See more HTML element articles on AOD.
A multiple-line text area, the size of which is specified by cols (where a col is a one-character width of text) and rows HTML attributes. The content of this element is restricted to plain text, which appears in the text area as default text when the page is loaded. Standardized in HTML 2.0; still current. Tables The format of HTML Tables was proposed in the HTML 3.0 Drafts and the later RFC 1942 HTML Tables. They were inspired by the CALS Table Model. Some elements in these proposals were included in HTML 3.2; the present form of HTML Tables was standardized in HTML 4. (Many of the elements used within tables are neither block nor inline elements.) ...
Identifies a table. Several HTML attributes are possible in HTML Transitional, but most of these are invalid in HTML Strict and can be replaced with style sheets. The summary attribute is however informally required for accessibility purposes, though its usage is not simple. Proposed in the HTML 3.0 Drafts; Standardized in HTML 3.2; still current. ... Contains a row of cells in a table. Proposed in the HTML 3.0 Drafts; Standardized in HTML 3.2; still current. ... A table header cell; contents are conventionally displayed bold and centered. An aural user agent may use a louder voice for these items. Proposed in the HTML 3.0 Drafts; Standardized in HTML 3.2; still current. ... A table data cell. Proposed in the HTML 3.0 Drafts; Standardized in HTML 3.2; still current. ... Specifies a column group in a table. Proposed in HTML Tables; Standardized in HTML 4.0; still current. ... Specifies a column in a table. Proposed in HTML Tables; Standardized in HTML 4.0; still current. ... Specifies a caption for a table. Proposed in the HTML 3.0 Drafts; Standardized in HTML 3.2; still current. ... Specifies the header part of a table. This section may be repeated by the user agent if the table is split across pages (in printing or other paged media). Proposed in HTML Tables; Standardized in HTML 4.0; still current. ... Specifies a body of data for the table. Proposed in HTML Tables; Standardized in HTML 4.0; still current. ... Specifies the footer part of a table. Like , this section may be repeated by the user agent if the table is split across pages (in printing or other paged media). Proposed in HTML Tables; Standardized in HTML 4.0; still current. Frames Frames allow a visual HTML Browser window to be split into segments, each of which can show a different document. This can lower bandwidth use, as repeating parts of a layout can be used in one frame, while variable content is displayed in another. This may come at a certain usability cost, especially in non-visual user agents, due to separate and independent documents (or websites) being displayed adjacent to each other and being allowed to interact with the same parent window. Because of this cost, frames (excluding the An inline frame places another HTML document in a frame. Unlike an object element, an inline frame can be the "target" frame for links defined by other elements, and it can be selected by the user agent as the focus for printing, viewing its source, and so on. The content of the element is used as alternative text to be displayed if the browser does not support iframes. First introduced by Microsoft Internet Explorer in 1997, standardized in HTML 4.0 Transitional, allowed in HTML5. Longdesc In HTML, longdesc is an attribute used within the image element, frame element, or iframe element. It is supposed to be a URL to a document that provides a long description for the image, frame, or iframe in question. Note that this attribute should contain a URL, and not as is commonly mistaken, the text of the description itself. Longdesc was designed to be used by screen readers to display image information for computer users with accessibility issues, such as the blind or visually impaired, and is widely implemented by both web browsers and screen readers. Some developers object that it is actually seldom used for this purpose, because there are relatively few authors who use the attribute, and most of those authors use it incorrectly, and have used this argument to recommend dropping longdesc. The publishing industry has responded, advocating the retention of longdesc. Example Content of description.html: Linking to the long description in the text Since very few graphical browsers support making the link available natively (Opera and iCab being the exceptions), it is useful to include a link to the description page near the img element whenever possible, as this can also aid sighted users. Example Historic elements The following elements were part of the early HTML developed by Tim Berners-Lee from 1989–91; they are mentioned in HTML Tags, but deprecated in HTML 2.0 and were never part of HTML standards. ... (deprecated) This element displayed the text inside the tags in a monospace font and without interpreting the HTML. The HTML 2.0 specification recommended rendering the element at up to 132 characters per line. Deprecated in HTML 3.2; obsolete in HTML5. (deprecated) plaintext does not have an end tag, as it terminates the markup and causes the rest of the document to be parsed as if it were plain text. plaintext existed in HTML Tags; deprecated in HTML 2.0; invalid in HTML 4.0. <xmp>...</xmp> (deprecated) This element displayed the text inside the tags in a monospace font and without interpreting the HTML. The HTML 2.0 specification recommended rendering the element at 80 characters per line. Deprecated in HTML 3.2; obsolete in HTML5. <nextid/> (deprecated) This element enabled NeXT web designing tool to generate automatic NAME labels for its anchors and was itself automatically generated. nextid existed in HTML Tags (described as obsolete); deprecated in HTML 2.0; invalid in HTML 3.2 and later. Non-standard elements This section lists some widely used obsolete elements, which means they are not used in valid code. They may not be supported in all user agents. <blink>...</blink> (deprecated) Causes text to blink. Introduced in imitation of the ANSI escape codes. Can be done with CSS where supported: {text-decoration: blink} (This effect may have negative consequences for people with photosensitive epilepsy; its use on the public Internet should follow the appropriate guidelines.) blink originated in Netscape Navigator and is mostly recognized by its descendants, including Firefox; deprecated or invalid in HTML 2.0 and later. Note that the replacement CSS tag, while standard, is not required to be supported. <marquee>...