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Gotthard Base Tunnel
""20141120 gotthard-basistunnel02-wikipedia-hannes-ortlieb.jpg
Turnout at Faido multifunction station
Overview
Official name "German: Gotthard-Basistunnel
"Italian: Galleria di base del San Gottardo
"Romansh: Tunnel da basa dal Son Gottard
Line "Gotthard Line
Location "Switzerland ("Uri, "Graubünden, and "Ticino)
"Coordinates 46°36′00″N 8°45′54″E / 46.600°N 8.765°E / 46.600; 8.765"Coordinates: 46°36′00″N 8°45′54″E / 46.600°N 8.765°E / 46.600; 8.765
Status Active since 11 December 2016[1]
System "Swiss Federal Railways (SBB CFF FFS)
Crosses "Alps (western "Glarus Alps and central "Lepontine Alps at the eastern "Gotthard Massif)
Start "Erstfeld, "canton of Uri (north, 460 m (1,510 ft))
End "Bodio, "canton of Ticino (south, 312 m (1,024 ft))
Operation
Work begun 4 November 1999[2]
Opened 1 June 2016[3]
Owner "SBB Infrastructure
Operator SBB CFF FFS
Traffic Railway
Character Passenger and freight
Technical
Length 151.840 km (94.349 mi)[4]
Line length 57.09 km (35.47 mi)[4]
Track length 57.104 km (35.483 mi) (east tunnel)
57.017 km (35.429 mi) (west tunnel)[4]
No. of "tracks 2 "single-track tubes[4]
"Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) ("standard gauge)
"Electrified "15 kV 16.7 Hz
Operating speed Up to 250 km/h (160 mph)
Highest elevation 549 m (1,801 ft)[4]
Lowest elevation 312 m (1,024 ft) (south portal)[4]
"Tunnel clearance 5.20 m (17.1 ft) from top of rail to overhead conductor[4]
"Grade max 4.055 ‰ (north), max 6.76 ‰ (south)[4]
Route map
""Route map

The Gotthard Base Tunnel (GBT; German: Gotthard-Basistunnel, Italian: Galleria di base del San Gottardo, Romansh: Tunnel da basa dal Son Gottard) is a railway "tunnel through the "Alps in Switzerland. It opened on 1 June 2016, and full service began on 11 December 2016.[5][6] With a route length of 57.09 km (35.5 mi),[4] it is the "world's longest and deepest traffic tunnel[7][8][9] and the first flat, low-level route through the Alps.[10] It lies at the heart of the "Gotthard axis and constitutes the third tunnel connecting the cantons of "Uri and "Ticino, after the "Gotthard Tunnel and the "Gotthard Road Tunnel.

The link consists of two "single-track tunnels connecting "Erstfeld (Uri) with "Bodio (Ticino) and passing below "Sedrun ("Graubünden). It is part of the "New Railway Link through the Alps (NRLA) project, which also includes the "Ceneri Base Tunnel further south (scheduled to open late 2020) and the "Lötschberg Base Tunnel on the other main north-south axis. It is referred to as a ""base tunnel" since it bypasses most of the existing "Gotthard railway line, a winding mountain route opened in 1882 across the "Saint-Gotthard Massif, which was operating at its capacity before the opening of the GBT. The new base tunnel establishes a direct route usable by "high-speed rail and heavy freight trains.[11]

The main purpose of the Gotthard Base Tunnel is to increase local transport capacity through the Alpine barrier, especially for freight, notably on the "Rotterdam–Basel–Genoa corridor, and more specifically to shift freight volumes from trucks to freight trains. This both significantly reduces the danger of fatal road crashes involving trucks, and reduces the "environmental damage caused by heavy "trucks. The tunnel provides a faster connection between the canton of Ticino and the rest of Switzerland, as well as between northern and southern Europe, cutting the "Basel/"Zürich–"Lugano–"Milan journey time for passenger trains by one hour (and from "Lucerne to "Bellinzona by 45 minutes).[12]

