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Ghent
Gent
"Municipality
""View of Ghent from the Cathedral with Belfry of Ghent and Saint Nicholas church visible
View of Ghent from the "Cathedral with "Belfry of Ghent and "Saint Nicholas church visible
""Flag of Ghent
Flag
""Coat of arms of Ghent
Coat of arms
""Ghent is located in Belgium
Ghent
Ghent
Location in Belgium
Coordinates: 51°3′N 3°44′E / 51.050°N 3.733°E / 51.050; 3.733"Coordinates: 51°3′N 3°44′E / 51.050°N 3.733°E / 51.050; 3.733
Country "Belgium
"Community "Flemish Community
"Region "Flemish Region
"Province "East Flanders
"Arrondissement "Ghent
Government
 • "Mayor (list) "Daniël Termont ("sp.a)
 • Governing party/ies "sp.a-"Groen, "Open VLD
Area
 • Total 156.18 km2 (60.30 sq mi)
Population (1 January 2016)[1]
 • Total 257,029
 • Density 1,600/km2 (4,300/sq mi)
"Postal codes 9000–9052
"Area codes 09
Website www.gent.be

Ghent ("/ˈɡɛnt/; "Dutch: Gent pronounced "[ɣɛnt]; "French: Gand "[ɡɑ̃]; "German: Gent "[ˈɡɛnt]) is a city and a "municipality in the "Flemish Region of "Belgium. It is the capital and largest city of the "East Flanders province and after "Antwerp the largest municipality of Belgium. The city started as a settlement at the confluence of the Rivers "Scheldt and "Leie and in the "Late Middle Ages became one of the largest and richest cities of northern Europe, with some 50,000 people in 1300. It is a "port and "university city.

The municipality comprises the city of Ghent proper and the surrounding towns of "Afsnee, "Desteldonk, "Drongen, "Gentbrugge, "Ledeberg, "Mariakerke, "Mendonk, "Oostakker, "Sint-Amandsberg, "Sint-Denijs-Westrem, "Sint-Kruis-Winkel, "Wondelgem and "Zwijnaarde. With 240,191 inhabitants in the beginning of 2009,[2] Ghent is Belgium's second largest municipality by number of inhabitants. The "metropolitan area, including the outer commuter zone, covers an area of 1,205 km2 (465 sq mi) and has a total population of 594,582 as of 1 January 2008, which ranks it as the fourth most populous in Belgium.[3][4] The current "mayor of Ghent, "Daniël Termont, leads a coalition of the "Socialistische Partij Anders, "Groen and "Open VLD.

The ten-day-long Ghent Festival ("Gentse Feesten in Dutch) is held every year and attended by about 1–1.5 million visitors.

Contents

History[edit]

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Ghent in 1775

Archaeological evidence shows human presence in the region of the confluence of Scheldt and Leie going back as far as the "Stone Age and the "Iron Age.[5]

Most historians believe that the older name for Ghent, 'Ganda', is derived from the "Celtic word ganda which means "confluence.[5] Other sources connect its name with an obscure deity named "Gontia.[6]

There are no written records of the "Roman period, but archaeological research confirms that the region of Ghent was further inhabited.

When the "Franks invaded the Roman territories from the end of the 4th century and well into the 5th century, they brought their language with them and Celtic and Latin were replaced by "Old Dutch.

Middle Ages[edit]

Around 650, "Saint Amand founded two "abbeys in Ghent: "St. Peter's ("Blandinium) and "Saint Bavo's Abbey. The city grew from several nuclei, the abbeys and a commercial centre. Around 800, "Louis the Pious, son of "Charlemagne, appointed "Einhard, the biographer of Charlemagne, as abbot of both abbeys. In 851 and 879, the city was however attacked and plundered twice by the "Vikings.

Within the protection of the "County of Flanders, the city recovered and flourished from the 11th century, growing to become a small "city-state. By the 13th century, Ghent was the biggest city in Europe north of the Alps after "Paris; it was bigger than "Cologne or "Moscow.[7] Within the city walls lived up to 65,000 people. The "belfry and the towers of the "Saint Bavo Cathedral and "Saint Nicholas' Church are just a few examples of the skyline of the period.

The rivers flowed in an area where much land was periodically flooded. These rich grass 'meersen' (""water-meadows": a word related to the English '"marsh') were ideally suited for herding sheep, the wool of which was used for making cloth. During the Middle Ages Ghent was the leading city for "cloth.

