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Group of Eight
""Map of G8 member nations and the European Union

 "Canada

"Prime Minister "Justin Trudeau

 "France

"President "Emmanuel Macron

 "Germany

"Chancellor "Angela Merkel

 "Italy

"Prime Minister "Paolo Gentiloni

 "Japan

"Prime Minister "Shinzō Abe

 "Russia (suspended)

"President "Vladimir Putin

 "United Kingdom

"Prime Minister "Theresa May

 "United States

"President "Donald Trump

 "European Union

"Council President "Donald Tusk
"Commission President "Jean-Claude Juncker

The G8 (reformatted as "G7 from 2014 due to "Russia's suspension)[1][2][3][4] was an inter-governmental political forum from 1997 until 2014, with participation from the world′s major highly industrialized economies in countries that viewed themselves as "democracies.[5]

The forum originated with a "1975 summit hosted by "France that brought together representatives of six governments: "France, "Germany, "Italy, "Japan, the "United Kingdom, and the "United States, thus leading to the name Group of Six or G6. The summit came to be known as the Group of Seven, or G7, in 1976 with the addition of "Canada. "Russia was added to the political forum from 1997, which the following year became known as the G8. In March 2014 Russia was suspended following the "annexation of "Crimea, whereupon the group's name reverted to the G7.[6][7][8] Certain representatives of G7 countries stated that they would be interested in Russia's return to the group.[9][10][11][12][13][14] However in 2017 Russia announced that it would permanently leave the political forum G8. [15] The "European Union was represented at the G8 since the 1980s as a "nonenumerated" participant, but originally could not host or chair summits.[16] The "40th summit was the first time the European Union was able to host and chair a summit. Collectively, in 2012 the G8 nations comprised "50.1 percent of 2012 global nominal GDP and "40.9 percent of global GDP (PPP).

"G7" can refer to the member states in aggregate or to the annual "summit meeting of the G7 "heads of government. The former term, G6, is now frequently applied to the "six most populous countries within the European Union. G7 ministers also meet throughout the year, such as the "G7 finance ministers (who meet four times a year), G7 foreign ministers, or G7 environment ministers.

Each calendar year, the responsibility of hosting the G8 was rotated through the member states in the following order: France, United States, United Kingdom, Russia (suspended), Germany, Japan, Italy, and Canada. The holder of the "presidency sets the agenda, hosts the summit for that year, and determines which ministerial meetings will take place.

In 2005, the UK government initiated the practice of inviting five leading emerging markets — "Brazil, "China, "India, "Mexico, and "South Africa — to participate in the G8 meetings that came to be known as "G8+5; but this practice was short-lived.[5] With the "G-20 major economies growing in stature since the "2008 Washington summit, world leaders from the group announced at their "Pittsburgh summit in September 2009 that the group would replace the G8 as the main economic council of wealthy nations.[17][18] Nevertheless, the G7 retains its relevance as a "steering group for the "West",[5] with special significance appointed to Japan.[19]

Contents

History[edit]

Following "1994's G7 summit in Naples, Russian officials held separate meetings with leaders of the G7 after the group's summits. This informal arrangement was dubbed the Political 8 (P8)—or, colloquially, the G7+1. At the invitation of UK Prime Minister "Tony Blair and U.S. President "Bill Clinton,[20] President "Boris Yeltsin was invited first as a guest observer, later as a full participant. It was seen as a way to encourage Yeltsin with his capitalist reforms. Russia formally joined the group in 1998, resulting in the Group of Eight, or G8.

Food[edit]

A major focus of the G8 since 2009 has been the global "supply of food.[21] At the 2009 "L'Aquila summit, the G8's members promised to contribute $20 billion to the issue over three years.[22] Since then, only 22% of the promised funds have been delivered.[23]

At the 2012 summit, President Barack Obama asked G8 leaders to adopt the New Alliance for Food Security and Nutrition initiative to "help the rural poor produce more food and sell it in thriving local and regional markets as well as on the global market."[24][25]

Russia′s participation suspension (2014)[edit]

On 24 March 2014, the non-Russian G8 members cancelled the planned "G8 summit that was to be held in June that year in the Russian city of Sochi, and suspended Russia′s membership of the group, due to "Russia's annexation of Crimea; nevertheless, they stopped short of outright permanent expulsion.[26] Russian foreign minister "Sergei Lavrov downplayed the importance of the decision by the U.S. and its allies, and pointed up that major international decisions were taken by the "G20 countries.[27][6]