After 64 percent of Swiss voters accepted the NRLA project in "a 1992 referendum, first preparatory and exploratory work began in 1996. The official start of construction began on 4 November 1999 at "Amsteg.[13] Drilling operations in the eastern tunnel were completed on 15 October 2010 in a breakthrough ceremony broadcast live on Swiss TV,[14] and in the western tunnel on 23 March 2011. The tunnel's constructor, AlpTransit Gotthard AG, originally planned to hand over the tunnel to "Swiss Federal Railways (SBB CFF FFS) in operating condition in December 2016[15] but, on 4 February 2014, the handover date was changed to 5 June 2016 with the start of an 850-day opening countdown calendar on the AlpTransit homepage.[3] As of 1998, the total projected cost of the project was "CHF 6.323 billion; as of December 2015, the final cost is projected as CHF 9.560 billion.[16] Nine people died during construction.[17]

Contents

Background[edit]

Since the 13th century, the 2,106 metre-high Gotthard Pass has been an important trade route from northern to southern Europe. Control of its access routes led to the birth of the "Swiss Confederacy. The Gotthard Pass is located halfway between "Lake Lucerne and "Lake Maggiore. It is the shortest link between the navigable "Rhine and the "Po. The traverse of the pass took days.[18]

Quite late, compared to other pass routes through the Alps on a north-south axis (e.g. "Simplon, "San Bernardino, "Brenner), namely in 1822, the first Saint-Gotthard Pass road was established after centuries-long usage of a "bridle path. From 1842 onwards, a daily course by the Gotthard Post, a stagecoach drawn by five horses with ten seats, still took about 23 hours from "Como to "Flüelen.

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"The Gotthard Post" on the Tremola (1873 by "Rudolf Koller)

In 1882, with the inauguration of the "Gotthard Railway Tunnel, the travel time between "Altdorf and "Biasca was reduced dramatically to only hours, though often accompanied with overnight stays in huge "Fin de siècle-hotels, for example in Biasca. In those days, it was still an adventure and it was only affordable to the very rich.

In the autumn of 1921, the final stagecoach traversed the pass.

Electrification of the railway line in 1922 significally reduced travel time even more. Refilling water boilers of steam locomotives was no longer necessary. There were also the technical advantages of electrical engines and future technical improvements.

It is said that the first car traversed the pass in 1895. The first reported surmounting of the pass in 1901 still took more than a day.

From 1924, car transport on trains through the railway tunnel began. The sections between "Göschenen and "Andermatt, the "Schöllenen ravine, and especially the Tremola, had countless hairpin turns and serpentine curves from the peak of the pass to "Airolo on the southern side of the pass, dropping 1,000 metres (3,300 ft) in altitude, posing a huge challenge for automobiles.

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Cars transport on trains in the 1930s

From 1953 onwards, the pass road was sequentially improved and expanded at several sections along the Gotthard route, finally ending in 1977 with the opening of an expressway fully circumventing the Tremola.

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The old pass road, the Tremola

Transit time was further dramatically reduced with the opening of the "Gotthard Road Tunnel and the finalization of the northern part of "A2 motorway through the Urner Reusstal, with many additional tunnels (then leading from Basel to the Gotthard Road Tunnel), in 1980. With the completion in 1986 of the A2 motorway in the "Valle Leventina, the huge valley leading from Airolo down to "Bellinzona, and the surmounting of the "Monte Ceneri between Bellinzona and "Lugano in 1983, finally a continuous motorway was established from the northern border of Switzerland in "Basel to the southern border in "Chiasso, or the shortest motorway route from North-German "Hamburg as far as South-Italian "Sicilly, bringing down the competitiveness of the railway line.[19]

Today, both the rail and the road routes are among the most important passages through the Alps on the north-south axis.

After the opening of the auto tunnel, in 1980, traffic increased more than tenfold. The existing tunnel was at its capacity by 2013.[20] A second tunnel will be built next to the first, following a national referendum.[21][22] Construction is to start in 2020 and finish in 2027.