</marquee> (deprecated) Creates scrolling text. Can be done with scripting instead. (This effect may have negative consequences for people with photosensitive epilepsy; its use on the public Internet should follow the appropriate guidelines.) There are three options, including Alternate, Scroll and slide. Scrolldelay can also be added. marquee originated in Microsoft Internet Explorer; deprecated or invalid in HTML 4.01 and later. <nobr>...</nobr> (deprecated) Causes text to not break at end of line, preventing word wrap where text exceeds the width of the enclosing object. Adjacent text may break before and after it. Can be done with CSS: {white-space: nowrap;} nobr is a proprietary element which is recognized by most browsers for compatibility reasons; deprecated or invalid in HTML 2.0 and later. <noembed>...</noembed> (deprecated) Specifies alternative content, if the embed cannot be rendered. Replaced by the content of the embed or object element. Comments <!-- A Comment --> A comment in HTML (and related XML, SGML and SHTML) uses the same syntax as the SGML comment or XML comment, depending on the doctype. Unlike most HTML tags, comments do not nest. The markup <!--Xbegin<!--Y-->Xend--> will yield the comment Xbegin<!--Y and the text Xend--> after it. Comments can appear anywhere in a document, as the HTML parser is supposed to ignore them no matter where they appear so long as they are not inside other HTML tag structures. Comments can even appear before the doctype declaration; no other tags are permitted to do this. However, not all browsers and HTML editors are fully compliant with the HTML syntax framework and may do unpredictable things under some syntax conditions. Defective handling of comments only affects about 5% of all browsers and HTML editors in use (IE6 accounting for most of this high percentage). Even then only certain versions are affected by comment mishandling issues. There are a few compatibility quirks involving comments: Placing comments – or indeed any characters except for white-space – before the doctype will cause Internet Explorer 6 to use quirks mode for the HTML page. None of its enclosed contents are processed. For compatibility with some pre-1995 browsers, the contents of style and script elements are still sometimes surrounded by comment delimiters. The BlueGriffon HTML editor, in versions 1.7.x makes comments that are not embedded in the syntax structure <style> ... {comment tags} ...</style> show up on screen. Other HTML editors may have this same defect. Notes References Bibliography External links HTML 4.01 (Dec 24, 1999): elements and attributes HTML5 (Oct 28, 2014): elements and attributes ) ) ) ) </textarea> <br> <j style="position:absolute;top:2px;right:2px;">Powered by<br><b><a href="http://ttsreader.com" target="_new">TTSReader</a></b></j> <center>Share this page on<br> <span class='st_sharethis_large' displayText='ShareThis'></span> <span class='st_facebook_large' displayText='Facebook'></span> <span class='st_twitter_large' displayText='Tweet'></span> <span class='st_reddit_large' displayText='Reddit'></span> <span class='st_tumblr_large' displayText='Tumblr'></span> <span class='st_googleplus_large' displayText='Google +'></span> <span class='st_linkedin_large' displayText='LinkedIn'></span> <script type="text/javascript">var switchTo5x=true;</script> <script type="text/javascript" src="http://w.sharethis.com/button/buttons.js"></script> <script type="text/javascript">stLight.options({publisher: "eee339d5-fa5b-4841-9ebd-5fc370542b16", doNotHash: true, doNotCopy: true, hashAddressBar: false});</script></center> Article provided by <b><a href="http://wikipedia.org/wiki/HTML_element" rel="nofollow" target="_new">Wikipedia</a></b></font><br><br><br> <div class="zero_height_container"> <textarea id="text_box_mirror"></textarea> </div> <!-- <div id="text_box" contenteditable="true" onclick="removePlaceholder();"> <p id="placeholder">Type in or paste any text you would like me to read out for you. <br>Feel free to copy-paste entire web articles or other written content. <br>Press the "play" button and enjoy listening! <br><br>TTSReader remembers the article and last position when paused, even if you close the browser. This way, you can come back to listening right where you previously left. <br>To change reading start-point, move the caret to the desired location. </p> </div> --> </div> </div> <script type="text/javascript" src="http://wikipediaaudio.com/script4.min.js"></script><script> document.getElementById("text_box").value = "xtracts] > "exlimit" was too large for a whole article extracts request, lowered to 1. ) [query] > ( [normalized] > ( [n] > ( [@attributes] > Array ( [from] > HTML_element [to] > HTML element ) ) ) [pages] > ( [page] > ( [@attributes] > Array ( [_idx] > 274393 [pageid] > 274393 [ns] > 0 [title] > HTML element ) [e > An HTML element is an individual component of an HTML document or web page, once this has been parsed into the Document Object Model. HTML is composed of a tree of HTML nodes, such as text nodes. Each node can have HTML attributes specified. Nodes can also have content, including other nodes and text. Many HTML nodes represent semantics, or meaning. For example, the title node represents the title of the document. Concepts Document vs. DOM HTML documents are delivered as "documents". These are then parsed, which turns them into the Document Object Model (DOM) internal representation, within the web browser. Presentation by the web browser, such as screen rendering or access by JavaScript, is then performed on this internal model, not the original document. Early HTML documents, and to a lesser extent today, were largely invalid HTML and riddled with syntax errors. The parsing process was also required to "fix-up" these errors, as best it could. The resultant model was often not correct (i.e. it did not represent what a careless coder had originally intended), but it would at least be valid, according to the HTML standard. A valid model was produced, no matter how bad the "tag soup" supplied had been. Only in the rarest cases would the parser