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Glottolog
""Glottolog-logo.png
Producer "Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History (Germany)
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Glottolog is a "bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and maintained first at the former "Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in "Leipzig, Germany, and since 2015 at the "Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in "Jena, Germany. Glottolog provides a catalogue of the world's languages and language families, and a bibliography on the world's less-spoken languages. It differs from the similar catalogue "Ethnologue in several respects: it attempts to only accept languages which the editors have been able to confirm both exist and are distinct (varieties which have not been confirmed, but are inherited from another source, are tagged as "spurious" or "unattested");[1] it attempts only to classify languages into families which have been demonstrated to be valid; bibliographic information is provided, especially for lesser-known languages; and, to a limited extent, alternative names are listed according to the sources which use them. The language names used in the bibliographic entries are identified by ISO 639-3 code or Glottolog's own code (Glottocode); apart from a single point-location on a map at its geographic center, no ethnographic or demographic information is provided. External links are provided to ISO, Ethnologue, and other online language databases.

Edition 2.2 was published online in 2013, and licensed under a "Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Unported License. Edition 2.4 was published in 2015, and edition 3.0 in 2017.

Contents

Language families[edit]

Glottolog is more conservative in its classification than most online databases in establishing membership of languages and groups within families, but more liberal in considering unclassified languages to be isolates. Edition 2.4 lists 425 oral-language families, including isolates, and 75 sign-language families and isolates,[2] as follows.