The "wool industry, originally established at "Bruges, created the first European industrialized zone in Ghent in the High "Middle Ages. The mercantile zone was so highly developed that wool had to be imported from "Scotland and England. This was one of the reasons for Flanders' good relationship with "Scotland and "England. Ghent was the birthplace of "John of Gaunt, Duke of "Lancaster. Trade with England (but not Scotland) suffered significantly during the "Hundred Years' War.

Early modern period[edit]

The city recovered in the 15th century, when Flanders was united with neighbouring provinces under the "Dukes of Burgundy. High taxes "led to a rebellion and eventually the "Battle of Gavere in 1453, in which Ghent suffered a terrible defeat at the hands of "Philip the Good. Around this time the centre of political and social importance in the Low Countries started to shift from Flanders (Bruges–Ghent) to "Brabant ("Antwerp–"Brussels), although Ghent continued to play an important role. With Bruges, the city led two "revolts against Maximilian of Austria, the first monarch of the "House of Habsburg to rule "Flanders.

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Buildings along the "Leie river in the city of Ghent
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The Justitiepaleis in Ghent, c. 1895

In 1500, "Juana of Castile gave birth to "Charles V, who became "Holy Roman Emperor and King of "Spain. Although native to Ghent, he punished the city after the 1539 "Revolt of Ghent and obliged the city's nobles to walk in front of the Emperor barefoot with a noose (Dutch: "strop") around the neck; since this incident, the people of Ghent have been called "Stroppendragers" (noose bearers). Saint Bavo Abbey (not to be confused with the nearby Saint Bavo Cathedral) was abolished, torn down, and replaced with a fortress for "Royal Spanish troops. Only a small portion of the abbey was spared demolition.

The late 16th and the 17th centuries brought devastation because of the "Eighty Years' War. The war ended the role of Ghent as a centre of international importance. In 1745, the city "was captured by French forces during the "War of the Austrian Succession before being returned to the "Empire of Austria under the "House of Habsburg following the "Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748, when this part of "Flanders became known as the "Austrian Netherlands until 1815, the exile of the French Emperor "Napoleon I, the end of the French Revolutionary and later "Napoleonic Wars and the peace treaties arrived at by the "Congress of Vienna.

19th century[edit]

In the 18th and 19th centuries, the textile industry flourished again in Ghent. "Lieven Bauwens, having smuggled the "industrial and factory machine plans out of "England, introduced the first mechanical "weaving machine on the "European continent in 1800.

The "Treaty of Ghent, negotiated here and adopted on Christmas Eve 1814, formally ended the "War of 1812 between "Great Britain and the "United States (the North American phase of the "Napoleonic Wars). After the "Battle of Waterloo, Ghent and "Flanders, previously ruled from the "House of Habsburg in "Vienna as the "Austrian Netherlands, became a part of the "United Kingdom of the Netherlands with the northern Dutch for 15 years. In this period, Ghent established its own "university (1816)[8] and a "new connection to the sea (1824–27).

After the "Belgian Revolution, with the loss of port access to the sea for more than a decade, the local economy collapsed and the first Belgian trade union originated in Ghent. In 1913 there was a "world exhibition in Ghent.[8] As a preparation for these festivities, the "Sint-Pieters railway station was completed in 1912.

20th century[edit]

Ghent was occupied by the Germans in both World Wars but escaped severe destruction. The life of the people and the German invaders in Ghent during "World War I is described by H. Wandt in "etappenleven te Gent"["citation needed]. In "World War II the city was liberated by the British "7th "Desert Rats" Armoured Division and local Belgian fighters on 6 September 1944.