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Relative location and size of Gotthard Tunnel (1882) and Gotthard Base Tunnel (2016) both yellow. Red: open-air rail

As early as 1947, engineer "Eduard Gruner imagined a two-story base tunnel from "Amsteg to Biasca, both rail and road, with a stop at Sedrun, to provide a faster and flatter passage through the "Swiss Alps. Similarly to Gruner's idea, the GBT cuts through the "Gotthard Massif some 600 m (2,000 ft) below the older tunnel. On the historic track the Gotthard Railway only trains up to 1,300 "t (1,400 "short tons; 1,300 "long tons)[23] when using two locomotives or up to 1,500 t (1,700 short tons; 1,500 long tons) with an additional "bank engine at the end of the train are able to pass through the narrow mountain valleys and through "spiral tunnels climbing up to the portals of the old tunnel at a height of 1,151 m (3,776 ft) above sea level. Since the GBT is in full service, standard freight trains of up to 3,600 t (4,000 short tons; 3,500 long tons) are able to pass this natural barrier.

Because of ever-increasing international truck traffic, Swiss voters chose a shift in transportation policy in September 1992 by accepting the NRLA proposal. A second law, the Alpine Protection Act of February 1994,[24] requires a shift of as much tonnage as possible from truck transport to train transport.

The goal of both the laws is to transport trucks, trailers and freight containers through Switzerland, from "Basel to "Chiasso, and beyond by rail to relieve the overused roads, and that of the "Gotthard in particular, by using "intermodal freight transport and "rolling highways (where the entire truck is transported). The GBT substantially contributes to the requirements of both laws and enables a direct flat route from the ports of the "North Sea (notably Rotterdam) to those of the "Mediterranean Sea (notably Genoa), via the Rhine corridor.

Passenger trains can travel up to 250 km/h (155 mph) through the GBT, currently reducing travel times for trans-Alpine train journeys by about 40 minutes, and by one hour once the adjacent "Zimmerberg and "Ceneri Base Tunnels are completed. This is viewed as a revolution, especially in the isolated region of Ticino, which is separated from the rest of the country by the Alps and the Gotthard. The two stations of "Bellinzona and "Lugano (respectively named "Gate of Ticino" and "Terrace of Ticino") were entirely renovated for the opening of the GBT, among other improvements.

As of 2016, the Gotthard Base Tunnel is the "longest railway tunnel in the world. It is the third Swiss tunnel to bear this title, after the "Gotthard Tunnel (15 km, 1882) and the "Simplon Tunnel (19.8 km, 1905).[25] It is the third tunnel built under the Gotthard, after the Gotthard Tunnel and the Gotthard Road Tunnel.

Description[edit]

The Gotthard Base Tunnel is, with a length of 57.09 kilometres (35.47 mi) and a total of 151.84 km (94.3 mi) of tunnels, shafts and passages, the "longest railway tunnel in the world,[note 1] with a "geodetic distance of 55.782 kilometres (34.661 mi) between the two portals.[4][8] It is also the first flat route through the "Alps or any other major mountain range, with a maximum height of 549 metres (1,801 ft) above sea level,[4] corresponding to that of "Berne. It is the deepest railway tunnel in the world, with a maximum depth of 2,450 metres (8,040 ft),[4] comparable to that of the "deepest mines on Earth. Without ventilation, the temperature inside the mountain reaches 46 °C (115 °F).[4]

Like the two other tunnels passing below the Gotthard, the Gotthard Base Tunnel connects two Alpine valleys across the "Saint-Gotthard Massif: the Urner Reusstal in the "canton of Uri, in which flows the river "Reuss, and the "Valle Leventina, the largest valley in the canton of "Ticino, in which the river "Ticino flows. Unlike most other tunnels, the Gotthard Base Tunnel passes under several distinct mountain massifs, two of them being major subranges of the Alps, the "Glarus Alps and the "Saint-Gotthard Massif, with the valley of the "Anterior Rhine, the "Surselva in the "canton of Graubünden, between them. The tunnel passes under these two ranges more than 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) below the "Chrüzlistock (2,709 m (8,888 ft)) and the "Piz Vatgira (2,983 m (9,787 ft), near the "Lukmanier Pass). While the cantons of Uri and Ticino are part of the German- and Italian-speaking areas of Switzerland respectively, the Surselva is mainly "Romansh-speaking.

