In June 1979, the "Ixtoc I "oil platform in the Bay of Campeche suffered a "blowout leading to a catastrophic explosion, which resulted in a "massive oil spill that continued for nine months before the well was finally capped. This was ranked as the largest oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico until the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010.
Deepwater Horizon explosion and oil spill
On April 20, 2010, the "Deepwater Horizon oil platform, located in the "Mississippi Canyon about 40 miles (64 km) off the Louisiana coast, suffered a catastrophic explosion; it sank a day-and-a-half later. It was in the process of being sealed with cement for temporary abandonment, to avoid environmental problems. Although initial reports indicated that relatively little oil had leaked, by April 24, it was claimed by BP that approximately 1,000 barrels (160 m3) of oil per day were issuing from the "wellhead, about 1-mile (1.6 km) below the surface on the ocean floor. On April 29, the U.S. government revealed that approximately 5,000 barrels (790 m3) per day, five times the original estimate, were pouring into the Gulf from the wellhead. The resulting "oil slick quickly expanded to cover hundreds of square miles of ocean surface, posing a serious threat to "marine life and adjacent "coastal wetlands, and to the livelihoods of Gulf Coast shrimpers and fishermen. Coast Guard Rear Adm. Sally Brice O'Hare stated that the U.S. government will be "employing booms, skimmers, chemical dispersants and controlled burns" to combat the oil spill. By May 1, 2010, the oil spill cleanup efforts were underway, but hampered by rough seas and the "tea like" consistency of the oil. Cleanup operations were resumed after conditions became favorable. On May 27, 2010, The "USGS had revised the estimate of the leak from 5,000 barrels per day (790 m3/d) to 12,000–19,000 barrels per day (3,000 m3/d) an "increase from earlier estimates. On July 15, 2010, BP announced that the leak stopped for the first time in 88 days.
In July 2015 BP reached an $18.7bn settlement with the US government, the states of Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi and Texas, as well as 400 local authorities. To date BP's cost for the clean-up, environmental and economic damages and penalties has reached $54bn.
Minor oil spills
According to the "National Response Center, the oil industry has thousands of minor accidents in the Gulf of Mexico every year.
Brutus oil spill
On May 12, 2016, a release of oil from subsea infrastructure on "Shell's Brutus oil rig released 2,100 barrels of oil. This leak created a visible 2 mile by 13 mile oil slick in the sea about 97 miles south of "Port Fourchon, "Louisiana, according to the U.S. Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement.
US Gulf of Mexico Protraction areas
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|""||Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gulf of Mexico.|
- Resource Database for Gulf of Mexico Research
- Gulf of Mexico Integrated Science
- Mystery Mardi Gras Shipwreck
- "Mexico, Gulf of". "Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.
- "" "Mexico, Gulf of". "Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921.
- Bathymetry of the Northern Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean East of Florida "United States Geological Survey
- The Present State of the West-Indies: Containing an Accurate Description of What Parts Are Possessed by the Several Powers in Europe written by "Thomas Kitchin, 1778, in which Kitchin discusses, in chapter 1, why the Gulf should have been called the "West Indian Sea."
- BP Oil Spill, NPR