Geography[edit]

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Municipalities

After the fusions of municipalities in 1965 and 1977, the city is made up of:

Neighbouring municipalities[edit]

Climate[edit]

The climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, and there is adequate rainfall year-round. According to the "Köppen Climate Classification system, Ghent has a "marine west coast climate, abbreviated "Cfb" on climate maps.[9]

Climate data for Ghent, Belgium
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 6
(43)
6
(42)
10
(50)
13
(55)
17
(62)
19
(67)
22
(72)
22
(72)
18
(65)
14
(58)
9
(49)
8
(46)
14
(57)
Average low °C (°F) 2
(36)
1
(34)
4
(40)
6
(43)
10
(50)
13
(55)
15
(59)
14
(58)
12
(54)
9
(48)
6
(42)
4
(39)
8
(46)
Average precipitation days 21 15 20 18 20 19 16 17 18 19 19 19 221
Source: Weatherbase [10]

Tourism[edit]

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The "Graslei is one of the most scenic places in Ghent's old city centre

Architecture[edit]

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The "Gravensteen
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Historical centre of Ghent – from left to right: Old post office, "Saint-Nicholas Church, "Belfry, and "Saint Bavo Cathedral.
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Ghent at Night
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Riverside in Ghent
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Sunset over the river "Leie in Ghent

Much of the city's "medieval architecture remains intact and is remarkably well preserved and restored. Its centre is the largest "carfree area in Belgium. Highlights are the "Saint Bavo Cathedral with the "Ghent Altarpiece, the "belfry, the "Gravensteen castle, and the splendid architecture along the old "Graslei harbour. Ghent has established a blend between comfort of living and history; it is not a city-museum. The city of Ghent also houses three "béguinages and numerous churches including Saint-Jacob's church, "Saint-Nicolas' church, "Saint Michael's church and "St. Stefanus.

In the 19th century Ghent's most famous architect, "Louis Roelandt, built the university hall Aula, the opera house and the main courthouse. Highlights of modern architecture are the university buildings (the "Boekentoren or Book Tower) by "Henry Van de Velde. There are also a few theatres from diverse periods.

The beguinages, as well as the belfry and adjacent cloth hall, were recognized by "UNESCO as "World Heritage Sites in 1998 and 1999.

The "Zebrastraat, a social experiment in which an entirely renovated site unites living, economy and culture, can also be found in Ghent.

"Campo Santo is a famous Catholic burial site of the nobility and artists.

Museums[edit]

Important museums in Ghent are the "Museum voor Schone Kunsten (Museum of Fine Arts), with paintings by "Hieronymus Bosch, "Peter Paul Rubens, and many Flemish masters; the "SMAK or Stedelijk Museum voor Actuele Kunst (City Museum for Contemporary Art), with works of the 20th century, including "Joseph Beuys and "Andy Warhol; and the "Design Museum Gent with masterpieces of "Victor Horta and "Le Corbusier. The "Huis van Alijn (House of the Alijn family) was originally a "beguinage and is now a museum for folk art where theatre and puppet shows for children are presented. The Museum voor Industriële Archeologie en Textiel or MIAT displays the industrial strength of Ghent with recreations of workshops and stores from the 1800s and original spinning and weaving machines that remain from the time when the building was a weaving mill. The "Ghent City Museum (Stadsmuseum, abbreviated STAM), is committed to recording and explaining the city's past and its inhabitants, and to preserving the present for future generations.

Restaurants and culinary traditions[edit]

In Ghent and other regions of "East-Flanders, bakeries sell a donut-shaped bun called a "mastel" (plural "mastellen"), which is basically a bagel. "Mastellen" are also called ""Saint Hubert bread", because on the Saint's feast day, which is 3 November, the bakers bring their batches to the early Mass to be blessed. Traditionally, it was thought that blessed mastellen immunized against "rabies.

Other local delicacies are the praline chocolates from local producers such as "Leonidas, the "cuberdons or 'neuzekes' ('noses'), cone-shaped purple jelly-filled candies, 'babelutten' ('babblers'), hard butterscotch-like candy, and of course, on the more fiery side, the famous 'Tierenteyn', a hot but refined mustard that has some affinity to French 'Dijon' mustard.

"Stoverij is a classic Flemish meat stew, preferably made with a generous addition of brown "'Trappist' (strong abbey beer) and served with French fries. '"Waterzooi' is a local stew originally made from freshwater fish caught in the rivers and creeks of Ghent, but nowadays often made with chicken instead of fish. It is usually served nouvelle-cuisine-style, and will be supplemented by a large pot on the side.

The city promotes a meat-free day on Thursdays called Donderdag Veggiedag[11][12] with "vegetarian food being promoted in public canteens for civil servants and elected councillors, in all city funded schools, and promotion of vegetarian eating options in town (through the distribution of "veggie street maps"). This campaign is linked to the recognition of the "detrimental environmental effects of meat production, which the "United Nations' "Food and Agriculture Organization has established to represent nearly one-fifth of global "greenhouse gas emissions.