Later on, the Italian Foreign Affairs minister "Federica Mogherini and other Italian authorities,[9][10] along with the "EastWest Institute board member "Wolfgang Ischinger,[11] suggested that Russia may restore its membership in the group. In April 2015, the German foreign minister "Frank-Walter Steinmeier said that Russia would be welcomed to return to G8 provided the "Minsk Protocol was implemented.[12] In 2016, he added that "none of the major international conflicts can be solved without Russia", and the G7 countries will consider Russia's return to the group in 2017. The same year, Japanese Prime Minister "Shinzō Abe called for Russia's return to G8, stating that Russia's involvement is "crucial to tackling multiple crises in the Middle East".[13] In January 2017, the Italian foreign minister "Angelino Alfano said that Italy hopes for "resuming the G8 format with Russia and ending the atmosphere of the Cold War".[14] On 13 January 2017, Russia announced that it would permanently leave the G8 grouping.[28]

Structure and activities[edit]

""
""
Leaders of the G8 on 18 June 2013, in "Lough Erne, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom

By design, the G8 deliberately lacked an administrative structure like those for international organizations, such as the "United Nations or the "World Bank. The group does not have a permanent secretariat, or offices for its members.

The presidency of the group rotates annually among member countries, with each new term beginning on 1 January of the year. The rotation order is: France, the United States, the United Kingdom, Russia (suspended), Germany, Japan, Italy, and Canada.[29] The country holding the presidency is responsible for planning and hosting a series of ministerial-level meetings, leading up to a mid-year summit attended by the heads of government. The president of the European Commission participates as an equal in all summit events.[30]

The ministerial meetings bring together ministers responsible for various portfolios to discuss issues of mutual or global concern. The range of topics include health, law enforcement, labor, economic and social development, energy, environment, foreign affairs, justice and interior, terrorism, and trade. There are also a separate set of meetings known as the "G8+5, created during the 2005 "Gleneagles, Scotland summit, that is attended by finance and energy ministers from all eight member countries in addition to the five "outreach countries" which are also known as the "Group of Five—"Brazil, "People's Republic of China, "India, "Mexico, and "South Africa.[31]

In June 2005, justice ministers and interior ministers from the G8 countries agreed to launch an international database on "pedophiles.[32] The G8 officials also agreed to pool data on "terrorism, subject to restrictions by privacy and security laws in individual countries.[33]

Global energy[edit]

""
""
G8 leaders confer during the "2009 summit in "L'Aquila ("Abruzzo, Italy).

At the "Heiligendamm Summit in 2007, the G8 acknowledged a proposal from the EU for a worldwide initiative on "efficient energy use. They agreed to explore, along with the "International Energy Agency, the most effective means to promote energy efficiency internationally. A year later, on 8 June 2008, the G8 along with China, India, South Korea and the "European Community established the "International Partnership for Energy Efficiency Cooperation, at the Energy Ministerial meeting hosted by Japan holding 2008 G8 Presidency, in "Aomori.[34]

G8 Finance Ministers, whilst in preparation for the "34th Summit of the G8 Heads of State and Government in "Toyako, Hokkaido, met on the 13 and 14 June 2008, in "Osaka, Japan. They agreed to the "G8 Action Plan for Climate Change to Enhance the Engagement of Private and Public Financial Institutions." In closing, Ministers supported the launch of new "Climate Investment Funds (CIFs) by the "World Bank, which will help existing efforts until a new framework under the "UNFCCC is implemented after 2012. The UNFCCC is not on track to meeting any of its stated goals.[35]

Annual summit[edit]

The "first G8 summit was held in 1997 after Russia formally joined the G7 group, and the "last one was held in 2013. The "2014 summit was scheduled to be held in Russia. However, due to the "Crimean crisis, the other seven countries decided to hold a separate meeting without Russia as a G7 summit in Brussels, Belgium.

Member facts[edit]

Criticism[edit]

""
""
20 July 2001, "27th G8 summit in "Genoa, Italy: Protesters burn a police vehicle

Some criticism centres on the assertion that members of G8 do not do enough to help global problems, due to strict "patent policy and other issues related to "globalization. In Unraveling Global Apartheid, political analyst Titus Alexander described the G7, as it was in 1996, as the 'cabinet' of global minority rule, with a coordinating role in world affairs.[46]

The "Heritage Foundation has criticized the G8 for advocating food security without making room for economic freedom.[47]

Relevance[edit]

The G8's relevance has been subject to debate from 2008 onward.[48] It represented the major "industrialized countries but critics argued that the G8 no longer represented the world's most powerful economies, as China "has surpassed every economy but the United States.[49].