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The north and south portals on the same spring day. Note the prevalence of coniferous trees and snow at the north portal and the absence of them at the south portal.

The Alps strongly influence the "European climate – and that of "Switzerland in particular – and there can be substantially different weather conditions at each end of the GBT, described by the Ticinese architect "Mario Botta: "The light changes at the Gotthard: that of the Mediterranean Sea is not the same as that of the continent, that of the central lands, that of Europe far away from the sea."[26] On average, the temperature is 2 to 3 °C (4–5 °F) higher on the south side than the north side, but on some days, temperature differences are well over 10 °C (18 °F).[note 2]

The north portal lies in the north of the municipality of "Erstfeld at an elevation of 460 metres (1,510 ft), east of the Reuss. There, the tunnel penetrates the western slopes of the "Bälmeten and "Chli Windgällen (although only marginally) before passing below the valley of the Chärstelenbach, a creek in the "Maderanertal. From there, the tunnel runs parallel to the small valley of Etzli, below the "Witenalpstock. The main crest of the Glarus Alps, which is the watershed between the Reuss and the Anterior Rhine, is crossed below the "Chrüzlistock, the crest having an elevation of about 2,700 metres (8,900 ft) at this point. From the crest and border, the tunnel runs parallel to the small valley of the river Strem (Val Strem) before passing below "Sedrun and the Anterior Rhine. From the bottom of the valley, the tunnel proceeds towards the valley of the Rein da Nalps (Val Nalps) and passes east of "Lai da Nalps, before crossing the Gannaretsch range below the western summit of "Piz Vatgira (2,981 metres (9,780 ft)). This is the deepest point of the tunnel, with a rock layer of 2,450 metres (8,040 ft) above it. The tunnel then passes below the valley of the Rein da Medel (Val Medel) and west of "Lai da Sontga Maria. After a few kilometres the tunnel crosses the watershed between the Anterior Rhine and the Ticino, just north of "Pizzo dell'Uomo (2,525 metres (8,284 ft)). This point corresponds to the "main chain of the Alps, and is the main drainage divide between the "Rhine and the "Po. For a few kilometres, the tunnel passes below two western tributaries of the "Brenno in the "Valle Santa Maria before crossing the last range, west of the "Passo Predèlp (about 2,500 metres (8,200 ft)) and east of "Faido. It then follows the eastern slopes of the large "Valle Leventina, the valley of the Ticino, for about 18 kilometres (11 mi) to the south portal at "Bodio, at an elevation of 312 metres (1,024 ft), just 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) before "Biasca, where the Brenno converges with the Ticino.[note 3]

The closest railway stations to the portals are "Altdorf and "Biasca. The first regularly served railway stations on the base line (as of 2016/17) are those of "Arth-Goldau ("Schwyz), a railway node with links to "Lucerne and "Zürich, and "Bellinzona (the "Gate of Ticino"), with links to "Locarno, "Luino and "Lugano (via the "Monte Ceneri Rail Tunnel). The journey from Arth-Goldau to Bellinzona takes not more than an hour. The station of Altdorf is planned to be served by 2021. There also have been talks of using that of Biasca. The travel between Altdorf and Biasca would last less than 25 minutes.

Accesses to the GBT complex
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Erstfeld, north portal, 460 m a.s.l. 
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Amsteg portal (maintenance access), 507 m a.s.l. 
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Sedrun portal (maintenance access, bridge over the Anterior Rhine), 1334 m a.s.l. 
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Faido portal (maintenance access), 757 m a.s.l. 
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Biasca, south portal, 312 m a.s.l. 

Construction[edit]

AlpTransit Gotthard AG was responsible for construction. It is a wholly owned subsidiary of the "Swiss Federal Railways (SBB CFF FFS).