Ghent has the world's largest number of vegetarian restaurants per capita.[13]

Festivities[edit]

The city is host to some big cultural events such as the "Gentse Feesten, "I Love Techno in "Flanders Expo, the "10 Days Off" musical festival, the "International Film Festival of Ghent (with the "World Soundtrack Awards) and the Gent Festival van Vlaanderen (nl). Also, every five years, an extensive botanical exhibition (Gentse Floraliën) takes place in "Flanders Expo in Ghent, attracting numerous visitors to the city.

The "Festival of Flanders had its 50th celebration in 2008. In Ghent it opens with the OdeGand City festivities that takes place on the second Saturday of September. Some 50 concerts take place in diverse locations throughout the medieval "inner city and some 250 international artists perform. Other major Flemish cities hold similar events, all of which form part of the Festival of Flanders (Antwerp with "Laus Polyphoniae; Bruges with "MAfestival; Brussels with KlaraFestival; Limburg with Basilica, Mechelen and Brabant with Novecento and Transit).

Nature[edit]

The numerous parks in the city can also be considered tourist attractions. Most notably, Ghent boasts a "nature reserve ("Bourgoyen-Ossemeersen, 230 hectare[14]) and a recreation park (Blaarmeersen, 87 hectares).[15]

Economy[edit]

The "port of Ghent, in the north of the city, is the third largest port of Belgium. It is accessed by the "Ghent-Terneuzen Canal, which ends near the "Dutch port of "Terneuzen on the "Western Scheldt. The port houses, among others, large companies like "ArcelorMittal, "Volvo Cars, "Volvo Trucks, "Volvo Parts, "Honda, and "Stora Enso.

The "Ghent University and a number of research oriented companies, such as Ablynx, Innogenetics, Cropdesign and Bayer Cropscience, are situated in the central and southern part of the city.

As the largest city in East Flanders, Ghent has many hospitals, schools and shopping streets. "Flanders Expo, the biggest event hall in Flanders and the second biggest in Belgium, is also located in Ghent. Tourism is becoming a major employer in the local area.["citation needed] Recently a local business man donated a substantial amount of money to have all the kerbs lowered by two inches in the city

Transport[edit]

As one of the largest cities in Belgium, Ghent has a highly developed transport system.

Road[edit]

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The R4 ringroad

By car the city is accessible via two motorways:

In addition Ghent also has two ringways:

Rail[edit]

The municipality of Ghent comprises five "railway stations:

Public transport[edit]

Ghent has an extensive network of public transport lines, operated by "De Lijn.

Trams[edit]

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A HermeLijn "low-floor tram in Ghent

Buses[edit]

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A "Van Hool "articulated bus in Ghent

Apart from the city buses mentioned above, Ghent also has numerous regional bus lines connecting it to towns and villages across the province of East Flnaders. All of these buses stop in at least one of the city's regional bus hubs at either Sint-Pieters Station, Dampoort Station, Zuid or Rabot.

International buses connecting Ghent to other European destinations are usually found at the Dampoort Station. A couple of private bus companies such as Eurolines, Megabus and Flixbus operate from the Dampoort bus hub.

Buses to and from Belgium's second airport - Brussels South Airport Charleroi - are operated by Flibco, and can be found at the rear exit of the Sint-Pieters Station.

Cycling[edit]

Ghent has the largest designated cyclist area in Europe, with nearly 400 kilometres (250 mi) of cycle paths and more than 700 one-way streets, where bikes are allowed to go against the traffic. It also boasts Belgium’s first cycle street, where cars are considered ‘guests’ and must stay behind cyclists.[13]

Sports[edit]

In the "Belgian first football division Ghent is represented by "K.A.A. Gent, who became "Belgian football champions for the first time in its history in 2015. Another Ghent football club is "KRC Gent-Zeehaven, playing in the Belgian fourth division. A football match at the "1920 Summer Olympics was held in Ghent.[17]

The "Six Days of Flanders, a "six-day track cycling race, is held annually, taking place in the "Kuipke velodrome in Ghent. In road cycling, the city hosts the start and finish of the "Omloop Het Nieuwsblad, the traditional opening race of the "cobbled classics season.[18] It also lends its name to another cobbled classic, "Gent–Wevelgem, although the race now starts in the nearby city of "Deinze.[19]