Name Region[3] Languages
"Atlantic-Congo Africa, North America 1432
"Austronesian Africa, Eurasia, "Oceania, South America 1276
"Indo-European Africa, Australia, Eurasia, North America, "Oceania, South America 585
"Sino-Tibetan Eurasia 472
"Afro-Asiatic Africa, Eurasia 372
"Nuclear Trans New Guinea "Oceania 315
"Pama-Nyungan Australia, "Oceania 240
"Otomanguean North America 178
"Austroasiatic Eurasia 164
"Tai-Kadai Eurasia 96
"Dravidian Eurasia 81
"Arawakan North America, South America 76
"Mande Africa 74
"Tupian South America 71
"Uto-Aztecan North America 68
"Central Sudanic Africa 62
"Nuclear Torricelli "Oceania 55
"Nilotic Africa 51
"Algic North America 45
"Athapaskan-Eyak-Tlingit North America 45
"Quechuan South America 45
"Cariban South America 44
"Turkic Eurasia 44
"Uralic Eurasia 44
"Hmong-Mien Eurasia 39
"Panoan South America 38
"Sepik "Oceania 36
"Mayan North America 33
"Nuclear-Macro-Je South America 31
"Lower Sepik-Ramu "Oceania 30
"Nakh-Daghestanian Eurasia 30
"Chibchan North America, South America 27
"Tucanoan South America 26
"Salishan North America 25
"Timor-Alor-Pantar "Oceania 22
"Lakes Plain "Oceania 20
"Dogon Africa 19
"Mixe-Zoque North America 19
"Ta-Ne-Omotic Africa 19
"Siouan North America 18
"Morehead-Wasur "Oceania 17
"Mongolic Eurasia 16
"Border "Oceania 15
"North Halmahera "Oceania 15
"Japonic Eurasia, "Oceania 14
"Khoe-Kwadi Africa 14
"Angan "Oceania 13
"Ndu "Oceania 13
"Nubian Africa 13
"Tor-Orya "Oceania 13
"Chapacuran South America 12
"Eskimo-Aleut Eurasia, North America 12
"Gunwinyguan Australia 12
"Totonacan North America 12
"Tungusic Eurasia 12
"Iroquoian North America 11
"Miwok-Costanoan North America 11
"Western Daly Australia 11
"Worrorran Australia 11
"Geelvink Bay "Oceania 10
"Great Andamanese Eurasia, "Oceania 10
"Heiban Africa 10
"Ijoid Africa 10
"Maban Africa 10
"Nyulnyulan Australia 10
"Saharan Africa 10
"Songhay Africa 10
"Surmic Africa 10
"Chocoan South America 9
"Cochimi-Yuman North America 9
"Dagan "Oceania 9
"Sko "Oceania 9
"South Bougainville "Oceania 9
"Kiowa-Tanoan North America 8
"Kwerbic "Oceania 8
"Mailuan "Oceania 8
"Narrow Talodi Africa 8
"Tuu Africa 8
"Bosavi "Oceania 7
"Daju Africa 7
"Huitotoan South America 7
"Inland Gulf "Oceania 7
"Koiarian "Oceania 7
"Matacoan South America 7
"Muskogean North America 7
"Pomoan North America 7
"Tacanan South America 7
"Arawan South America 6
"Baining "Oceania 6
"Barbacoan South America 6
"Chumashan North America 6
"East Strickland "Oceania 6
"Goilalan "Oceania 6
"Kadugli-Krongo Africa 6
"Kartvelian Eurasia 6
"Kiwaian "Oceania 6
"Kxa Africa 6
"Left May "Oceania 6
"Marind "Oceania 6
"Nambiquaran South America 6
"South Bird's Head Family "Oceania 6
"Wakashan North America 6
"Yeniseian Eurasia 6
"Zaparoan South America 6
"Abkhaz-Adyge Eurasia 5
"Caddoan North America 5
"Chukotko-Kamchatkan Eurasia 5
"Guahibo South America 5
"Guaicuruan South America 5
"Lengua-Mascoy South America 5
"Mirndi Australia 5
"Misumalpan North America 5
"Nimboran "Oceania 5
"Nuclear Eleman "Oceania 5
"Pauwasi "Oceania 5
"Sahaptian North America 5
"South Omotic Africa 5
"Tirio "Oceania 5
"West Bird's Head "Oceania 5
"Xincan North America 5
"Yanomam South America 5
"Yareban "Oceania 5
"Yuat "Oceania 5
"Chinookan North America 4
"Chonan South America 4
"Eastern Jebel Africa 4
"Eastern Trans-Fly "Oceania 4
"Huavean North America 4
"Iwaidjan Proper Australia 4
"Jivaroan South America 4
"Kamakanan South America 4
"Koman Africa 4
"Maiduan North America 4
"Mangarrayi-Maran Australia 4
"Maningrida Australia 4
"Mao Africa 4
"Nadahup South America 4
"North Bougainville "Oceania 4
"Sentani "Oceania 4
"Suki-Gogodala "Oceania 4
"Tama Africa 4
"Tangkic Australia 4
"Turama-Kikori "Oceania 4
"Walio "Oceania 4
"Yokutsan North America 4
"Yukaghir Eurasia 4
"Arafundi "Oceania 3
"Aymara South America 3
"Bororoan South America 3
"Cahuapanan South America 3
"Charruan South America 3
"Dizoid Africa 3
"East Bird's Head "Oceania 3
"Giimbiyu Australia 3
"Jarrakan Australia 3
"Kalapuyan North America 3
"Katla-Tima Africa 3
"Kawesqar South America 3
"Kayagar "Oceania 3
"Kolopom "Oceania 3
"Kuliak Africa 3
"Kwalean "Oceania 3
"Mairasi "Oceania 3
"Mongol-Langam "Oceania 3
"Peba-Yagua South America 3
"Puri South America 3
"Saliban South America 3
"Shastan North America 3
"Tsimshian North America 3
"West Bomberai "Oceania 3
"Yangmanic Australia 3
"Zamucoan South America 3
"Amto-Musan "Oceania 2
"Araucanian South America 2