abandon parsing altogether. Elements vs. tags "Elements" and "tags" are terms that are widely confused. HTML documents contain tags, but do not contain the elements. The elements are only generated after the parsing step, from these tags. As is generally understood, the position of an element is indicated as spanning from a start tag, possibly including some child content, and is terminated by an end tag. This is the case for many, but not all, elements within an HTML document. As HTML is based on SGML, its parsing also depends on the use of a DTD, specifically an HTML DTD such as that for HTML 4.01. The DTD specifies which element types are possible (i.e. it defines the set of element types that go to make up HTML) and it also specifies the valid combinations in which they may appear in a document. It is part of general SGML behavior that where only one valid structure is possible (per the DTD), it is not generally a requirement that the document explicitly states that structure. As a simple example, the <p> start tag indicating the start of a paragraph element should be closed by a </p> end tag, indicating the end of the element. Also the DTD states that paragraph elements cannot be nested. The HTML document fragment: <p>Para 1 <p>Para 2 <p>Para 3 can thus be inferred to be equivalent to: <p>Para 1 </p><p>Para 2 </p><p>Para 3 (If one paragraph element cannot contain another, any currently open paragraph must be closed before starting another.) Because of this implied behavior, based on the combination of the DTD and the individual document, it is not possible to infer elements from the document tags alone, but only by also using an SGML or HTML aware parser, with knowledge of the DTD. SGML vs. XML SGML is complex, which has limited its widespread adoption and understanding. XML was developed as a simpler alternative. XML is similar to SGML, that can also use the DTD mechanism to specify the supported elements and their permitted combinations as document structure. XML parsing is simpler. The relation from tags to elements is always that of parsing the actual tags included in the document, without the implied closures that are part of SGML. In Macros HTML can be formed as XML, either through XHTML or through HTML5, the parsing of document tags as DOM elements is simplified. Once the DOM of elements is obtained, behaviour beyond that point (i.e. screen rendering) is identical. %block; vs. box Part of this CSS presentation behavior is the notion of the "box model". This is applied to those elements that CSS considers to be "block" elements, set through the CSS display: block; declaration. HTML also has a similar concept, although different, and the two are very frequently confused. %block; and %inline; are groups within the HTML DTD that group elements as being either "block-level" or "inline". This is used to define their nesting behavior: block-level elements cannot be placed into an inline context. This behavior cannot be changed, it is fixed in the DTD. Block and inline elements have the appropriate and different CSS behaviors attached to them by default, including the relevance of the box model for particular element types. Note though that this CSS behavior can, and frequently is, changed from the default. Lists with <ul><li> ... are %block; elements and are presented as block elements by default. However, it is quite common to set these with CSS to display as an inline list. Overview Syntax In the HTML syntax, most elements are written with a start tag and an end tag, with the content in between. An HTML tag is composed of the name of the element, surrounded by angle brackets. An end tag also has a slash after the opening angle bracket, to distinguish it from the start tag. For example, a paragraph, which is represented by the p element, would be written as However, not all of these elements require the end tag, or even the start tag, to be present. Some elements, the so-called void elements or empty elements, do not have an end tag. A typical example is the br element, which represents a significant line break, such as in a poem or an address. A void element's behavior is predefined, and it cannot contain any content or other elements. For example, an address would be written as When using an XHTML DTD, it is required to open and close the element with a single tag. To specify that it is a void element, a "/" is included at the end of the tag (not to be confused with the "/" at the beginning of a closing tag). HTML attributes are specified inside the start tag. For example, the abbr element, which represents an abbreviation, expects a title attribute within its opening tag. This would be written as There are multiple kinds of HTML elements: void elements, raw text elements, and normal elements. Void elements only have a start tag, which contains any HTML attributes. They may not contain any children, such as text or other elements. Often they are place holders for elements which reference external files, such as the image (<img />) element. The attributes included in the element will then point to the external file in question. Another example of a void element is the <link /> element, for which the syntax is This <link /> element points the browser at a style sheet to use when presenting the HTML document to the user. Note that in the HTML syntax, attributes don't have to be quoted if they are composed only of certain characters: letters, digits, the hyphen-minus and the full stop. When using the XML syntax (XHTML), on the other hand, all attributes must be quoted, and a trailing slash is required before the last angle bracket: Raw text elements are constructed with: a start tag (<tag>) marking the beginning of an element, which may incorporate any number of HTML attributes; some amount of text content, but no elements (all tags, apart from the applicable end tag, will be interpreted as content); an end tag, in which the element name is prefixed with a slash: </tag>. In some versions of HTML, the end tag is optional for some elements. The end tag is required in XHTML. Normal elements usually have both a start tag and an end tag, although for some elements the end tag, or both tags, can be omitted. It is constructed in a similar way: a start tag (<tag>) marking the beginning of an element, which may incorporate any number of HTML