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Indian Cultural Sphere
Greater India
""Indian cultural zone.svg
Indian cultural extent
Dark orange: The "Indian subcontinent ("India, "Pakistan, "Bangladesh, "Sri Lanka, "Maldives, "Nepal and "Bhutan).
Light orange: Southeast Asia culturally linked to India, notably "Burma, "Thailand, "Cambodia, "Laos, "Champa ("Southern Vietnam), "Indonesia, "Malaysia, and "Brunei.
Yellow: Regions with significant Indian cultural influence, notably China's "Yunnan, "Tibet, the "Philippines and historically "Afghanistan.
"Southeast Asia
Indianized kingdoms



"Hinduism

"Architecture

"Epigraphy
"Champa, "Dvaravati, "Funan, "Gangga Negara, "Chenla, "Kalingga, "Kutai, "Majapahit, "Langkasuka, "Pagan, "Pan Pan, "Srivijaya, "Tarumanagara

"Devaraja, "Harihara

"Angkor, "Borobodur

"Sanskrit, "Pali, "Tamil
"South Asia
"Buddhism "Bangladesh, "Bhutan, "Nepal, "Tibet, "Sri Lanka
"Hinduism "Bangladesh, "Bhutan, "Nepal, "Tibet, "Pakistan, "Sri Lanka
"East Asia
"Buddhism transmitted to East Asia "China, "Japan, "Korea, "Mongolia, "Tibet
"Central Asia
"Buddhist monasticism "Central Asia ("Afghanistan · "Uzbekistan)
"Indosphere  · "Hindu texts  · "Buddhist texts  · "Folklore of India  · "Ramayana ("Versions of Ramayana)

The term Greater India is most commonly used to encompass the historical and geographic extent of all political entities of the "Indian subcontinent, and the regions which are culturally linked to India or received significant Indian cultural influence. These countries have to varying degrees been transformed by the acceptance and induction of cultural and institutional elements of "India. Since around 500 BCE, Asia's expanding land and "maritime trade had resulted in prolonged socio-economic and cultural stimulation and diffusion of Hindu and Buddhist beliefs into the region's cosmology, in particular in "Southeast Asia and "Sri Lanka.[1] In "Central Asia, transmission of ideas were predominantly of a religious nature.[2]

By the early centuries of the "common era most of the principalities of "Southeast Asia had effectively absorbed defining aspects of Hindu culture, religion and administration. The notion of divine god-kingship was introduced by the concept of "Harihara, Sanskrit and other Indian "epigraphic systems were declared "official, like those of the south Indian "Pallava dynasty and "Chalukya dynasty.[3][4] These Indianized Kingdoms, a term coined by "George Cœdès in his work Histoire ancienne des états hindouisés d'Extrême-Orient[5], were characterized by surprising resilience, political integrity and administrative stability.[6]

To the north, Indian religious ideas were accepted into the cosmology of Himalayan peoples, most profoundly in Tibet and Bhutan. Buddhist monasticism extended into Afghanistan, Uzbekistan and other parts of Central Asia, and Buddhist texts and ideas were readily accepted in China and Japan in the east.[7] To the west, Indian culture converged with "Greater Persia via the "Hindukush and the "Pamir Mountains.[8]

Contents

Other uses[edit]

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The 9th-century Shivaistic temple of "Prambanan in "Central Java near "Yogyakarta, the largest Hindu temple in "Indonesia

European designations[edit]

The concept of the Three Indias was in common circulation in pre-industrial Europe. Greater India was the southern part of South Asia, Lesser India was the northern part of South Asia, and Middle India was the region near the Middle East.[9] The Portuguese form ("Portuguese: India Maior[9][10][11][12]) was used at least since the mid-15th century.[10] The term, which seems to have been used with variable precision,[13] sometimes meant only the Indian subcontinent;[14] Europeans used a variety of terms related to South Asia to designate the South Asian peninsula, including High India, Greater India, Exterior India and India aquosa.[15]

However, in some accounts of European nautical voyages, Greater India (or India Major) extended from the "Malabar Coast (present-day "Kerala) to India extra Gangem[16] (lit. "India, beyond the Ganges," but usually the "East Indies, i.e. present-day "Malay Archipelago) and India Minor, from Malabar to "Sind.[17] Farther India was sometimes used to cover all of modern Southeast Asia.[15] Until the fourteenth century, India could also mean areas along the Red Sea, including Somalia, South Arabia, and Ethiopia (e.g., Diodorus of Sicily of the first century BCE says that "the Nile rises in India" and Marco Polo of the fourteenth century says that "Lesser India ... contains ... Abash [Abyssinia]")[18]

In late 19th-century geography, Greater India referred to "British India, "Hindustan (Northwestern Subcontinent) which included the "Punjab, the "Himalayas, and extended eastwards to "Indochina (including Tibet and Burma), parts of Indonesia (namely, the "Sunda Islands, "Borneo and "Celebes), and the "Philippines."[19] German atlases distinguished Vorder-Indien (Anterior India) as the South Asian peninsula and Hinter-Indien as Southeast Asia.[15]

Geology[edit]

Greater India, or Greater India Basin signifies "the "Indian Plate plus a postulated northern extension", the product of the Indian–Asia collision.[20] Although its usage in geology pre-dates "Plate tectonic theory,[21] the term has seen increased usage since the 1970s.

It is unknown when and where the India–Asia (Indian and "Eurasian Plate) convergence occurred, at or before 52 Million years ago. The plates have converged up to 3,600 km (2,200 mi) ± 35 km (22 mi). The upper crustal shortening is documented from geological record of Asia and the Himalaya as up to approximately 2,350 km (1,460 mi) less.[22]

Nationalist movement[edit]

Here the use of Greater India refers to a popularization by a network of Bengali scholars in the 1920s who were all members of the Calcutta-based Greater India Society. The movement's early leaders included the historian "R. C. Majumdar (1888–1980), the philologists "Suniti Kumar Chatterji (1890–1977) and "P. C. Bagchi (1898–1956), and the historians Phanindranath Bose and "Kalidas Nag (1891–1966).[23]

The term Greater India, whether aligned or separate from the notion of ancient Hindu expansion into Southeast Asia, was linked to both "Indian nationalism[24] and "Hindu nationalism.[25]

Indianization[edit]

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Ruins of "Ayutthaya in Thailand which was named after "Ayodhya

The concept of the Indianized kingdoms, a term coined by "George Coedès, describes "Southeast Asian "principalities that flourished since the early common era as a result of centuries of socio-economic interaction having incorporated central aspects of Indian institutions, religion, statecraft, administration, culture, epigraphy, literature and architecture.[26][27]