To cut construction time in half, four access tunnels were built so that construction could start at four different sites simultaneously: Erstfeld, Amsteg, Sedrun, and Faido. A fifth at Bodio was added later. The two tunnels are joined approximately every 325 m (1,066 ft) by connecting galleries. Trains can move between the tunnels in the two multifunction stations at "Sedrun and "Faido. These stations house ventilation equipment and technical infrastructure and serve as emergency stops and evacuation routes.[11]

Access to the Sedrun station site is by a level access tunnel 1 km (0.6 mi) long from the valley floor near Sedrun. At the end of the access tunnel, two vertical shafts lead 800 m (2,625 ft) down to the base tunnel level. A proposal to construct a functioning railway station, called "Porta Alpina (from "Romansh, "Alpine Gate"), at this site was evaluated, but the project was put on hold in 2007 and definitively cancelled by the federal authorities in 2012 as uneconomical.[30]

The final breakthrough in the east tube occurred on 15 October 2010 at 14:17 +02:00.[31] The final breakthrough in the west tube occurred on 23 March 2011 at 12:20.[32][33]

On 30 August 2013, the tunnel was entirely traversed for the first time from Bodio to Erstfeld in six hours, by diesel train, buses and by foot.[34]

On 16 December 2013, the operational test phase started on a 13-kilometre (8.1 mi) stretch in the southern section of the west tube between Faido and Bodio. Its purpose was to test the infrastructure and any ancillary systems.[35]

On 31 October 2014, the railway track installation was completed. A gold "sleeper on the very last part of the track was installed during the event to mark this milestone of progress.[36][37]

On 1 October 2015, following the permission by the Federal Office of Transport, the first tests on the entire length of the GBT were performed, with steadily increasing speed. On 8 November, a train reached the top speed of 275 km/h.[38]

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Gotthard Base Tunnel diagram, the new railway link through the Alps NRLA (green: excavation direction).

Allocation of work[edit]

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Aerial view of the Erstfeld area (north portal) in 2009

The contracts were awarded in sections:

Deaths during construction[edit]

Nine workers lost their lives during construction; one in the Amsteg section, two in the Sedrun section, and three each in the southernmost Faido and Bodio sections.[17] They were:

Date Nationality Details
8 June 2000 German Hit by a boring bar that fell 700 metres (2,300 ft).[47]
12 March 2002 South African Buried by excavation material.[48]
3 April 2003 German Hit by a rock.[49]
11 September 2003 Austrian Crushed by a toppling cable drum.[50][51]
21 January 2005 Italian (1)
Swiss (1)
Hit in a mine train collision.[52][53]
23 November 2006 German Crushed by a mine train.[54]
24 June 2010 German Catapulted from an inspection train.[55]
16 July 2012 Italian Fell from a scaffold.[56]

Politics[edit]

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The "Porta Alpina project, of which a window remains in sight in the Sedrun station, was largely accepted in a referendum, despite being later abandoned.[57]

The realization of the GBT, as the centrepiece of the "NRLA, is also a prototypical example of "direct democracy in Switzerland. In order to accomplish this mega-project the "political institutions also had to overcome many parliamentary sessions and several major "popular votes, including the following:[58]

Opening events[edit]

Inauguration and commissioning[edit]

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Inauguration days, where the public was allowed to experience high-speed travel below the Alps for the first time, and to move quickly between the exhibitions held in Erstfeld and Bodio.

In 2016, several events, including festivities and special exhibitions, were held around the Gotthard, culminating in the inaugurations in early June, dubbed Gottardo 2016. Public institutions joined the celebrations: "Swiss Post issued a special "stamp commemorating the Gotthard Base Tunnel,[71][72] and "Swissmint issued gold and silver coins dedicated to the opening.

On 31 May 2016, a day before the inauguration, the nine people who died during construction were commemorated in a ceremony at the north portal in "Erstfeld that was led by a Catholic "vicar general, a vicar of the "Evangelical-Reformed Church of Uri, a Jewish rabbi, and a Muslim imam. A bronze memorial plaque with their names — four coming from Germany, three from Italy, and one from each of South Africa and Austria – was unveiled by AlpTransit Gotthard AG CEO Renzo Simoni.[17] A Catholic shrine to "Saint Barbara, the patron of miners, stands inside the tunnel as a memorial.[73]

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Sedrun multifunction station viewed from the control cab of a Gottardino train.