attributes; some amount of content, including text and other elements; an end tag, in which the element name is prefixed with a slash: </tag>. HTML attributes define desired behavior or indicate additional element properties. Most attributes require a value. In HTML, the value can be left unquoted if it doesn't include spaces (namevalue), or it can be quoted with single or double quotes (name'value' or name"value"). In XML, those quotes are required. Boolean attributes, on the other hand, don't require a value to be specified. An example is the checked for checkboxes: In the XML syntax, though, the name should be repeated as the value: Informally, HTML elements are sometimes referred to as "tags" (an example of synecdoche), though many prefer the term tag strictly in reference to the markup delimiting the start and end of an element. Element (and attribute) names may be written in any combination of upper or lower case in HTML, but must be in lower case in XHTML. The canonical form was upper-case until HTML 4, and was used in HTML specifications, but in recent years, lower-case has become more common. Element standards HTML elements are defined in a series of freely available open standards issued since 1995, initially by the IETF and subsequently by the W3C. During the browser wars of the 1990s, developers of user agents (e.g. web browsers) often developed their own elements, some of which have been adopted in later standards. Other user agents may not recognize non-standard elements, and they will be ignored, possibly causing the page to be displayed improperly. In 1998, XML (a simplified form of SGML) introduced mechanisms to allow anyone to develop their own elements and incorporate them in XHTML documents, for use with XML-aware user agents. Subsequently, HTML 4.01 was rewritten in an XML-compatible form, XHTML 1.0 (eXtensible HTML). The elements in each are identical, and in most cases valid XHTML 1.0 documents will be valid or nearly valid HTML 4.01 documents. This article mainly focuses on real HTML, unless noted otherwise; however, it remains applicable to XHTML. (See HTML for a discussion of the minor differences between the two). Element status Since the first version of HTML, several elements have become outmoded, and are deprecated in later standards, or do not appear at all, in which case they are invalid (and will be found invalid, and perhaps not displayed, by validating user agents). At present, the status of elements is complicated by the existence of three types of HTML 4.01 / XHTML 1.0 DTD: Transitional, which contain deprecated elements, but which were intended to provide a transitional period during which authors could update their practices; Frameset, which are versions of the Transitional DTDs which also allow authors to write frameset documents; Strict, which is the up-to-date (as at 1999) form of HTML. The first Standard (HTML 2.0) contained four deprecated elements, one of which was invalid in HTML 3.2. All four are invalid in HTML 4.01 Transitional, which also deprecated a further ten elements. All of these, plus two others, are invalid in HTML 4.01 Strict. While the frame elements are still current in the sense of being present in the Transitional and Frameset DTDs, there are no plans to preserve them in future standards, as their function has been largely replaced, and they are highly problematic for user accessibility. (Strictly speaking, the most recent XHTML standard, XHTML 1.1 (2001), does not include frames at all; it is approximately equivalent to XHTML 1.0 Strict, but also includes the Ruby markup module.) A common source of confusion is the loose use of deprecated to refer to both deprecated and invalid status, and to elements which are expected to be formally deprecated in future. Content vs. presentation and behavior Since HTML 4, HTML has increasingly focused on the separation of content (the visible text and images) from presentation (like color, font size, and layout). This is often referred to as a separation of concerns. HTML is used to represent the structure or content of a document, its presentation remains the sole responsibility of CSS style sheets. A default style sheet is suggested as part of the CSS standard, giving a default rendering for HTML. Behavior (interactivity) is also kept separate from content, and is handled by scripts. Images are contained in separate graphics files, separate from text, though they can also be considered part of the content of a page. Separation of concerns allows the document to be presented by different user agents according to their purposes and abilities. For example, a user agent can select an appropriate style sheet to present a document by displaying on a monitor, printing on paper, or to determine speech characteristics in an audio-only user agent. The structural and semantic functions of the markup remain identical in each case. Historically, user agents did not always support these features. In the 1990s, as a stop-gap, presentational elements (like <b> and <i>) were added to HTML, at the cost of creating problems for interoperability and user accessibility. This is now regarded as outmoded and has been superseded by style sheet-based design; most presentational elements are now deprecated. External image files are incorporated with the img or object elements. (With XHTML, the SVG language can also be used to write graphics within the document, though linking to external SVG files is generally simpler.) Where an image is not purely decorative, HTML allows replacement content with similar semantic value to be provided for non-visual user agents. An HTML document can also be extended through the use of scripts to provide additional behaviors beyond the abilities of HTML hyperlinks and forms. The elements style and script, with related HTML attributes, provide reference points in HTML markup for links to style sheets and scripts. They can also contain instructions directly. In the document head, script and style may either link to shared external documents, or contain embedded instructions. (The link element can also be used to link style sheets.) The style attribute is valid in most document body elements for inclusion of inline style instructions. Event-handling attributes, which provide links to scripts, are optional in most elements. script can occur at any point in the document body. For user agents which do not operate scripts, the noscript element provides alternative content where appropriate; however, it can only be used as a block-level element. Document structure elements <html>...