Iron Age trade expansion caused regional "geostrategic remodeling. Southeast Asia was now situated in the central area of convergence of the Indian and the East Asian maritime trade routes, the basis for economic and cultural growth. The earliest Hindu kingdoms emerged in Sumatra and Java, followed by mainland polities such as Funan and Champa. Adoption of Indian civilization elements and individual adaptation stimulated the emergence of centralized states and the development of highly organized societies. Ambitious local leaders realized the benefits of Hinduism and Indian methods of administration, culture, literature, etc. Rule in accord with universal moral principles, represented in the concept of the "devaraja, was more appealing than the Chinese concept of intermediaries.[28][29][30]

Distinction from Colonialism[edit]

Indianization is different from traditional colonialism as it mostly did not involve strangers conquering a unknown land, with exceptions such as the "Chola invasions of mediaeval times. Instead, Indian influence from trade routes and language use slowly permeated through Southeast Asia, making the traditions a part of the region. The interactions between "India and "Southeast Asia were marked by waves of influence and dominance. At some points the Indian culture solely found its way into the region, and at other points the influence was used to take over. Indianization was seen as total influence of all aspects of Southeast Asian history. Before the take over of the influence of Indian culture, Southeast Asia was seen as a place with no history. The beginning of Indianization marked the start of the cultural commencement in Southeast Asia.[31]

Theories of Indianization[edit]

As conclusive evidence is missing numerous Indianization theories of "Southeast Asia have emerged since the early 20th century. The central argument usually revolves around the question, who was the main propagator exporting Indian institutional and cultural ideas to Southeast Asia.

One theory of the spread of Indianization that focuses on the caste of "Vaishya traders and their role for spreading Indian culture and language into Southeast Asia through trade. There were many trade incentives that brought "Vaishya traders to Southeast Asia, the most important of which was gold. During the 4th century C.E., when the first evidence of Indian trader in Southeast Asia, the Indian sub-continent was at a deficiency for gold due to extensive control of overland trade routes by the "Roman Empire. This made many "Vaishya traders look to the seas to acquire new gold, of which Southeast Asia was abundant. However, the conclusion that Indianization was just spread through trade is insufficient, as Indianization permeated through all classes of Southeast Asian society, not just the merchant classes.[32]

Another theory states that Indianization spread through the warrior class of "Kshatriya. This hypothesis effectively explains state formation in Southeast Asia, as these warriors came with the intention of conquering the local peoples and establishing their own political power in the region. However, this theory hasn’t attracted much interest from historians as there is very little literary evidence to support it.[32]

The most widely accepted theory for the spread of Indianization into Southeast Asia is through the class of "Brahman scholars. These Brahmans brought with them many of the of Hindu religious and philosophical traditions and spread them to the elite classes of Southeast Asian polities. Once these traditions were adopted into the elite classes, it disseminated throughout all the lower classes, thus explaining the Indianization present in all classes of Southeast Asian society. Brahmans were also experts in art and architecture, and political affairs, thus explaining the adoption of many Indian style law codes and architecture into Southeast asian society[32]

Literature[edit]

Scripts in Sanskrit discovered during the early centuries of the Common Era are the earliest known forms of writing to have extended all the way to Southeast Asia. Its gradual impact ultimately resulted in its widespread domain as a means of dialect which evident in regions, from Bangladesh to Cambodia, Malaysia and Thailand and additionally a few of the larger Indonesian islands. In addition, alphabets from languages spoken in Burmese, Thai, Laos and Cambodia are a variations formed off of Indian ideals that have localized the language.[33]

The utilization of Sanskrit has been prevalent in all aspects of life including legal purposes. Sanskrit terminology and vernacular appears in ancient courts to establish procedures that have been structured by Indian models such as a system composed of a code of laws.[33] The concept of legislation demonstrated through codes of law and organizations particularly the idea of "God King" was embraced by numerous rulers of Southeast Asia.[34] The rulers amid this time, for example, the Lin-I Dynasty of Vietnam once embraced the Sanskrit dialect and devoted sanctuaries to the Indian divinity Shiva. Many rulers following even viewed themselves as “reincarnations or descendants” of the Hindu God’s. However once Buddhism began entering the nations, this practiced view was eventually altered.[34]

Religion, authority and legitimacy[edit]

The pre-Indic political and social systems in Southeast Asia were marked by a relative indifference towards lineage descent. Hindu God kingship enabled rulers to supersede loyalties, forge cosmopolitan polities and the worship of Shiva and Vishnu was combined with ancestor worship, so that Khmer, Javanese, and Cham rulers claimed semi-divine status as descendants of a God. Hindu traditions especially the relationship to the sacrality of the land and social structures inherent in Hinduism's transnational features. The epic traditions of the Mahābhārata and the Rāmāyaṇa further legitimized a ruler identified with a God who battled and defeated the wrong doers that threaten the ethical order of the world.[35]

Hinduism does not have a single historical founder, a centralized imperial authority in India proper nor a bureaucratic structure, thus ensuring relative religious independence for the individual ruler. It also allows for multiple forms of divinity, centered upon the "Trimurti the triad of Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva, the deities responsible for the creation, preservation, and destruction of the universe.[36]

The effects of Hinduism and Buddhism applied a tremendous impact on the many civilizations inhabiting Southeast Asia which significantly provided some structure to the composition of written traditions. An essential factor for the spread and adaptation of these religions originated from trading systems of the third and fourth century[33]. In order to spread the message of these religions Buddhist monks and Hindu priests joined mercantile classes in the quest to share their religious and cultural values and beliefs. Along the Mekong delta, evidence of Indianized religious models can be observed in communities labeled Funan. There can be found the earliest records engraved on a rock in Vocanh.[37] The engravings consist of Buddhist archives and a south Indian scripts written in Sanskrit that have been dated to belong to the early half of the third century. Indian religion was profoundly absorbed by local cultures that formed their own distinctive variations of these structures in order to reflect their own ideals.