The city hosts an annual "athletics "IAAF event in the "Flanders Sports Arena: the "Indoor Flanders meeting. Two-time Olympic champion "Hicham El Guerrouj set a still-standing "world record of 3:48.45 in the "mile run in 1997.[20]

The Flanders Sports Arena was host to the 2015 "Davis Cup Final between "Belgium and "Great Britain.[21]

Famous people[edit]

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"Emperor Charles V was born in Ghent in 1500
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Statue of "Jacob van Artevelde on the "Vrijdagmarkt in Ghent

International relations[edit]

Twin towns – sister cities[edit]

Ghent is "twinned with:[22]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ Population per municipality as of 1 January 2016 (XLS; 397 KB)
  2. ^ Statistics Belgium; Werkelijke bevolking per gemeente op 1 januari 2009 (excel-file) Population of all municipalities in Belgium, as of 1 January 2009. Retrieved on 2010-11-28.
  3. ^ Statistics Belgium; Werkelijke bevolking per gemeente op 1 januari 2008 (excel-file) Population of all municipalities in Belgium, as of 1 January 2008. Retrieved on 2008-10-19.
  4. ^ Statistics Belgium; De Belgische Stadsgewesten 2001 (pdf-file) Archived 29 October 2008 at the "Wayback Machine. Definitions of metropolitan areas in Belgium. The metropolitan area of Ghent is divided into three levels. First, the central agglomeration (agglomeratie) with 278,457 inhabitants (1 January 2008). Adding the closest surroundings (banlieue) gives a total of 423,320. And, including the outer commuter zone (forensenwoonzone) the population is 594,582. Retrieved on 2008-10-19.
  5. ^ a b "History of Gent". www.gent.be. Archived from the original on 18 August 2005. Retrieved 5 May 2006. 
  6. ^ Adrian Room, Placenames of the World: Origins and Meanings of the Names for 6,600 Countries, Cities, Territories, Natural Features, and Historic Sites, McFarland, 2006, p. 144.
  7. ^ Nicholas, David. The Domestic Life of a Medieval City: Women, Children and the Family in Fourteenth Century Ghent. p. 1. 
  8. ^ a b https://visit.gent.be/en/history-0?context=tourist
  9. ^ "Climate Summary for Ghent, Belgium". weatherbase.com. Retrieved 18 May 2015. 
  10. ^ "Weatherbase.com". Weatherbase. 2013.  Retrieved on October 26, 2013.
  11. ^ "Ghent's veggie day: for English speaking visitors" on Vegetarisme.be
  12. ^ "Belgian city plans 'veggie' days" on "BBC News (12 May 2009).
  13. ^ a b "Belgium breaks: The best way to see glorious Ghent? On two wheels... | Daily Mail Online". dailymail.co.uk. Retrieved 18 May 2015. 
  14. ^ "Nature Domain De Bourgoyen | Visit Gent". visitgent.be. Retrieved 18 May 2015. 
  15. ^ "Blaarmeersen Sport and Recreation Park - Sightseeing in Ghent". inyourpocket.com. Archived from the original on 20 May 2015. Retrieved 18 May 2015. 
  16. ^ https://static.delijn.be/Images/LCD%20LW%20einde%20Bravoko_tcm3-16462.jpg
  17. ^ FIFA Confederations Cup - Olympic Football Tournament Antwerp 1920 - FIFA.com Archived 1 February 2009 at the "Wayback Machine.
  18. ^ "Omloop Het Nieuwsblad race guide". "Team Sky. 
  19. ^ Beaudin, Matthew (23 March 2013). "Storied Ghent-Wevelgem poised for a brutal edition". "VeloNews. Retrieved 22 October 2015. 
  20. ^ "World records". iaaf.org. Retrieved 8 June 2015. 
  21. ^ "Ghent to host 2015 Davis Cup Final". daviscup.com. 23 September 2015. Retrieved 23 September 2015. 
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h "Ghent Zustersteden". Stad Gent (in Dutch). City of Ghent. Retrieved 20 July 2013. 
  23. ^ "European networks and city partnerships". Nottingham City Council. Archived from the original on 25 June 2012. Retrieved 20 July 2013. 
  24. ^ "Wiesbaden's international city relations". Retrieved 24 December 2012. 

Bibliography[edit]

See also: "Bibliography of the history of Ghent

External links[edit]

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