- HTML Working Group – HTML Canvas 2D Context;
- Web Apps Working Group – "Web Messaging, "Web Workers, "Web Storage, "WebSocket, "Server-sent events, "Web Components (this was not part of HTML5 though); Note that the Web Applications Working Group was closed in October 2015 and its deliverables transferred to the Web Platform Working Group (WPWG).
- IETF HyBi Working Group – WebSocket Protocol;
- WebRTC Working Group – "WebRTC;
- Web Media Text Tracks Community Group – "WebVTT.
After the standardization of the HTML5 specification in October 2014, the core vocabulary and features are being extended in four ways. Likewise, some features that were removed from the original HTML5 specification have been standardized separately as modules, such as "Microdata and "Canvas. Technical specifications introduced as HTML5 extensions such as "Polyglot Markup have also been standardized as modules. Some W3C specifications that were originally separate specifications have been adapted as HTML5 extensions or features, such as SVG. Some features that might have slowed down the standardization of HTML5 will be standardized as upcoming specifications, instead. HTML 5.1 is expected to be finalized in 2016, and it is currently on the standardization track at the W3C.
HTML5 introduces "elements and attributes that reflect typical usage on modern "websites. Some of them are semantic replacements for common uses of generic block (
<div>) and inline (
<span>) elements, for example
<nav> (website navigation block),
<footer> (usually referring to bottom of web page or to last lines of HTML code), or
<video> instead of
<object>. Some deprecated elements from "HTML 4.01 have been dropped, including purely presentational elements such as
The HTML5 syntax is no longer based on "SGML despite the similarity of its markup. It has, however, been designed to be backward compatible with common parsing of older versions of HTML. It comes with a new introductory line that looks like an SGML "document type declaration,
<!DOCTYPE html>, which triggers the standards-compliant "rendering mode. Since 5 January 2009, HTML5 also includes Web Forms 2.0, a previously separate "WHATWG specification.
Not all of the above technologies are included in the W3C HTML5 specification, though they are in the WHATWG HTML specification. Some related technologies, which are not part of either the W3C HTML5 or the WHATWG HTML specification, are as follows. The W3C publishes specifications for these separately:
- "Web SQL Database – a local SQL Database (no longer maintained);
- "IndexedDB – an indexed hierarchical key-value store (formerly WebSimpleDB);
- "File – an API intended to handle file uploads and file manipulation;
- Directories and System – an API intended to satisfy client-side-storage use cases not well served by databases;
- File Writer – an API for writing to files from web applications;
- Web Cryptography
XHTML5 (XML-serialized HTML5)
XML documents must be served with an XML "Internet media type (often called "MIME type") such as
application/xml, and must conform to strict, well-formed syntax of XML. XHTML5 is simply XML-serialized HTML5 data (e.g. not having any unclosed tags), sent with one of XML media types. HTML that has been written to conform to both the HTML and XHTML specifications – and which will therefore produce the same DOM tree whether parsed as HTML or XML – is called "polyglot markup.
HTML5 is designed so that old browsers "can safely ignore new HTML5 constructs. In contrast to HTML 4.01, the HTML5 specification gives detailed rules for "lexing and "parsing, with the intent that compliant browsers will produce the same results when parsing incorrect syntax. Although HTML5 now defines a consistent behavior for ""tag soup" documents, those documents are not regarded as conforming to the HTML5 standard.
According to a report released on 30 September 2011, 34 of the world's top 100 Web sites were using HTML5 – the adoption led by "search engines and "social networks. Another report released in August 2013 has shown that 153 of the "Fortune 500 U.S. companies implemented HTML5 on their corporate websites.
Since 2014, HTML5 is at least "partially supported by most popular layout engines.
Differences from HTML 4.01 and XHTML 1.x
The following is a cursory list of differences and some specific examples.
- New parsing rules: oriented towards flexible parsing and compatibility; not based on SGML
- Ability to use inline SVG and MathML in
- New "elements:
- New types of form controls:
dates and times,
- New "attributes:
- Global attributes (that can be applied for every element):
data-* (custom data attributes)
- Deprecated elements will be dropped altogether:
dev.w3.org provides the latest Editors Draft of "HTML5 differences from HTML 4", which provides a complete outline of additions, removals and changes between HTML5 and HTML 4.
On 18 January 2011, the W3C introduced a logo to represent the use of or interest in HTML5. Unlike other badges previously issued by the W3C, it does not imply validity or conformance to a certain standard. As of 1 April 2011, this logo is official.
When initially presenting it to the public, the W3C announced the HTML5 logo as a "general-purpose visual identity for a broad set of open web technologies, including HTML5, "CSS, SVG, "WOFF, and others". Some web standard advocates, including The Web Standards Project, criticized that definition of "HTML5" as an umbrella term, pointing out the blurring of terminology and the potential for miscommunication. Three days later, the W3C responded to community feedback and changed the logo's definition, dropping the enumeration of related technologies. The W3C then said the logo "represents HTML5, the cornerstone for modern Web applications".
Digital rights management
Industry players including the "BBC, "Google, "Microsoft, and "Netflix have been lobbying for the inclusion of "Encrypted Media Extensions (EME), a form of "digital rights management (DRM), into the HTML5 standard. As of the end of 2012 and the beginning of 2013, 27 organisations including the "Free Software Foundation have started a campaign against including digital rights management in the HTML5 standard. However, in late September 2013, the W3C "HTML Working Group decided that Encrypted Media Extensions, a form of DRM, was "in scope" and will potentially be included in the HTML 5.1 standard. "WHATWG's "HTML Living Standard" continued to be developed without DRM-enabled proposals.
Manu Sporny, a member of the "W3C, said that EME will not solve the problem it's supposed to address. Opponents point out that EME itself is just an architecture for a DRM plug-in mechanism.
The initial enablers for DRM in HTML5 were Google and Microsoft. Supporters also include Adobe. On 14 May 2014, "Mozilla announced plans to support EME in "Firefox, the last major browser to avoid DRM. Calling it "a difficult and uncomfortable step", Andreas Gal of Mozilla explained that future versions of Firefox would remain open source but ship with a sandbox designed to run a content decryption module developed by Adobe. While promising to "work on alternative solutions", Mozilla's Executive Chair "Mitchell Baker stated that a refusal to implement EME would have accomplished little more than convincing many users to switch browsers. This decision was condemned by "Cory Doctorow and the "Free Software Foundation.
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