"Champa, "Dvaravati, "Funan, "Gangga Negara, "Kadaram, "Kalingga, "Kutai, "Langkasuka, "Pagan, "Pan Pan, "Po-ni, and "Tarumanagara had by the 1st to 4th centuries CE adopted Hinduism's cosmology and rituals, the "devaraja concept of kingship, and Sanskrit as official writing. Despite the fundamental cultural integration, these kingdoms were autonomous in their own right and functioned independently.[38]

Caste System[edit]

The caste system divides Hindus into a hierarchical groups based on their work (karma) and duty (dharma).The caste system, defined by authoritative book on hindu law wrote that the system is a basis of order and regularity of society. Once born into a group, one can not move into different levels. Lower castes are never able to climb higher within the caste system, limiting the economies progress from growing. The system divides Hindus into four categories - Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and the Shudras. Brahmins consist of those who teach and educate such as priest and teachers. Kshatriyas include those who maintain law and order. Vaishyas consist of businessmen such as farmers and merchants. Shudras contain all skilled and unskilled laborers.[39]

The Brahmins from the Indian culture spread their religion to southeast asia. By traveling to these countries they were able to inform others on their beliefs and spark the beginning of the Hindu and Buddhist cultures in Southeast Asia. These Brahmins introduced the caste system to all the countries; however, more so in Java, Bali, Madura, and Sumatra. Unlike India the caste system was not as strict[34]. As a result of all these different writings, there are big speculations that the Brahmins has a big role on their religion. There are multiple similarities between the two caste systems such that both state that no one is equal within society and that everyone has their own place. It also promoted the upbringing of highly-organized central states. Although they have some similarities, Southeast Asians did not use the Hindu system enitirely and adjusted what they did use to their local context. The Brahmins were still able to implement their religion, political ideas, literature, mythology, and art[34].

Adaption and adoption[edit]

It is unknown how immigration, interaction, and settlement took place, whether by key figures from India or through Southeast Asians visiting India who took elements of Indian culture back home. It is likely that Hindu and Buddhist traders, priests, and princes traveled to Southeast Asia from India in the first few centuries of the Common Era and eventually settled there. Strong impulse most certainly came from the region’s ruling classes who invited Brahmans to serve at their courts as priests, astrologers and advisers.[40] Divinity and royalty were closely connected in these polities as Hindu rituals validated the powers of the monarch. Brahmans and priests from India proper played a key role in supporting ruling dynasties through exact rituals. Dynastic consolidation was the basis for more centralized kingdoms that emerged in Java, Sumatra, Cambodia, Burma, and along the central and south coasts of Vietnam from the 4th to 8th centuries.[41]

Art, architecture, rituals, and cultural elements such as the Rāmāyaṇa and the Mahābhārata had been adopted and customized increasingly with a regional character. The caste system, although adopted, was never applied universally and reduced to serve for a selected group of nobles only.[42]

States such as "Srivijaya, "Majapahit and the "Khmer empire had territorial continuity, resilient population and surplus economies that rivaled those in India itself. "Borobudur in Java and "Angkor in Cambodia are, apart from their grandeur, examples of a distinctly developed regional culture, style, and expression.[43][44]

Southeast Asia is called "Suvarnabhumi or Sovannah Phoum - the golden land and Suvarnadvipa - the golden Islands in Sanskrit.[45] It was frequented by traders from eastern India, particularly "Kalinga. Cultural and trading relations between the powerful "Chola dynasty of "South India and the Southeast Asian Hindu kingdoms led the "Bay of Bengal to be called "The Chola Lake", and the Chola attacks on Srivijaya in the 10th century CE are the sole example of military attacks by Indian rulers against Southeast Asia. The "Pala dynasty of "Bengal, which controlled the heartland of Buddhist India, maintained close economic, cultural and religious ties, particularly with Srivijaya.[46]

Mainland kingdoms[edit]

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"Angkor Wat in Cambodia is the largest Hindu temple in the world

Island kingdoms[edit]

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A statue of Hindu goddess "Durga Mahisasuramardini in "Prambanan northern cella, dated to the 9th-century "Medang I Bhumi Mataram kingdom in Central Java.

Issues with Indianization[edit]

Development in Southeast Asia[edit]

One of the major issues with Indianization is the common debate whether or not indianization is the reason for the development in South East Asia. Many struggle to date and determine when colonization in Southeast Asia occurred because of the structures and ruins found that were similar to those in India.[64]Several books and anthropologists believe that India is seen as the superior culture that influenced a lot of Southeast Asian countries. However, throughout this time that many began to debate, other anthropologists suggested that Southeast Asia had indigenous civilization and the idea of indianization was just seen as a ‘national motivation. These debates continued for some time, until the Pacific War, which led to legitimately ending the debates and reviewing Southeast Asia’s response to Indianzation

Development of Caste System[edit]

Another main concern for indianization was the understanding and development of caste systems. The debate was often whether or not the caste systems were seen as an elite process or just the process of picking up the Indian culture and calling it their own in each region. This had showed that the Southeast Asian countries were civilized and able to flourish their own interests. For example, Cambodia’s caste system is based on people in society. However, in India, the caste system was based on which class they belonged to when they were born. Based on the evidence of the caste system in Southeast Asia, shows that they were applying Indian culture to their own, also known/seen as indianization[65] Similar to the caste systems, the cultures were a huge part of determining the legitimacy of indianization. Many argue that only writing could really date the culture and prove indianization. The lives of rulers, daily lives of people, rituals of funeral, weddings and specific customs were a few that helped anthropologists date the indianization of countries. The religions found in India and Southeast Asian countries was another piece of evidence that led anthropologists to understand where the cultures and customs were adopted from.[34]

Fall of Indianization[edit]

Khmer Kingdom[edit]

Beginning shortly after the 12th century, the Khmer kingdom, one of the first kingdoms that began the dissipation of Indianization started after Jayavarman VII in which expanded a substantial amount of territory, thus going into war with Champs. Leading into the fall of the Khmer Kingdom, the Khmer political and cultural zones were taken, overthrown, and fallen as well[66]. Not only did Indianization change many cultural and political aspects, but it also changed the spiritual realm as well, creating a type of Northern Culture which began in the early 14th century, prevalent for its rapid decline in the Indian kingdoms. The decline of Hinduism kingdoms and spark of Buddhist kingdoms led to the formation of orthodox Sinhalese Buddhism and is a key factor leading to the decline of Indianization. Sukhothai and Ceylon are the prominent characters who formulated the center of Buddhism and this became more popularized over Hinduism.[34]

Rise of Islam[edit]

Not only was the spark of Buddhism the driving force for Indianization coming to an end, but Islamic control took over as well in the midst of the thirteenth century to trump the Hinduist kingdoms. In the process of Islamism coming to the traditional Hinduism kingdoms, trade was heavily practiced and the now Islamic Indians started becoming merchants all over Southeast Asia.[34] Moreover, as trade became more saturated in the Southeast Asian regions wherein Indianization once persisted, the regions had become more Muslim populated. This so called Islamic control has spanned to many of the trading centers across the regions of Southeast Asia, including one of the most dominant centers, Malacca, and has therefore stressed a widespread rise of Islamization.[34]

Indian cultural sphere[edit]

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Expansion of Hinduism in Southeast Asia.