</html> The root element of an HTML document; all other elements are contained in this. The HTML element delimits the beginning and the end of an HTML document. Standardized in HTML 2.0; still current. <head>...</head> Container for processing information and metadata for an HTML document. Standardized in HTML 2.0; still current. (See document head elements for child elements.) <body>...</body> Container for the displayable content of an HTML document. Standardized in HTML 2.0; still current. (See document body elements for child elements.) Document head elements <base/> Specifies a base URL for all relative href and other links in the document. Must appear before any element that refers to an external resource. HTML permits only one base element for each document. The base element has HTML attributes, but no contents. A development version of BASE is mentioned in HTML Tags; standardized in HTML 2.0; still current. <basefont/> (deprecated) Specifies a base font size, typeface, and color for the document. Used together with font elements. Deprecated in favour of style sheets. Standardized in HTML 3.2; deprecated in HTML 4.0 Transitional; invalid in HTML 4.0 Strict. <isindex/> (deprecated) isindex could either appear in the document head or in the body, but only once in a document. See Forms. <link/> Specifies links to other documents, such as previous and next links, or alternate versions. A common use is to link to external style sheets, using the form: <link rel"stylesheet" type"text/css" href"url" title"description_of_style"> A less-common, but important, usage is to supply navigation hints consistently through use of microformats. Several common relationships are defined, that may be exposed to users through the browser interface rather than directly in the web page. <link rel"next" href"url"> A document's head element may contain any number of link elements. The link element has HTML attributes, but no contents. LINK existed in HTML Internet Draft 1.2, and was standardized in HTML 2.0; still current. <meta/> Can be used to specify additional metadata about a document, such as its author, publication date, expiration date, page description, keywords, or other information not provided through the other header elements and HTML attributes. Because of their generic nature, meta elements specify associative key-value pairs. In general, a meta element conveys hidden information about the document. Several meta tags can be used, all of which should be nested in the head element. The specific purpose of each meta element is defined by its attributes. In one form, meta elements can specify HTTP headers which should be sent by a web server before the actual content, for example: <meta http-equiv"foo" content"bar"> — this specifies that the page should be served with an HTTP header called foo that has a value bar. In the general form, a meta element specifies name and associated content HTML attributes describing aspects of the HTML page. To prevent possible ambiguity, an optional third attribute, scheme, may be supplied to specify a semantic framework that defines the meaning of the key and its value: for example: <meta name"foo" content"bar" scheme"DC"> In this example, the meta element identifies itself as containing the foo element, with a value of bar, from the DC or Dublin Core resource description framework. Standardized in HTML 2.0; still current. <object>...</object> Used for including generic objects within the document header. Though rarely used within a head element, it could potentially be used to extract foreign data and associate it with the current document. Standardized in HTML 4.0; still current. <script>...</script> Can act as a container for script instructions or link to an external script with the optional src attribute. Also usable in the document body to dynamically generate either both block or inline content. Standardized in HTML 3.2; still current. <style>...</style> Specifies a style for the document, usually in the form: <style type"text/css"> ... </style> Can either act as a container for style instructions or link to external style sheets – for example, in CSS, with @import directives of the form: <style> @import url; </style> Standardized in HTML 3.2; still current. <title>...</title> Define a document title. Required in every HTML and XHTML document. User agents may use the title in different ways. For example: Web browsers usually display it in a window's title bar when the window is open, and (where applicable) in the task bar when the window is minimized. It may become the default file-name when saving the page. Web search engines’ web crawlers may pay particular attention to the words used in the title. The title element must not contain other elements, only text. Only one title element is permitted in a document. TITLE existed in HTML Tags, and was standardized in HTML 2.0; still current. Document body elements In visual browsers, displayable elements can be rendered as either block or inline. While all elements are part of the document sequence, block elements appear within their parent elements: as rectangular objects which do not break across lines; with block margins, width and height properties which can be set independently of the surrounding elements. Conversely, inline elements are treated as part of the flow of document text; they cannot have margins, width or height set, and do break across lines. Block elements Block elements, or block-level elements, have a rectangular structure. By default, these elements will span the entire width of its parent element, and will thus not allow any other element to occupy the same horizontal space as it is placed on. The rectangular structure of a block element is often referred to as the box model, and is made up of several parts. Each element contains the following: The content of an element is the actual text (or other media) placed between the opening and closing tags of an element. The padding of an element is the space around that content, which still form part of said element. Padding is physically part of an element, and should