Vladimir Putin did not attend the 2012 G8 summit at Camp David, causing "Foreign Policy (FP) magazine to remark that the summit has generally outlived its usefulness as a viable international gathering of foreign leaders.[50] Two years later, Russia was suspended from the G8, then chose to leave permanently in January 2017.

The "G20 major economies leaders' summit has had an increased level of international prestige and influence.[51] However, "British Prime Minister "David Cameron said of the G8 in 2012:[52]

Some people ask, does the G8 still matter, when we have a Group of 20? My answer is, yes. The G8 is a group of like-minded countries that share a belief in free enterprise as the best route to growth. As eight countries making up about half the world's gross domestic product, the standards we set, the commitments we make, and the steps we take can help solve vital global issues, fire up economies and drive prosperity all over the world.

Youth 8 Summit[edit]

The Y8 Summit or simply Y8, formerly known as the G8 Youth Summit[53] is the youth counterpart to the G8 summit.[54] The first summit to use the name Y8 took place in May 2012 in "Puebla, "Mexico, alongside the Youth G8 that took place in "Washington, D.C. the same year.

The Y8 Summit brings together young leaders from G8 nations and the "European Union to facilitate discussions of "international affairs, promote cross-cultural understanding, and build global friendships. The conference closely follows the formal negotiation procedures of the G8 Summit.[55] The Y8 Summit represents the innovative voice of young adults between the age of 18 and 35. The delegates jointly come up with a consensus-based[56] written statement in the end, the Final Communiqué.[57] This document is subsequently presented to G8 leaders in order to inspire positive change.

The Y8 Summit is organised annually by a global network of youth-led organisations called The IDEA (The International Diplomatic Engagement Association).[58] The organisations undertake the selection processes for their respective national delegations, while the hosting country is responsible for organising the summit. Now, several youth associations are supporting and getting involved in the project. For instance, every year, the "Young European Leadership association is recruiting and sending EU Delegates.

The goal of the Y8 Summit is to bring together young people from around the world to allow the voices and opinions of young generations to be heard and to encourage them to take part in global decision-making processes.[59][60]

Summit Year Host country Location held
1st International Student Model G8 2006  Russia "Saint Petersburg
2nd Model G8 Youth Summit 2007  Germany "Berlin
3rd Model G8 Youth Summit 2008  Japan "Yokohama
4th G8 Youth Summit 2009  Italy "Milano
5th G8 Youth Summit 2010  Canada "Muskoka & "Toronto
6th G8 Youth Summit 2011  France "Paris
** Y8 Summit 2012  Mexico "Puebla
7th G8 Youth Summit 2012  USA "Washington D.C.
8th Y8 summit 2013  UK "London
9th Y8 summit 2014  Russia "Moscow*