The use of Greater India to refer to an Indian cultural sphere was popularised by a network of Bengali scholars in the 1920s who were all members of the Calcutta-based Greater India Society. The movement's early leaders included the historian "R. C. Majumdar (1888–1980); the philologists "Suniti Kumar Chatterji (1890–1977) and "P. C. Bagchi (1898–1956), and the historians Phanindranath Bose and "Kalidas Nag (1891–1966).[23][67] Some of their formulations were inspired by concurrent excavations in "Angkor by French archaeologists and by the writings of French "Indologist "Sylvain Lévi. The scholars of the society postulated a benevolent ancient Indian cultural colonisation of Southeast Asia, in stark contrast — in their view — to the Western colonialism of the early 20th century.[68][69][70]

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Candi Bukit Batu Pahat of "Bujang Valley. A "Hindu-"Buddhist kingdom ruled ancient "Kedah possibly as early as 110 CE, the earliest evidence of strong Indian influence which was once prevalent among the "Kedahan Malays.

The term Greater India and the notion of an explicit Hindu expansion of ancient Southeast Asia have been linked to both "Indian nationalism[71] and "Hindu nationalism.[72] However, many Indian nationalists, like "Jawaharlal Nehru and "Rabindranath Tagore, although receptive to "an idealisation of India as a benign and uncoercive world civiliser and font of global enlightenment,"[73] stayed away from explicit "Greater India" formulations.[74] In addition, some scholars have seen the Hindu/Buddhist acculturation in ancient Southeast Asia as "a single cultural process in which Southeast Asia was the matrix and South Asia the mediatrix."[75] In the field of art history, especially in American writings, the term survived due to the influence of art theorist "Ananda Coomaraswamy. Coomaraswamy's view of pan-Indian art history was influenced by the "Calcutta cultural nationalists."[76]

By some accounts Greater India consists of "lands including Burma, "Java, Cambodia, "Bali, and the former "Champa and "Funan polities of present-day "Vietnam,"[77] in which Indian and Hindu culture left an "imprint in the form of monuments, inscriptions and other traces of the historic ""Indianizing" process."[77] By some other accounts, many Pacific societies and "most of the Buddhist world including "Ceylon, Tibet, Central Asia, and even Japan were held to fall within this web of Indianizing culture colonies"[77] This particular usage — implying cultural "sphere of influence" of India — was promoted by the Greater India Society, formed by a group of "Bengali "men of letters,[78] and is not found before the 1920s. The term Greater India was used in historical writing in India into the 1970s [79]

Cultural expansion[edit]

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"Atashgah of Baku, a "fire temple in Azerbaijan used by both Hindus[80][81] and Persian Zoroastrians

Culture spread via the trade routes that linked India with southern "Burma, central and southern "Siam, the "Malay peninsula and "Sumatra to "Java, lower "Cambodia and "Champa. The "Pali and Sanskrit languages and the Indian script, together with "Theravada and "Mahayana "Buddhism, "Brahmanism and "Hinduism, were transmitted from direct contact as well as through sacred texts and Indian literature. Southeast Asia had developed some prosperous and very powerful colonial empires that contributed to Hindu-Buddhist artistic creations and architectural developments. Art and architectural creations that rivaled those built in India, especially in its sheer size, design and aesthetic achievements. The notable examples are Borobudur in Java and Angkor monuments in Cambodia. The Srivijaya Empire to the south and the "Khmer Empire to the north competed for influence in the region.

A defining characteristic of the cultural link between Southeast Asia and the Indian subcontinent was the adoption of ancient Indian "Vedic/Hindu and Buddhist culture and philosophy into "Myanmar, "Tibet, "Thailand, "Indonesia, "Malaya, "Laos and Cambodia. Indian scripts are found in Southeast Asian islands ranging from Sumatra, Java, Bali, South Sulawesi and part of the Philippines.[82] The "Ramayana and the "Mahabharata have had a large impact on South Asia and Southeast Asia. One of the most tangible evidence of dharmic Hindu traditions is the widespread use of the "Añjali Mudrā gesture of greeting and respect. It is seen in the "Indian "namasté and similar gestures known throughout Southeast Asia; its cognates include the "Cambodian "sampeah, the "Indonesian "sembah, the "Japanese "gassho and "Thai "wai.

Cultural commonalities[edit]

Religion, mythology and folklore[edit]

Architecture and monuments[edit]

Linguistic influence[edit]

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A map of East, South and Southeast Asia. Red signifies current and historical (Vietnam) distribution of "Chinese characters. Green signifies current and historical (Malaysia, Pakistan, the Maldives parts of Indonesia and parts of the Philippines) distribution of "Indic scripts. Blue signifies current use of non-Sinitic or non-Indic scripts.

Scholars like Sheldon Pollock have used the term Sanskrit Cosmopolis to describe the region and argued for millennium-long cultural exchanges without necessarily involving migration of peoples or colonisation. Pollock's 2006 book The Language of the Gods in the World of Men makes a case for studying the region as comparable with Latin Europe and argues that the Sanskrit language was its unifying element.

Scripts in "Sanskrit discovered during the early centuries of the Common Era are the earliest known forms of writing to have extended all the way to "Southeast Asia. Its gradual impact ultimately resulted in its widespread domain as a means of dialect which evident in regions, from Bangladesh to Cambodia, Malaysia and Thailand and additionally a few of the larger Indonesian islands. In addition, alphabets from languages spoken in Burmese, Thai, Laos and Cambodia are a variations formed off of Indian ideals that have localized the language [88]

Sanskrit and related languages have also influenced their "Tibeto-Burman-speaking neighbors to the north through the spread of Buddhist texts in translation.[89] The spread of Buddhism to Tibet allowed many Sanskrit texts to survive only in Tibetan translation (in the "Tanjur). Buddhism was similarly introduced to China by "Mahayanist missionaries sent by the Indian Emperor Ashoka mostly through translations of "Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit and Classical Sanskrit texts, and many terms were transliterated directly and added to the Chinese vocabulary.

In Southeast Asia, languages such as "Thai and "Lao contain many "loan words from Sanskrit, as does "Khmer to a lesser extent. For example, in Thai, "Rāvaṇa, the legendary emperor of "Sri Lanka, is called 'Thosakanth' which is derived from his Sanskrit name 'Daśakaṇṭha' ("having ten necks").

Many Sanskrit loanwords are also found in "Austronesian languages, such as "Javanese particularly the "old form from which nearly half the vocabulary is derived from the language.[90] [91] Other Austronesian languages, such as "traditional Malay, "modern Indonesian, also derive "much of their vocabulary from Sanskrit, albeit to a lesser extent, with a large proportion of words being derived from "Arabic. Similarly, "Philippine languages such as "Tagalog have "many Sanskrit loanwords.

A Sanskrit loanword encountered in many Southeast Asian languages is the word "bhāṣā, or spoken language, which is used to mean language in general, for example bahasa in Malay, Indonesian and "Tausug, basa in Javanese, "Sundanese, and "Balinese, phasa in Thai and Lao, bhasa in "Burmese, and phiesa in "Khmer.