not be used to create white space between two elements. Any background style assigned to the element, such as a background image or color, will be visible within the padding. Increasing the size of an element's padding increases the amount of space this element will take up. The border of an element is the absolute end of an element, and spans the perimeter of that element. The thickness of a border increases the size of an element. The margin of an element is the white-space that surrounds an element. The content, padding and border of any other element will not be allowed to enter this area, unless forced to do so by some advanced CSS placement. Using most standard DTDs, margins on the left and right of different elements will push each other away. Margins on the top or bottom of an element, on the other hand, will not stack, or will intermingle. This means that the white-space between these elements will be as big as the larger margin between them. The above section refers only to the detailed implementation of CSS rendering and has no relevance to HTML elements themselves. Basic text <p>...</p> Creates a paragraph, perhaps the most common block level element. P existed in HTML Tags, and was standardized in HTML 2.0; still current. <h1>...</h1> <h2>...</h2> <h3>...</h3> <h4>...</h4> <h5>...</h5> <h6>...</h6> Section headings at different levels. <h1> delimits the highest-level heading, <h2> the next level down (sub-section), <h3> for a level below that, and so on to <h6>. They are sometimes referred to collectively as <hn> tags, n meaning any of the available heading levels. Most visual browsers show headings as large bold text by default, though this can be overridden with CSS. Heading elements are not intended merely for creating large or bold text—in fact, they should not be used for explicitly styling text. Rather, they describe the document’s structure and organization. Some programs use them to generate outlines and tables of contents. Headings existed in HTML Tags, and were standardized in HTML 2.0; still current. Lists <dl>...</dl> A description list (a.k.a. association list), which consists of name–value groups, and was known as a definition list prior to HTML5. Description lists are intended for groups of "terms and definitions, metadata topics and values, questions and answers, or any other groups of name–value data". DL existed in HTML Tags, and was standardized in HTML 2.0; still current. <dt>...</dt> A name in a description list (previously definition term in a definition list). DT existed in HTML Tags, and was standardized in HTML 2.0; still current. <dd>...</dd> A value in a description list (previously definition data in a definition list). DD existed in HTML Tags, and was standardized in HTML 2.0; still current. <ol>...</ol> An ordered (enumerated) list. The type attribute can be used to specify the kind of marker to use in the list, but style sheets give more control. The default is Arabic numbering. CSS: list-style-type: foo. HTML attribute: <ol type"foo">, in either case, replacing foo with one of the following: A for A, B, C... a for a, b, c... I for I, II, III... i for i, ii, iii... 1 for 1, 2, 3... OL existed in HTML Internet Draft 1.2, and was standardized in HTML 2.0; still current. <ul>...</ul> An unordered (bulleted) list. Style sheets can be used to specify the list marker: list-style-type: foo. The default marker type is disc, other values are square, circle and none. UL existed in HTML Tags, and was standardized in HTML 2.0; still current. <li>...</li> A list item in ordered (ol) or unordered (ul) lists. LI existed in HTML Tags, and was standardized in HTML 2.0; still current. <dir>...</dir> (deprecated) A directory listing. The original purpose of this element was never widely supported; deprecated in favor of <ul>. DIR existed in HTML Tags, and was standardized in HTML 2.0; deprecated in HTML 4.0 Transitional; invalid in HTML 4.0 Strict. Other block elements <address>...</address> Contact information for the document author. ADDRESS existed in HTML Tags, and was standardized in HTML 2.0; still current. <article>...</article> Used for articles and other similar content. Standardized in HTML5. <aside>...</aside> Used for content in a document which is separate from the main page content, for example, sidebars or advertising. Standardized in HTML5. <blockquote>...</blockquote> A block level quotation, for when the quotation includes block level elements, e.g. paragraphs. The cite attribute may give the source, and must be a fully qualified Uniform Resource Identifier. The default presentation of block quotations in visual browsers is usually to indent them from both margins. This has led to the element being unnecessarily used just to indent paragraphs, regardless of semantics. For quotations not containing block level elements see the quote (q) element. BLOCKQUOTE existed in HTML Internet Draft 1.2, and was standardized in HTML 2.0; still current. See blockquote element for more information. <center>...</center> (deprecated) Creates a block-level center-aligned division. Deprecated in favor of <div> or another element with centering defined using style sheets. Standardized in HTML 3.2; deprecated in HTML 4.0; not supported in HTML5. <del>...</del> Marks a deleted section of content. This element can also be used as inline. Standardized in HTML 4.0; still current. <div>...</div> A block-level logical division. A generic element with no semantic meaning used to distinguish a document section, usually for purposes such as presentation or behaviour controlled by style sheets or DOM calls. Proposed in the HTML 3.0 Drafts; Standardized in HTML 3.2; still current. <figure>...</figure> Used to group images and captions, along with figcaption. Standardized in HTML5. <figcaption>...</figcaption> A caption for an image. Always placed inside the figure element. Standardized in HTML5. <footer>...</footer> Used for document footers. These may contain author or copyright information, or links to other pages. Standardized in HTML5. <header>...</header> Used for document headers. These typically contain content introducing the page. Standardized in HTML5. <hr/> A horizontal rule. Presentational rules can also be drawn with style sheets. Standardized in HTML 2.0; still current. <ins>...