The tunnel was officially inaugurated on 1 June 2016.[73] At the northern entrance in Erstfeld, President of the Confederation "Johann Schneider-Ammann spoke of a "giant step for Switzerland but equally for our neighbours and the rest of the continent", while a live relay carried a speech given by Transport Minister "Doris Leuthard at the southern entrance in "Bodio. The first journey carried hundreds of Swiss citizens who had won tickets in a draw, while the assembled guests in Erstfeld, including the Federal Council in corpore, heads of state and government from neighbouring countries and transport ministers from European countries, attended the opening show Sacre del Gottardo by "Volker Hesse featuring 600 dancers, acrobats, singers and musicians celebrating Alpine culture and "myths around the Gotthard.[73] On the following weekend, popular festivities and special exhibitions, attended by more than 100,000 visitors, were held.

From 2 August to 27 November 2016, the "Swiss Federal Railways ran a special train service through the tunnel called "Gottardino" which was open to the public. It was a once-daily service from "Flüelen railway station to "Biasca railway station and in reverse. The trains made a stop inside the tunnel, to allow passengers to visit an exhibition inside the underground multifunction station in "Sedrun which would normally be used in emergency only.[74]

Regular services[edit]

During 2016, the GBT was tested extensively[75][76] before its integration into the regular schedule on 11 December.[77] On 5 December, the "Swiss Federal Railways were granted permission from the Federal Transport Office to use the new base line. While the base tunnel is used for InterCity trains ("ICN) and EuroCity trains ("EC), the summit line remains in use for regional trains.[75] From 2019 onwards, the Gotthard axis will be served by the "Stadler EC250 (Giruno), high-speed train and future flagship of the "SBB fleet.

From the Amsteg portal, guided tours are organised inside the Gotthard Base Tunnel complex. A window allows visitors to watch the trains running in the tunnel.

Figures[edit]

Route overview
km
to
"Luzern, "Zürich &
northern Europe
0
"Altdorf
4.4
North portal
"Erstfeld
12.2
Erstfeld section
23.5
Amsteg section
32.0
Sedrun
multifunction
station
45.5
Faido
multifunction
station
"Bodio
61.4
South portal
"Biasca
69.2
to Italy
("Bellinzona, Locarno & Lugano)
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Integration of the portals into the landscape.
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The new 4 km long open-air section from Rynächt to the north portal.
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Start of the new 7 km long open-air section from Giustizia to the south portal.
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The "Pollegio Control Centre (near the south portal) with one of the four used "TBM cutter heads on display

Ridership[edit]

After the opening of the tunnel there was an increase of passenger crossing the trans-alpine line, with 2.3 million passengers in the first 8 months, an increase of 30% over the previous year.[82]