The utilization of "Sanskrit has been prevalent in all aspects of life including legal purposes. "Sanskrit terminology and vernacular appears in ancient courts to establish procedures that have been structured by Indian models such as a system composed of a code of laws.[92] The concept of legislation demonstrated through codes of law and organizations particularly the idea of "God King" was embraced by numerous rulers of Southeast Asia[93]. The rulers amid this time, for example, the Lin-I Dynasty of "Vietnam once embraced the "Sanskrit dialect and devoted sanctuaries to the Indian divinity Shiva. Many rulers following even viewed themselves as “reincarnations or descendants” of the "Hindu gods. However once "Buddhism began entering the nations, this practiced view was eventually altered.

Linguistic commonalities[edit]

Toponyms[edit]

Issues with Indianization[edit]

Development in Southeast Asia[edit]

One of the major issues with Indianization is the common debate whether or not it is the reason for the development in Southeast Asia. Many struggle to date and determine when colonization in Southeast Asia occurred because of the structures and ruins found that were similar to those in India.[97] Several books and anthropologists believe that India is seen as the superior culture that influenced a lot of Southeast Asian countries. However, throughout this time that many began to debate, other anthropologists suggested that Southeast Asia had indigenous civilization and the idea of Indianization was just seen as a ‘national motivation.’ These debates continued for some time, until the Pacific War (1941-45), which led to legitimately ending the debates and reviewing Southeast Asia’s response to Indianzation. [98]

Caste Systems[edit]

Another main concern for "Indianization was the understanding and development of caste systems. The debate was often whether or not the caste systems were seen as an elite process or just the process of picking up the "Indian culture and calling it their own in each region. This had showed that the Southeast Asian countries were civilized and able to flourish their own interests. For example, "Cambodia’s caste system is based on people in society. However, in India, the caste system was based on which class they belonged to when they were born. Based on the evidence of the caste system in Southeast Asia, shows that they were applying Indian culture to their own, also known/seen as Indianization[99]