</ins> Marks a section of inserted content. This element can also be used as inline. Standardized in HTML 4.0; still current. <main>...</main> Contains the main content of a document. Standardized in HTML5. <menu>...</menu> HTML 2.0: A menu listing. Should be more compact than a <ul> list. MENU existed in HTML Tags, and was standardized in HTML 2.0; deprecated in HTML 4.0 Transitional; invalid in HTML 4.0 Strict; but then redefined in HTML5. <nav>...</nav> Used in navigational sections of articles (areas of webpages which contain links to other webpages). Standardized in HTML5. <noscript>...</noscript> Replacement content for scripts. Unlike script this can only be used as a block-level element. Standardized in HTML 4.0; still current. <pre>...</pre> Pre-formatted text. Text within this element is typically displayed in a non-proportional font exactly as it is laid out in the file (see ASCII art). Whereas browsers ignore white-space for other HTML elements, in pre, white-space should be rendered as authored. (With the CSS properties: {white-space: pre; font-family: monospace;}, other elements can be presented in the same way.) This element can contain any inline element except: image (IMG), object (OBJECT), big font size (BIG), small font size (SMALL), superscript (SUP), and subscript (SUB). PRE existed in HTML Internet Draft 1.2, and was standardized in HTML 2.0; still current. <section>...</section> Used for generic sections of a document. This is different from div in that it is only used to contain sections of a page, which the W3C defines as a group of content with a similar theme. Standardized in HTML5. <script>...</script> Places a script in the document. Also usable in the head and in inline contexts. Note: SCRIPT is not itself either a block or inline element; by itself it should not display at all, but it can contain instructions to dynamically generate either both block or inline content. Standardized in HTML 3.2; still current. Inline elements Inline elements cannot be placed directly inside the body element; they must be wholly nested within block-level elements. Anchor <a>...</a> An anchor element is called an anchor because web designers can use it to anchor a URL to some text on a web page. When users view the web page in a browser, they can click the text to activate the link and visit the page whose URL is in the link. In HTML, an anchor can be either the origin (the anchor text) or the target (destination) end of a hyperlink. With the attribute href, the anchor becomes a hyperlink to either another part of the document or another resource (e.g. a webpage) using an external URL. Alternatively (and sometimes concurrently), with the name or id HTML attributes set, the element becomes a target. A Uniform Resource Locator can link to this target via a fragment identifier. In HTML5, any element can now be made into a target by using the id attribute, so using <a name"foo">...</a> is not necessary, although this way of adding anchors continues to work. To illustrate: the header of a table of contents section on example.com could be turned into a target by writing <h1 id"contents">Table of contents</h1> Continuing with this example, now that the section has been marked up as a target, it can be referred to from external sites with a link like <a href"http://example.com#contents">see contents</a> or with a link on the same page like: <a href"#contents">contents, above</a> The attribute title may be set to give brief information about the link: <a href"URL" title"additional information">link text</a> In most graphical browsers, when the cursor hovers over a link, the cursor changes into a hand with an extended index finger and the title is displayed in a tooltip or in some other manner. Some browsers render alt text the same way, although this is not what the specification calls for. A existed in HTML Tags, and was standardized in HTML 2.0; still current. Phrase elements General <abbr>...</abbr> Marks an abbreviation, and can make the full form available: <abbr title"abbreviation">abbr.</abbr> Standardized in HTML 4.0; still current. <acronym>...</acronym> (deprecated) Similar to the abbr element, but marks an acronym: <acronym title"Hyper-Text Mark-up Language">HTML</acronym> Standardized in HTML 4.0; still current, not supported in HTML5. <dfn>...</dfn> inline definition of a single term. DFN existed in HTML Internet Draft 1.2, and was fully standardized in HTML 3.2; still current. <em>...</em> Emphasis (conventionally displayed in italics) EM existed in HTML Internet Draft 1.2, and was standardized in HTML 2.0; still current. <strong>...</strong> strong emphasis (conventionally displayed bold). An aural user agent may use different voices for emphasis. STRONG existed in HTML Internet Draft 1.2, and was standardized in HTML 2.0; still current. Computer phrase elements These elements are useful primarily for documenting computer code development and user interaction through differentiation of source code (<code>), source code variables (<var>), user input (<kbd>), and terminal output (<samp>). <code>...</code> A code snippet (code example). Conventionally rendered in a mono-space font. CODE existed in HTML Internet Draft 1.2, and was standardized in HTML 2.0; still current. <kbd>...</kbd> Keyboard - text to be entered by the user (kbd example). KBD existed in HTML Internet Draft 1.2, and was standardized in HTML 2.0; still current. <samp>...</samp> Sample output - from a program or script: (samp example). SAMP existed in HTML Internet Draft 1.2, and was standardized in HTML 2.0; still current. <var>...</var> Variable (var example). VAR existed in HTML Internet Draft 1.2, and was standardized in HTML 2.0; still current. Presentation As visual presentational markup only applies directly to visual browsers, its use is discouraged. Style sheets should be used instead. Several of these elements are deprecated or invalid in HTML 4 / XHTML 1.0, and the remainder are invalid in the current draft of XHTML 2.0. The current draft of HTML5, however, re-includes <s>, <u>, and <small>, assigning new semantic meaning to each. In an HTML5 document, the use of these elements is no longer discouraged, provided that it is semantically correct. <b>...</b> In HTML 4, set font to boldface where possible. Equivalent CSS: {font-weight: bold}. <strong>...