"Awin-Pa "Oceania 2
"Baibai-Fas "Oceania 2
"Bayono-Awbono "Oceania 2
"Boran South America 2
"Bulaka River "Oceania 2
"Bunaban Australia 2
"Chimakuan North America 2
"Coosan North America 2
"Doso-Turumsa "Oceania 2
"Eastern Daly Australia 2
"East Kutubu "Oceania 2
"Etrusco-Rhaetian Eurasia 2
"Furan Africa 2
"Garrwan Australia 2
"Haida North America 2
"Harakmbut South America 2
"Hatam-Mansim "Oceania 2
"Hibito-Cholon South America 2
"Huarpean South America 2
"Hurro-Urartian Eurasia 2
"Inanwatan "Oceania 2
"Jarawa-Onge Eurasia 2
"Jicaquean North America 2
"Kakua-Nukak South America 2
"Kariri South America 2
"Katukinan South America 2
"Kaure-Narau "Oceania 2
"Keresan North America 2
"Konda-Yahadian "Oceania 2
"Koreanic Eurasia 2
"Kresh-Aja Africa 2
"Kwomtari "Oceania 2
"Lencan North America 2
"Lepki-Murkim "Oceania 2
"Limilngan Australia 2
"Manubaran "Oceania 2
"Marrku-Wurrugu Australia 2
"Mombum "Oceania 2
"Monumbo "Oceania 2
"Namla-Tofanma "Oceania 2
"North-Eastern Tasmanian Australia 2
"Northern Daly Australia 2
"Nyimang Africa 2
"Pahoturi "Oceania 2
"Palaihnihan North America 2
"Piawi "Oceania 2
"Rashad Africa 2
"Senagi "Oceania 2
"Somahai "Oceania 2
"South-Eastern Tasmanian Australia 2
"Southern Daly Australia 2
"Tarascan North America 2
"Taulil-Butam "Oceania 2
"Teberan "Oceania 2
"Temein Africa 2
"Tequistlatecan North America 2
"Ticuna-Yuri South America 2
"Uru-Chipaya South America 2
"Western Tasmanian Australia 2
"Wintuan North America 2
"Yawa "Oceania 2
"Yuki-Wappo North America 2
"Abinomn "Oceania 1
"Abun "Oceania 1
"Adai North America 1
"Aewa South America 1
"Aikanã South America 1
"Ainu (Japan) Eurasia 1
"Alsea North America 1
"Andaqui South America 1
"Andoque South America 1
"Anem "Oceania 1
"Ap Ma "Oceania 1
"Arutani South America 1
"Atacame South America 1
"Atakapa North America 1
"Banaro "Oceania 1
"Bangime Africa 1
"Basque Eurasia 1
"Beothuk North America 1
"Berta Africa 1
"Betoi South America 1
"Bilua "Oceania 1
"Birri Africa 1
"Bogaya "Oceania 1
"Burmeso "Oceania 1
"Burushaski Eurasia 1
"Camsá South America 1
"Candoshi-Shapra South America 1
"Canichana South America 1
"Cayubaba South America 1
"Cayuse North America 1
"Chimariko North America 1
"Chiquitano South America 1
"Chitimacha North America 1
"Chono South America 1
"Coahuilteco North America 1
"Cofán South America 1
"Comecrudo North America 1
"Cotoname North America 1
"Cuitlatec North America 1
"Culli South America 1
"Damal "Oceania 1
"Dem "Oceania 1
"Dibiyaso "Oceania 1
"Duna "Oceania 1
"Elamite Eurasia 1
"Elseng "Oceania 1
"Esselen North America 1
"Fasu "Oceania 1
"Fulniô South America 1
"Gagadu Australia 1
"Guachi South America 1
"Guaicurian North America 1
"Guamo South America 1
"Guató South America 1
"Gule Africa 1
"Gumuz Africa 1
"Guriaso "Oceania 1
"Hadza Africa 1
"Hattic Eurasia 1
"Hruso Eurasia 1
"Iberian Eurasia 1
"Irántxe South America 1
"Itonama South America 1
"Jalaa Africa 1
"Jirajaran South America 1
"Kaki Ae "Oceania 1
"Kamula "Oceania 1
"Kanoê South America 1
"Kapori "Oceania 1
"Karankawa North America 1
"Karok North America 1
"Kehu "Oceania 1
"Kembra "Oceania 1
"Kenaboi Eurasia 1
"Kibiri "Oceania 1
"Kimki "Oceania 1
"Klamath-Modoc North America 1
"Kol (Papua New Guinea) "Oceania 1
"Kosadle "Oceania 1
"Kujarge Africa 1
"Kunama Africa 1
"Kungarakany Australia 1
"Kunza South America 1
"Kuot "Oceania 1
"Kusunda Eurasia 1
"Kutenai North America 1
"Kwaza South America 1
"Laal Africa 1
"Lafofa Africa 1
"Laragia Australia 1
"Lavukaleve "Oceania 1
"Leco South America 1
"Lule South America 1
"Máku South America 1
"Maratino North America 1
"Massep "Oceania 1
"Matanawí South America 1
"Mato Grosso Arára South America 1
"Mawes "Oceania 1
"Maybrat "Oceania 1
"Meroitic Africa 1
"Mimi-Gaudefroy Africa 1
"Minkin Australia 1
"Mochica South America 1
"Molale North America 1
"Molof "Oceania 1
"Mor (Bomberai Peninsula) "Oceania 1
"Morori "Oceania 1
"Mosetén-Chimané South America 1
"Movima South America 1
"Mpur "Oceania 1
"Muniche South America 1
"Mure South America 1
"Nara Africa 1
"Natchez North America 1
"Nihali Eurasia 1
"Nivkh Eurasia 1
"Odiai "Oceania 1
"Omurano South America 1
"Ongota Africa 1
"Oti South America 1
"Otomaco South America 1
"Oyster Bay-Big River-Little Swanport Australia 1
"Páez South America 1
"Pankararú South America 1
"Papi "Oceania 1
"Pawaia "Oceania 1
"Payagua South America 1
"Pele-Ata "Oceania 1
"Pirahã South America 1
"Puelche South America 1