See also[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Kenneth R. Hal (1985). Maritime Trade and State Development in Early Southeast Asia. University of Hawaii Press. p. 63. "ISBN "978-0-8248-0843-3. 
  2. ^ "History of India and Greater India". Collège de France. Retrieved December 20, 2016. 
  3. ^ a b "As in Heaven, So on Earth: The Politics of Visnu Siva and Harihara Images in Preangkorian Khmer Civilisation". academia edu. Retrieved December 23, 2015. 
  4. ^ "Results of the 1995–1996 Archaeological Field Investigations at Angkor Borei, Cambodia" (PDF). University of Hawai'i-Manoa. Retrieved 5 July 2015. 
  5. ^ Coedes, George (1968). The indianized states of Southeast Asia. University of Hawaii Press. "ISBN "082480368X. 
  6. ^ Pierre-Yves Manguin, “From Funan to Sriwijaya: Cultural continuities and discontinuities in the Early Historical maritime states of Southeast Asia”, in 25 tahun kerjasama Pusat Penelitian Arkeologi dan Ecole française d'Extrême-Orient, Jakarta, Pusat Penelitian Arkeologi / EFEO, 2002, p. 59-82.
  7. ^ "Buddhism in China: A Historical Overview" (PDF). The Saylor Foundation 1. Retrieved February 12, 2017. 
  8. ^ "SINO-PLATONIC PAPERS everyone knows well the so-called "Buddhist conquest of China" or "Indianized China"" (PDF). sino-platonic. Retrieved December 23, 2016. 
  9. ^ a b Phillips, J. R. S. (1998). The Medieval Expansion of Europe. Clarendon Press. p. 192. "ISBN "978-0-19-820740-5. 
  10. ^ a b (Azurara 1446)
  11. ^ Lewis, Martin W.; Wigen, Kären (1997). The Myth of Continents: A Critique of Metageography. University of California Press. p. 269. "ISBN "978-0-520-20742-4. 
  12. ^ Pedro Machado, José (1992). "Terras de Além: no Relato da Viagem de Vasco da Gama". Journal of the University of Coimbra. 37: 333–. 
  13. ^ (Beazley 1910, p. 708) Quote: "Azurara's hyperbole, indeed, which celebrates the Navigator Prince as joining Orient and Occident by continual voyaging, as transporting to the extremities of the East the creations of Western industry, does not scruple to picture the people of the Greater and the Lesser India"
  14. ^ (Beazley 1910, p. 708) Quote: "Among all the confusion of the various Indies in Mediaeval nomenclature, "Greater India" can usually be recognized as restricted to the "India proper" of the modern [c. 1910] world."
  15. ^ a b c Lewis, Martin W.; Wigen, Kären (1997). The Myth of Continents: A Critique of Metageography. University of California Press. p. 274. "ISBN "978-0-520-20742-4. 
  16. ^ (Wheatley 1982, p. 13) Quote: "Subsequently the whole area came to be identified with one of the "Three Indies," though whether India Major or Minor, Greater or Lesser, Superior or Inferior, seems often to have been a personal preference of the author concerned. When Europeans began to penetrate into Southeast Asia in earnest, they continued this tradition, attaching to various of the constituent territories such labels as Further India or Hinterindien, the East Indies, the Indian Archipelago, Insulinde, and, in acknowledgment of the presence of a competing culture, Indochina."
  17. ^ (Caverhill 1767)
  18. ^ Uhlig, Siegbert (2003). Encyclopaedia Aethiopica: He-N. Isd. p. 145. "ISBN "978-3-447-05607-6. 
  19. ^ "Review: New Maps," (1912) Bulletin of the American Geographical Society 44(3): 235–240.
  20. ^ (Ali & Aitchison 2005, p. 170)
  21. ^ Argand, E., 1924. La tectonique de l' Asie. Proc. 13th Int. Geol. Cong. 7 (1924), 171–372.
  22. ^ "The Greater India Basin hypothesis" (PDF). University of Oslo. Retrieved December 20, 2016. 
  23. ^ a b (Bayley 2004, p. 710)
  24. ^ (Keenleyside 1982, pp. 213–214) Quote: "Starting in the 1920s under the leadership of Kalidas Nag - and continuing even after independence - a number of Indian scholars wrote extensively and rapturously about the ancient Hindu cultural expansion into and colonisation of South and Southeast Asia. They called this vast region "Greater India" – for a region which had been influenced by Indian religion, art, architecture, literature and administrative customs. Indeed, Congress leaders made occasional references to Greater India while the organisation's abiding interest in the problems of overseas Indians lent indirect support to the Indian hope of restoring the cultural and spiritual unity of South and Southeast Asia."
  25. ^ (Thapar 1968, pp. 326–330) Quote: "At another level, it was believed that the dynamics of many Asian cultures, particularly those of Southeast Asia, arose from Hindu culture, and the theory of Greater India derived sustenance from Pan-Hinduism. A curious pride was taken in the supposed imperialist past of India, as expressed in sentiments such as these: "The art of Java and Kambuja was no doubt derived from India and fostered by the Indian rulers of these colonies." (Majumdar, R. C. et al. (1950), An Advanced History of India, London: Macmillan, p. 221) "
  26. ^ National Library of Australia. Asia's French Connection : George Coedes and the Coedes Collection Archived 21 October 2011 at the "Wayback Machine.
  27. ^ "Urban Morphology of Commercial Port Cities and Shophouses in Southeast Asia". Sciencedirect. Retrieved January 14, 2018. 
  28. ^ "Societies, Networks, and Transitions, Volume I: To 1500: A Global History". Google Books. Retrieved December 20, 2016. 
  29. ^ "The Mon-Dvaravati Tradition of Early North-Central Thailand". The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 2009-12-15. 
  30. ^ "Southeast Asia: Imagining the region" (PDF). Amitav Acharya. Retrieved 13 January 2018. 
  31. ^ Giang, Do Truong. "Historiography of the "Indianization" in Ancient Southeast Asian History". 
  32. ^ a b c Lukas, Helmut (May 21–23, 2001). "1 THEORIES OF INDIANIZATIONExemplified by Selected Case Studies from Indonesia (Insular Southeast Asia)". International SanskritConference. 
  33. ^ a b c Smith, Monica L. (1999). ""INDIANIZATION" FROM THE INDIAN POINT OF VIEW: TRADE AND CULTURAL CONTACTS WITH SOUTHEAST ASIA IN THE EARLY FIRST MILLENNIUM C.E.')" (PDF). Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient,. 42. (11-17). 
  34. ^ a b c d e f g h Coedes, George (1967). The Indianized States of Southeast Asia. Australian National University Press. 
  35. ^ "Hinduism in Southeast Asia". Oxford Press. 28 May 2013. Retrieved December 20, 2016. 
  36. ^ Carlos Ramirez-Faria (1 January 2007). Concise Encyclopedia Of World History The "King of the mountain". Atlantic Publishers & Dist. pp. 106–. "ISBN "978-81-269-0775-5. 
  37. ^ Kleinmeyer, Cindy. "Religions of Southeast Asia" (PDF). niu.edu. Northern Illinois University. Retrieved June 2004.  Check date values in: |access-date= ("help)
  38. ^ Parker, Vrndavan Brannon. "Vietnam's Champa Kingdom Marches on". Hinduism Today. Retrieved 21 November 2015. 
  39. ^ [www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-35650616 "What Is India's Caste System?"] Check |url= value ("help). BBC News. 20 July 2017. 
  40. ^ "The spread of Hinduism in Southeast Asia and the Pacific". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved December 20, 2016. 
  41. ^ "Chenla - 550-800". Global Security. Retrieved 13 July 2015. 
  42. ^ "Hinduism in Southeast Asia". Encyclopedia. Retrieved December 20, 2016. 
  43. ^ Theories of Indianisation Archived 24 December 2015 at the "Wayback Machine. Exemplified by Selected Case Studies from Indonesia (Insular Southeast Asia), by Dr. Helmut Lukas
  44. ^ Helmut Lukas. "THEORIES OF INDIANIZATION Exemplified by Selected Case Studies from Indonesia (Insular Southeast Asia)" (PDF). Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften. Retrieved January 14, 2018. 
  45. ^ "History of Ancient India Kapur, Kamlesh". Google Books. Retrieved 13 July 2015. 
  46. ^ Takashi Suzuki (25 December 2012). "Śrīvijaya―towards ChaiyaーThe History of Srivijaya". Retrieved 6 March 2013. 
  47. ^ Higham, C., 2001, The Civilization of Angkor, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, "ISBN "9781842125847