As of August 2017, an average of 10,400 people cross the tunnel daily. Train services from Italy to Switzerland through the line are expected to become faster from 2020, with the opening of the "Ceneri Base Tunnel, with an expected further increase in passenger numbers.[83] There are plans for a train service between "Zurich and "Milan with a journey time of 2:45 hours, down from 3:50 hours.[82]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Excluding subway tunnels that lie near the surface; see also: "List of longest subway tunnel sections
  2. ^ See the climate tables of "Altdorf and "Grono, two towns situated near each end of the tunnel. See also normals/climate-diagrams-and- normal-values-per-station.html?region=Map Climate diagrams and normal values per station ("MeteoSwiss).
  3. ^ See "Swisstopo topographic maps with catchment areas layer: map.geo.admin.ch.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Commissioning". Lucerne, Switzerland: AlpTransit Gotthard AG. Retrieved 12 May 2016. 
  2. ^ "Construction begins". Berne, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Archives SFA, Swiss Federal Office of Transport FOT, Swiss Confederation. 2016. Retrieved 4 July 2016. 
  3. ^ a b "155 days until opening". Lucerne, Switzerland: AlpTransit Gotthard AG. Archived from the original on 21 March 2015. Retrieved 29 December 2015. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v "Project data – raw construction Gotthard Base Tunnel" (PDF). Lucerne, Switzerland: AlpTransit Gotthard AG. 1 June 2016. Retrieved 2016-12-15. 
  5. ^ "Über und durch den Gotthard – eine Zeitreise durch die Jahrhunderte" (in German). Zurich, Switzerland: "SRF Swiss Radio and Television. 1 June 2016. Retrieved 4 June 2016. 
  6. ^ "World's longest and deepest rail tunnel to open in Switzerland". BBC News. Retrieved 1 June 2016. 
  7. ^ "Gotthard- und CeneriBasistunnel: die neue Gotthard-Bahn nimmt Gestalt an" (PDF). Geomatik Schweiz. Retrieved 8 June 2015. 
  8. ^ a b "Wer hat die grösste Röhre?" [Who has the longest tube?]. "Tages-Anzeiger (graphical animation) (in German). Zurich, Switzerland. 14 April 2016. Retrieved 11 May 2016. 
  9. ^ "Gotthard tunnel: World's longest and deepest rail tunnel opens in Switzerland". "BBC News. 1 June 2016. Retrieved 1 June 2016. 
  10. ^ Yücel Erdem, Tülin Solak, Underground Space Use. Analysis of the Past and Lessons for the Future, CRC Press, 2005 (p. 485)
  11. ^ a b Malins, Richard (December 2010). "Crossing the Alps". "Modern Railways. London. pp. 79–81. "ISSN 0026-8356.  (subscription required)
  12. ^ Monnat, Lucie (11 December 2014). "Le tunnel de base du Gothard révolutionnera le rail dans deux ans". "24 heures. "Lausanne. Retrieved 7 June 2015. 
  13. ^ "Chronology of a Project of the Century: Milestones in the Construction History up to 2010" (PDF). Lucerne, Switzerland: AlpTransit Gotthard AG. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 March 2012. Retrieved 20 April 2013. 
  14. ^ "Swiss create world's longest tunnel". BBC News. 15 October 2010. Retrieved 15 October 2010. 
  15. ^ "Gotthard Base Tunnel to be operational from 2016". Lucerne, Switzerland: AlpTransit Gotthard AG. 22 August 2011. Archived from the original on 16 November 2011. Retrieved 12 November 2011. 
  16. ^ a b National Councillor Thomas Müller, Councillor of State Isidor Baumann (29 April 2016). "Oberaufsicht über den Bau der Neat im Jahre 2015: Bericht der Neat-Aufsichtsdelegation der eidgenössischen Räte zuhanden der Finanzkommissionen, der Geschäftsprüfungskommissionen und der Kommissionen für Verkehr und Fernmeldewesen" (PDF). Bundesblatt (in German, French, and Italian). 2016 (16.005). NRLA supervisory board of the federal councils: 6686. BBl 2016 6665 (-6732). Retrieved 2017-06-06. 
  17. ^ a b c "Memorial ceremony for deceased tunnel workers". Lucerne, Switzerland: AlpTransit Gotthard AG. 31 May 2016. 
  18. ^ Tellier, Luc-Normand (2009). Urban World History: An Economic and Geographical Perspective. Quebec City, Canada: Presses de l'Université du Québec. p. 314. 
  19. ^ "Radio Télévision Suisse (5 December 2016). "Trois heures en 20 ans, le temps gagné pour traverser l'Europe par le Gothard" (in French). Retrieved 2017-07-05. 
  20. ^ Cendrowicz, Leo (20 October 2010). "Switzerland Celebrates World's Longest Rail Tunnel". "Time. time.com. Retrieved 11 April 2013. 
  21. ^ Jorio, Luigi (2016-01-06). "Opposing views on doubling the Gotthard tunnel – SWI". Swissinfo.ch. Retrieved 5 March 2016. 
  22. ^ http://www.thelocal.ch/20160229/voters-give-green-light-to-new-gotthard-road-tunnel
  23. ^ "SBB-CFF-FFS Re 420 locomotive" (private fan site) (in German). Lokifahrer.ch. 23 August 2010. Retrieved 2017-12-18. 
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