"Puinave South America 1
"Pumé South America 1
"Puquina South America 1
"Purari "Oceania 1
"Pyu "Oceania 1
"Ramanos South America 1
"Salinan North America 1
"Sandawe Africa 1
"Sapé South America 1
"Sause "Oceania 1
"Savosavo "Oceania 1
"Sechuran South America 1
"Seri North America 1
"Shabo Africa 1
"Shom Peng Eurasia 1
"Siuslaw North America 1
"Suarmin "Oceania 1
"Sulka "Oceania 1
"Sumerian Eurasia 1
"Tabo "Oceania 1
"Taiap "Oceania 1
"Takelma North America 1
"Tallán South America 1
"Tambora "Oceania 1
"Tanahmerah "Oceania 1
"Taruma South America 1
"Taushiro South America 1
"Timote-Cuica South America 1
"Timucua North America 1
"Tinigua South America 1
"Tiwi Australia 1
"Tonkawa North America 1
"Touo "Oceania 1
"Trumai South America 1
"Tunica North America 1
"Tuxá South America 1
"Umbugarla Australia 1
"Urarina South America 1
"Usku "Oceania 1
"Vilela South America 1
"Wadjiginy Australia 1
"Wageman Australia 1
"Waorani South America 1
"Warao South America 1
"Washo North America 1
"Wiru "Oceania 1
"Xukurú South America 1
"Yale "Oceania 1
"Yámana South America 1
"Yana North America 1
"Yele "Oceania 1
"Yerakai "Oceania 1
"Yetfa "Oceania 1
"Yuchi North America 1
"Yuracaré South America 1
"Yurumanguí South America 1
"Yuwana South America 1
"Zuni North America 1
"LSFic (sign) 32
"ASLic (sign) 20
"BSLic (sign) 10
"Arab Sign 6
"Russian Sign 6
"CSLic (sign) 5
"DGSic (sign) 4
"JSLic (sign) 3
"Old Chiangmai-Bangkok-Haiphong Sign 3
"Spanish Sign Language 3
"Paraguay-Uruguay Sign 2
"Providencia-Cayman Sign 2
"Afghan Sign Language 1
"Albanian Sign Language 1
"Argentine Sign Language 1
"Armenian Sign Language 1
"Bamako Sign Language 1
"Brazilian Sign Language 1
"Burkina Faso Sign Language 1
"Ecuadorian Sign Language 1
"Estonian Sign Language 1
"Guatemalan Sign Language 1
"Hausa Sign Language 1
"Indian Sign Language 1
"Kenyan Sign Language 1
"Lyons Sign Language 1
"Maltese Sign Language 1
"Mauritian Sign Language 1
"Mofu-Gudur Sign Language 1
"Mozambican Sign Language 1
"Nepalese Sign Language 1
"Pakistan Sign Language 1
"Penang Sign Language 1
"Persian Sign Language 1
"Rennellese Sign Language 1
"Salvadoran Sign Language 1
"Saudi Arabian Sign Language 1
"Sri Lankan Sign Language 1
"Tanzanian Sign Language 1
"Tijuana Sign Language 1
"Turkish Sign Language 1
"Venezuelan Sign Language 1
"Yoruba Sign Language 1
"Zambian Sign Language 1
"Zimbabwe Sign Language 1
"Adamorobe Sign Language 1
"Alipur Sign Language 1
"Al-Sayyid Bedouin Sign Language 1
"Ban Khor Sign Language 1
"Bengkala Sign Language 1
"Bribri Sign Language 1
"Brunca Sign Language 1
"Bura Sign Language 1
"Chatino Sign Language 1
"Enga Sign Language 1
"Ghandruk Sign Language 1
"Ghardaia Sign Language 1
"Guinea-Bissau Sign Language 1
"Inuit Sign Language 1
"Jamaican Country Sign Language 1
"Jhankot Sign Language 1
"Jumla Sign Language 1
"Kajana Sign Language 1
"Keresan Pueblo Indian Sign Language 1
"Mardin Sign Language 1
"Martha's Vineyard Sign Language 1
"Mbour Sign Language 1
"Nanabin Sign Language 1
"Nicaraguan Sign Language 1
"Old Kentish Sign Language 1
"Original Costa Rican Sign Language 1
"Tebul Sign Language 1
"Urubú-Kaapor Sign Language 1
"Yolngu Sign Language 1
"Yucatec Maya Sign Language 1

Creoles are classified with the language that supplied their basic "lexicon.

In addition to languages classified into families, Glottolog recognizes 79 "pidgins (including one sign pidgin), 24 "mixed languages, 8 "artificial languages, 9 "speech registers (including 3 "auxiliary sign systems), 118 attested but "unclassifiable languages (including 2 sign languages), 61 unattested languages, and 270 "spurious languages (such as retired ISO entries, and including 3 sign languages) kept for bookkeeping purposes.

References[edit]

  1. ^ See for example the bookkeeping section for ISO languages that Glottolog has deemed to be spurious distinctions.
    This discrimination does not apply to dialects, many of which have been inherited from "MultiTree or other sources without verification.
  2. ^ Sign languages are listed together, including those grouped typologically as "village sign languages, as are pidgins and unclassified languages, but without a claim that they are necessarily related.
  3. ^ Geographic regions include "Papunesia" (a portmanteau of Papua (New Guinea) and Austronesia), which refers to the islands of Insular Southeast Asia and Oceania.

External links[edit]

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