  48. ^ Stark, Miriam T. (2006). "Pre-Angkorian Settlement Trends In Cambodia's Mekong Delta and the Lower Mekong Archaeological Project" (PDF). Indo-Pacific Pre-History Association Bulletin. University of Hawai’i-Manoa. 26. Retrieved 5 July 2015. The Mekong delta played a central role in the development of Cambodia’s earliest complex polities from approximately 500 BC to AD 600. 
  49. ^ a b Stark, Miriam T.; Griffin, Bion; Phoeurn, Chuch; Ledgerwood, Judy; et al. (1999). "Results of the 1995–1996 Archaeological Field Investigations at Angkor Borei, Cambodia" (PDF). Asian Perspectives. University of Hawai’i-Manoa. 38 (1). Retrieved 5 July 2015. The development of maritime commerce and Hindu influence stimulated early state formation in polities along the coasts of mainland Southeast Asia, where passive indigenous populations embraced notions of statecraft and ideology introduced by outsiders... 
  50. ^ Rooney, Dawn (1984). Khmer Ceramics (PDF). Oxford University Press. Retrieved 13 July 2015. The language of Funan was... 
  51. ^ Some Aspects of Asian History and Culture by Upendra Thakur p.2
  52. ^ "Considerations on the Chronology and History of 9th Century Cambodia by Dr. Karl-Heinz Golzio, Epigraphist - ...the realm called Zhenla by the Chinese. Their contents are not uniform but they do not contradict each other" (PDF). Khmer Studies. Retrieved 5 July 2015. 
  53. ^ Michel Jacq-Hergoualc'h (January 2002). The Malay Peninsula: Crossroads of the Maritime Silk-Road (100 BC-1300 AD). Victoria Hobson (translator). Brill. pp. 162–163. "ISBN "9789004119734. 
  54. ^ "Blood and Soil: Modern Genocide 1500–2000 By Ben Kiernan p. 102 The Vietnamese destruction of Champa 1390–1509". Google Books. Retrieved 27 June 2015. 
  55. ^ "The Cham: Descendants of Ancient Rulers of South China Sea Watch Maritime Dispute From Sidelines Written by Adam Bray". IOC-Champa. Archived from the original on 26 June 2015. Retrieved 26 June 2015. 
  56. ^ "The Cambridge History of China: Volume 8, The Ming Part 2 Parts 1368-1644 By Denis C. Twitchett, Frederick W. Mote". Google Books. Retrieved 26 June 2015. 
  57. ^ Wolters, O. W. (1973). "Jayavarman II's Military Power: The Territorial Foundation of the Angkor Empire". The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Cambridge University Press (1): 21–30. "JSTOR 25203407. 
  58. ^ "The emergence and ultimate decline of the Khmer Empire - Many scholars attribute the halt of the development of Angkor to the rise of Theravada..." (PDF). Studies Of Asia. Retrieved 11 June 2015. 
  59. ^ "Khmer Empire". The Ancient History Encyclopedia. Retrieved 7 July 2015. 
  60. ^ "Coedès, George (1968). Walter F. Vella, ed. The Indianized States of Southeast Asia. trans.Susan Brown Cowing. University of Hawaii Press. "ISBN "978-0-8248-0368-1. 
  61. ^ พระราชพงษาวดาร ฉบับพระราชหัดถเลขา ภาค 1 [Royal Chronicle: Royal Autograph Version, Volume 1]. Bangkok: "Wachirayan Royal Library. 1912. p. 278. 
  62. ^ "Salakanagara, Kerajaan "Tertua" di Nusantara" (in Indonesian). Retrieved 25 January 2015. 
  63. ^ "Thailand's World : The Srivijaya Kingdom in Thailand". Retrieved 25 August 2015. 
  64. ^ Coedes, George (1964). Some Problems in Ancient History of the Hinduized States of South-East Asia. Journal of Southeast Asian History. 
  65. ^ O'Reilly, Dougald J. W (2007). "Early Civilizations of Southeast Asia". AltaMira Press. 
  66. ^ Lehman, Don (2015). The Rise & Fall of Southeast Asia's Empires (5 ed.). Lulu. 
  67. ^ Ram Gopal and K. V. Paliwal, Hindu renaissance, page 83, Hindu Writers Forum, 2005 Quote: "Colonial and Cultural Expansion (of Ancient India)",["citation needed] written by R. C. Majumdar, concluded with: "We may conclude with a broad survey of the Indian colonies in the Far East. For nearly fifteen hundred years, and down to a period when the Hindus had lost their independence in their own home, Hindu kings were ruling over Indo-China and the numerous islands of the Indian Archipelago, from Sumatra to New Guinea. Indian religion, Indian culture, Indian laws and Indian government moulded the lives of the primitive races all over this wide region, and they imbibed a more elevated moral spirit and a higher intellectual taste through the religion, art, and literature of India. In short, the people were lifted to a higher plane of civilisation."
  68. ^ (Bayley 2004, p. 712)
  69. ^ Review by 'SKV' of The Hindu Colony of Cambodia by Phanindranath Bose [Adyar, Madras: Theosophical Publishing House 1927] in The Vedic Magazine and Gurukula Samachar 26: 1927, pp. 620–1.
  70. ^ Lyne Bansat-Boudon, Roland Lardinois, and Isabelle Ratié, Sylvain Lévi (1863-1935), page 196, Brepols, 2007, "ISBN "9782503524474 Quote: "The ancient Hindus of yore were not simply a spiritual people, always busy with mystical problems and never troubling themselves with the questions of 'this world'... India also has its Napoleons and Charlemagnes, its Bismarcks and Machiavellis. But the real charm of Indian history does not consist in these aspirants after universal power, but in its peaceful and benevolent Imperialism — a unique thing in the history of mankind. The colonisers of India did not go with sword and fire in their hands; they used... the weapons of their superior culture and religion... The Buddhist age has attracted special attention, and the French savants have taken much pains to investigate the splendid monuments of the Indian cultural empire in the Far East."
  71. ^ (Keenleyside 1982, pp. 213–214) Quote: "Starting in the 1920s under the leadership of Kalidas Nag - and continuing even after independence - a number of Indian scholars wrote extensively and rapturously about the ancient Hindu cultural expansion into and colonisation of South and Southeast Asia. They called this vast region "Greater India" – a dubious appellation for a region which to a limited degree, but with little permanence, had been influenced by Indian religion, art, architecture, literature and administrative customs. As a consequence of this renewed and extensive interest in Greater India, many Indians came to believe that the entire South and Southeast Asian region formed the cultural progeny of India; now that the sub-continent was reawakening, they felt, India would once again assert its non-political ascendancy over the area.... While the idea of reviving the ancient Greater India was never officially endorsed by the Indian National Congress, it enjoyed considerable popularity in nationalist Indian circles. Indeed, Congress leaders made occasional references to Greater India while the organisation's abiding interest in the problems of overseas Indians lent indirect support to the Indian hope of restoring the alleged cultural and spiritual unity of South and Southeast Asia."
  72. ^ (Thapar 1968, pp. 326–330) Quote: "At another level, it was believed that the dynamics of many Asian cultures, particularly those of Southeast Asia, arose from Hindu culture, and the theory of Greater India derived sustenance from Pan-Hinduism. A curious pride was taken in the supposed imperialist past of India, as expressed in sentiments such as these: "The art of Java and Kambuja was no doubt derived from India and fostered by the Indian rulers of these colonies." (Majumdar, R. C. et al. (1950), An Advanced History of India, London: Macmillan, p. 221) This form of historical interpretation, which can perhaps best be described as being inspired by Hindu nationalism, remains an influential school of thinking in present historical writings."