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Thinking Ahead: The 'One-Time' G-22 Looks Useful". New York Times. Retrieved 2014-03-01. 
  2. ^ "EU and the G8". European Commission. Archived from the original on February 26, 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-25. 
  3. ^ FACTBOX: The Group of Eight: what is it?, Reuters
  4. ^ "Russia Is Ousted From Group of 8 by U.S. and Allies". "The New York Times. Retrieved 2014-03-25. 
  5. ^ a b c "The Group of Eight (G8) Industrialized Nations". CFR. 
  6. ^ a b "U.S., other powers kick Russia out of G8". CNN.com. 24 March 2014. Retrieved 2014-03-25. 
  7. ^ Smale, Alison; Shear, Michael D. (24 March 2014). "Russia Is Ousted From Group of 8 by U.S. and Allies". The New York Times. "ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 21 December 2015. 
  8. ^ "Russia suspended from G8 over annexation of Crimea, Group of Seven nations says". National Post. 24 March 2014. Retrieved 21 December 2015. 
  9. ^ a b "Italy hopes G7 returns to G8 format - Foreign Ministry". "ITAR-TASS. 2014-06-08. 
  10. ^ a b "Italy working for Russia return to G8". "ANSA. 2014-07-03. 
  11. ^ a b "Amb. Wolfgang Ischinger Urges Inclusion of Russia in G8 | EastWest Institute". www.ewi.info. Retrieved 2017-03-02. 
  12. ^ a b Russian return to G8 depends on Ukraine ceasefire-German minister Reuters, 15 April 2015.
  13. ^ a b "Japan's Abe calls for Putin to be brought in from the cold". Financial Times. 
  14. ^ a b "Italian Minister 'Hopes' For Russia's Return To G8". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. 
  15. ^ https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/politics/russia-g8-kremlin-crimea-ukraine-vladimir-putin-g7-g20-a7525836.html
  16. ^ Until recently, the EU had the privileges and obligations of a membership that did not host or chair summits. It was represented by the Commission and Council presidents. "EU and the G8". "European Commission. Archived from the original on 2007-02-26. Retrieved 2007-09-25. 
  17. ^ "Officials: G-20 to supplant G-8 as international economic council". CNN. 2009-09-25. Retrieved 2009-09-25. 
  18. ^ "G20 to replace the G8". SBS. 2009-09-26. Archived from the original on September 27, 2009. Retrieved 2009-09-26. 
  19. ^ "Japan and the G20: Ambivalence and the China factor". 11 February 2011. 
  20. ^ "Russia — Odd Man Out in the G-8", Mark Medish, The Globalist, 02-24-2006.Accessed: 07-12-2008 Archived March 5, 2008, at the "Wayback Machine.
  21. ^ "Cash-strapped G8 looks to private sector in hunger fight". "Reuters. 18 May 2012. Retrieved 18 May 2012. 
  22. ^ Lief, Eric (15 September 2012). "Funding Food Security - A Financial Lens on the L'Aquila G8". Spotlight. Retrieved 18 May 2012. 
  23. ^ "G8 leaders urged to live up to nutrition commitments". Farming UK. 18 May 2012. Retrieved 18 May 2012. 
  24. ^ Tandon, Shaun (18 May 2012). "Obama turns to private sector to feed world's poor". Agence France-Presse. Archived from the original on January 31, 2013. Retrieved 18 May 2012. 
  25. ^ Patrick, Stewart M. (16 May 2012). "Why This Year's G8 Summit Matters". The Atlantic. Retrieved 18 May 2012. 
  26. ^ "Ukraine crisis: Russia scathing about G8 suspension as fears grow". The Independent. 25 March 2014. 
  27. ^ "Russia Temporarily Kicked Out Of G8 Club Of Rich Countries". Business Insider. 2014-03-24. 
  28. ^ Tom Batchelor (2017-01-13). "Russia announces plan to permanently leave G8 group of industrialised nations after suspension for Crimea annexation". Independent. 
  29. ^ G8 Research Group. "What is the G8?". University of Toronto. Retrieved 2014-03-08. 
  30. ^ "Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Japan): Summit Meetings in the Past; "European Union: "EU and the G8" Archived 2007-02-26 at the "Wayback Machine.
  31. ^ "G5 Overview; Evolución del Grupo de los Cinco". Groupoffive.org. Retrieved 2010-06-27. 
  32. ^ "G8 to launch international pedophile database" David Batty June 18, 2005, "The Guardian
  33. ^ "G8 to pool data on terrorism" Martin Wainwright, June 18, 2005, "The Guardian
  34. ^ The International Partnership for Energy Efficiency Cooperation (IPEEC). June 8, 2008.
  35. ^ "G8 Finance Ministers Support Climate Investment Funds". IISD - Climate Change Policy & Practice. 14 June 2008. 
  36. ^ "CIA World Fact Country Rankings". 
  37. ^ "exports". cia factbook. 
  38. ^ "Sovereign Wealth Fund Rankings". SWF Institute. Retrieved 2012-02-16. 
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  41. ^ Malcolm Chalmers & Simon Lunn (March 2010), NATO's Tactical Nuclear Dilemma, "Royal United Services Institute, retrieved 2010-03-16 
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  46. ^ Alexander, Titus (1996). Unraveling Global Apartheid: An overview of world politics. Polity Press. pp. 212–213. 
  47. ^ Miller, Terry (17 May 2012). "G8 Food Security Agenda Should Encourage Greater Privatisation". "The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 18 May 2012. 
  48. ^ Lee, Don (July 6, 2008). "On eve of summit, G-8's relevance is unclear". Los Angeles Times. 
  49. ^ "China marches towards world's No. 2 economy". CNN. August 16, 2010. 
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  55. ^ Brun, Martine (July 2013). "Camille Grossetete, une Claixoise au Youth 8". Dauphiné Libéré (in French). 
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  57. ^ Castagna, Silvia (June 2013). "Da barista a ministro del G8 dei giovani". Il Giornale di Vicenza (in Italian). 
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Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

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