The Greek Heroic Age, in mythology, is the period between the coming of the "Greeks to "Thessaly and the Greek return from "Troy. It was demarcated as one of the five "Ages of Man by "Hesiod. The period spans roughly six generations; the heroes denoted by the term are superhuman, though not divine, and are celebrated in the literature of "Homer.
The Greek heroes can be grouped into an approximate chronology, based on certain events such as of the Argonautic expedition and the Trojan War.
Many of the early Greek heroes were descended from the gods, and were part of the founding narratives of various city-states. They also became the ancestors of later heroes. The Phoenician prince "Cadmus, was the first Greek hero. The grandson of "Poseidon (through his father "Agenor), he founded "Thebes
"Perseus, famous for his exploits well before the days of his great-grandson, "Heracles, was the son of "Zeus. Perseus beheaded the "Medusa, saved "Andromeda from the sea monster "Cetus, and was the legendary founder of "Mycenae.
"Aeacus was also a son of "Zeus. "Bellerophon was descended from the nymph, "Orseis. "Oenomaus, king of Pisa, in the Peloponnese, was the son of Ares. The excellence of individual warriors was important.
A monstrous boar was sent by "Artemis to ravage the region of Calydon in Aetolia because its king neglected to honor her in his rites to the gods. King Oeneus sent messengers seeking the best hunters in Greece, offering them the boar's pelt and tusks as a prize. A number of heroes responded, including "Atalanta, "Laertes, "Meleager, "Nestor, "Peleus, "Phoenix, and "Theseus.
The myth of "Jason and the "Golden Fleece is one of the oldest stories of a hero's quest. Jason sailed on the Argo, and those who accompanied him were called the "Argonauts". Their mission was to travel to the kingdom of "Colchis, on the Black Sea, to obtain the "Golden Fleece", a symbol of authority and kingship. With it, Jason would become king of "Iolcos in "Thessaly. Geological studies lend support to the theory that the story relates to placer gold mining in the area of Svaneti in the Southern Caucasus region.
(about two generations before Troy)
(about a generation before Troy)
Oedipus places a curse upon his sons Eteocles and Polynices. The underlying theme in the story of the "Seven Against Thebes" is the fulfilment of that curse. Although the brothers had agreed to share the rule of Thebes, when it is time for Eteocles to step aside he refuses, and Polynices brings an army against his beloved city to enforce his claim. In Aeschylus' play the concept of the individual vs. community becomes a central theme. In the Phoenissae (The Phoenician Women), patriotism is a significant theme.
Gregory Nagy sees mortality as the "dominant theme in the stories of ancient Greek heroes. In heading for Troy "Achilles opts for a short life leaving a memory of immortal renown over a long peaceful one in relative obscurity.