  73. ^ (Bayley 2004, pp. 735–736) Quote:"The Greater India visions which Calcutta thinkers derived from French and other sources are still known to educated anglophone Indians, especially but not exclusively Bengalis from the generation brought up in the traditions of post-Independence Nehruvian secular nationalism. One key source of this knowledge is a warm tribute paid to "Sylvain Lévi and his ideas of an expansive, civilising India by Jawaharlal Nehru himself, in his celebrated book, The Discovery of India, which was written during one of Nehru’s periods of imprisonment by the British authorities, first published in 1946, and reprinted many times since.... The ideas of both Lévi and the Greater India scholars were known to Nehru through his close intellectual links with Tagore. Thus Lévi’s notion of ancient Indian voyagers leaving their invisible ‘imprints’ throughout east and southeast Asia was for Nehru a recapitulation of Tagore’s vision of nationhood, that is an idealisation of India as a benign and uncoercive world civiliser and font of global enlightenment. This was clearly a perspective which defined the Greater India phenomenon as a process of religious and spiritual tutelage, but it was not a Hindu supremacist idea of India’s mission to the lands of the trans-gangetic Sarvabhumi or Bharat Varsha."
  74. ^ (Narasimhaiah 1986) Quote: "To him (Nehru), the so-called practical approach meant, in practice, shameless expediency, and so he would say, "the sooner we are not practical, the better". He rebuked a Member of Indian Parliament who sought to revive the concept of Greater India by saying that ‘the honorable Member lived in the days of Bismarck; Bismarck is dead, and his politics more dead!' He would consistently plead for an idealistic approach and such power as the language wields is the creation of idealism—politics’ arch enemy—which, however, liberates the leader of a national movement from narrow nationalism, thus igniting in the process a dead fact of history, in the sneer, "For him the Bastille has not fallen!" Though Nehru was not to the language born, his utterances show a remarkable capacity for introspection and sense of moral responsibility in commenting on political processes."
  75. ^ (Wheatley 1982, pp. 27–28) Quote: "The tide of revisionism that is currently sweeping through Southeast Asian historiography has in effect taken us back almost to the point where we have to consider reevaluating almost every text bearing on the protohistoric period and many from later times. Although this may seem a daunting proposition, it is nonetheless supremely worth attempting, for the process by which the peoples of western Southeast Asia came to think of themselves as part of Bharatavarsa (even though they had no conception of "India" as we know it) represents one of the most impressive instances of large-scale acculturation in the history of the world. "Sylvain Levi was perhaps overenthusiastic when he claimed that India produced her definitive masterpieces — he was thinking of Angkor and the Borobudur — through the efforts of foreigners or on foreign soil. Those masterpieces were not strictly Indian achievements: rather were they the outcome of a Eutychian fusion of natures so melded together as to constitute a single cultural process in which Southeast Asia was the matrix and South Asia the mediatrix."
  76. ^ (Guha-Thakurta 1992, pp. 159–167)
  77. ^ a b c (Bayley 2004, p. 713)
  78. ^ (Handy 1930, p. 364) Quote: "An equally significant movement is one that brought about among the Indian intelligentsia of Calcutta a few years ago the formation of what is known as the "Greater India Society," whose membership is open "to all serious students of the Indian cultural expansion and to all sympathizers of such studies and activities." Though still in its infancy, this organisation has already a large membership, due perhaps as much as anything else to the enthusiasm of its Secretary and Convener, Dr. Kalidas Nag, whose scholarly affiliations with the Orientalists in the University of Paris and studies in Indochina, Insulindia and beyond, have equipped him in an unusual way for the work he has chosen, namely stimulating interest in and spreading knowledge of Greater Indian culture of the past, present and future. The Society's President is Professor "Jadunath Sarkar, Vice-Chancellor of Calcutta University, and its Council is made up largely of professors on the faculty of the University and members of the staff of the Calcutta Museum, as well as of Indian authors and journalists. Its activities have included illustrated lecture series at the various universities throughout India by Dr. Nag, the assembling of a research library, and the publication of monographs of which four very excellent examples have already been printed: 1)Greater India, by Kalidas Nag, M.A., D.Litt(Paris), 2) India and China, by Prabodh Chandra Bagchi, M.A., D.Litt., 3) Indian Culture in Java and Sumatra, by Bijan Raj Chatterjee, D.Litt. (Punjab), Ph.D. (London), and 4) India and Central Asia, by Niranjan Prasad Chakravarti, M.A., Ph.D.(Cantab.)."
  79. ^ (Majumdar 1960, pp. 222–223)
  80. ^ Abraham Valentine Williams Jackson (1911), From Constantinople to the home of Omar Khayyam: travels in Transcaucasia and northern Persia for historic and literary research, The Macmillan company, ... they are now wholly substantiated by the other inscriptions.... They are all Indian, with the exception of one written in Persian... dated in the same year as the Hindu tablet over it... if actual Gabrs (i.e. Zoroastrians, or Parsis) were among the number of worshipers at the shrine, they must have kept in the background, crowded out by Hindus, because the typical features Hanway mentions are distinctly Indian, not Zoroastrian... met two Hindu Fakirs who announced themselves as 'on a pilgrimage to this Baku Jawala Ji'.... 
  81. ^ Richard Delacy, Parvez Dewan (1998), Hindi & Urdu phrasebook, Lonely Planet, "ISBN "0-86442-425-6, ... The Hindu calendar (Vikramaditya) is 57 years ahead of the Christian calendar. Dates in the Hindu calendar are prefixed by the word: samvat संवत ... 
  82. ^ Martin Haspelmath, The World Atlas of Language Structures Archived 29 May 2016 at the "Wayback Machine., page 569, Oxford University Press, 2005, "ISBN "0-19-925591-1
  83. ^ Balinese Religion Archived 10 March 2010 at the "Wayback Machine.
  84. ^ McGovern, Nathan (2010). "Sacred Texts, Ritual Traditions, Arts, Concepts: "Thailand"". In Jacobsen, Knut A. Brill’s Encyclopedia of Hinduism (Volume 2 ed.). Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. pp. 371–378. 
  85. ^ McGovern, Nathan (31 August 2015). "Intersections Between Buddhism and Hinduism in Thailand". "doi:10.1093/obo/9780195393521-0128. Retrieved 25 July 2017. 
  86. ^ "Batu Caves Inside and Out, Malaysia". lonelyplanet.tv. Archived from the original on 7 December 2008. 
  87. ^ Buddhist Channel | Buddhism News, Headlines | Thailand | Phra Prom returns to Erawan Shrine Archived 4 March 2016 at the "Wayback Machine.
  88. ^ Smith, Monica L. (1999). ""INDIANIZATION" FROM THE INDIAN POINT OF VIEW: TRADE AND CULTURAL CONTACTS WITH SOUTHEAST ASIA IN THE EARLY FIRST MILLENNIUM C.E.')" (PDF). Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient,. 42. (11-17). 
  89. ^ van Gulik (1956:?)
  90. ^ See this page from the "Indonesian Wikipedia for a list
  91. ^ Zoetmulder (1982:ix)
  92. ^ Smith, Monica L. (1999). ""INDIANIZATION" FROM THE INDIAN POINT OF VIEW: TRADE AND CULTURAL CONTACTS WITH SOUTHEAST ASIA IN THE EARLY FIRST MILLENNIUM C.E.')" (PDF). Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient,. 42. (11-17). 
  93. ^ Coedes, George (1967). The Indianized States of Southeast Asia (PDF). Australian National University Press. p. 98. 
  94. ^ Khatnani, Sunita (11 October 2009). "The Indian in the Filipino". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on 24 April 2015. 
  95. ^ Kuizon, Jose G. (1962). "The Sanskrit loan-words in the Cebuano-Bisayan language and the Indian elements to Cebuano-Bisayan culture". University of San Carlos, Cebu. 
  96. ^ Sharma, Sudhindra. "King Bhumibol and King Janak". nepalitimes.com. Himalmedia Private Limited. Retrieved 13 July 2011. 
  97. ^ Giang, Do Truong. "Historiography of the "Indianization" in Ancient Southeast Asian History". 
  98. ^ Lieberman, Victor (2003). Strange Parallels: Southeast Asia in Global context. Cambridge University Press. 
  99. ^ Coedes, George (1964). "Some Problems in the Ancient History of the Hinduized States of South East Asia". Journal of Southeast Asia. 

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