Gort
"Patriarch Sergius I of Moscow
|"Cover of Time Magazine
January 3, 1944
"Erich von Manstein