</strong> usually has the same effect in visual browsers, as well as having more semantic meaning, under HTML 4.01. In HTML5, however, b has its own meaning, distinct from that of strong. It denotes "text to which attention is being drawn for utilitarian purposes without conveying any extra importance and with no implication of an alternate voice or mood." B existed in HTML Internet Draft 1.2, and was standardized in HTML 2.0; still current. <i>...</i> In HTML 4, set font to italic where possible. Equivalent CSS: {font-style: italic}. <em>...</em> usually has the same effect in visual browsers, as well as having more semantic meaning, under HTML 4.01. In HTML5, however, i has its own semantic meaning, distinct from that of em. It denotes "a different quality of text" or "an alternative voice or mood"—e.g., a thought, a ship name, a binary species name, a foreign-language phrase, etc. I existed in HTML Internet Draft 1.2, and was standardized in HTML 2.0; still current. <u>...</u> In HTML 4, underlined text. Equivalent CSS: {text-decoration: underline}. Deprecated in HTML 4.01. Restored in HTML5. In HTML5, the u element denotes "a span of text with an unarticulated, though explicitly rendered, non-textual annotation, such as labelling the text as being a proper name in Chinese text (a Chinese proper name mark), or labelling the text as being misspelt." The HTML5 specification reminds developers that other elements are almost always more appropriate than u and admonishes designers not to use underlined text where it could be confused for a hyper-link. U existed in HTML Internet Draft 1.2, was standardized in HTML 3.2 but was deprecated in HTML 4.0 Transitional and was invalid in HTML 4.0 Strict. Reintroduced in HTML5. <small>...</small> In HTML 4, decreased font size (smaller text). Equivalent CSS: {font-size: smaller} In HTML5, the small element denotes "side comments such as small print." Standardized in HTML 3.2; still current. <s>...</s> In HTML 4, indicated strike-through text (Strikethrough) and was equivalent to strike. In HTML5, the s element denotes information that is "no longer accurate or no longer relevant", and is not to be confused with del, which indicates removal/deletion. S was deprecated in HTML 4.0 Transitional (having not appeared in any previous standard), and was invalid in HTML 4.0 Strict. Reintroduced in HTML5. <big>...</big> (deprecated) Increased font size (bigger text). Equivalent CSS: {font-size: larger} Standardized in HTML 3.2; not supported in HTML5. <strike>...</strike> Strike-through text (Strikethrough), (Equivalent CSS: {text-decoration: line-through}) STRIKE was standardized in HTML 3.2; deprecated in HTML 4.0 Transitional; invalid in HTML 4.0 Strict. <tt>...</tt> (deprecated) Fixed-width font (typewriter-like), also known as teletype. (Equivalent CSS: {font-family: monospace;}) TT existed in HTML Internet Draft 1.2, and was Standardized in HTML 2.0; not supported in HTML5. Possible replacements: <kbd>...</kbd> for marking keyboard input, <var>...</var> for variables, <code>...</code> for computer code, <samp>...</samp> for computer output. <font>...</font> <font [colorcolour] [sizesize] [faceface]>...</font> Can specify the font colour with the color attribute (note the American spelling), typeface with the face attribute, and absolute or relative size with the size attribute. Examples (all uses are deprecated, use CSS equivalents if possible): <font color"green">text</font> creates green text. <font color"#114499">text</font> creates text with hexadecimal color #114499. <font size"4">text</font> creates text with size 4. Sizes are from 1 to 7. The standard size is 3, unless otherwise specified in the <body> or other tags. <font size"+1">text</font> creates text with size 1 bigger than the standard. <font size"-1">text</font> is opposite. <font face"Courier">text</font> makes text with Courier font. Equivalent CSS for font attributes: <font size"N"> corresponds to {font-size: Yunits} (the HTML specification does not define the relationship between size N and unit-size Y, nor does it define a unit). <font color"red"> corresponds to {color: red} <font face"Courier"> corresponds to {font-family: "Courier"} Standardized in HTML 3.2; deprecated in HTML 4.0 Transitional; invalid in HTML 4.0 Strict. Not part of HTML5. Span <span>...</span> An inline logical division. A generic element with no semantic meaning used to distinguish a document section, usually for purposes such as presentation or behaviour controlled by style sheets or DOM calls. Standardized in HTML 4.0; still current. Other inline elements <br/> A forced line break. Standardized in HTML 2.0; still current. <bdi>...</bdi> Isolates an inline section of text that may be formatted in a different direction from other text outside of it, such as user-generated content with unknown directionality. Standardized in HTML5. <bdo>...</bdo> Marks an inline section of text in which the reading direction is the opposite from that of the parent element. Standardized in HTML 4.0; still current. <cite>...</cite> A citation or a reference for a quote or statement in the document. CITE existed in HTML Internet Draft 1.2, and was standardized in HTML 2.0; still current. <data>...</data> Links inline content with a machine-readable translation. Standardized in HTML5. <del>...</del> Deleted text. Typically rendered as a strikethrough: Deleted text. Standardized in HTML 4.0; still current. <ins>...</ins> Inserted text. Often used to mark up replacement text for <del>'d text. Typically rendered underlined: Inserted text. Standardized in HTML 4.0; still current. Note, both <ins> and <del> elements may also be used as block elements: containing other block and inline elements. However, these elements must still remain wholly within their parent element to maintain a well-formed HTML document. For example, deleting text from the middle of one paragraph across several other paragraphs and ending in a final paragraph would need to use three separate <del> elements. Two <del> elements would be required as inline element to indicate the deletion of text in the first and last paragraphs, and a third, used as a block element, to indicate the deletion in the intervening paragraphs. <mark>...</mark> Produces text that looks like this. Intended for highlighting relevant text in a quotation. Standardized in HTML5. <q>...</q> An inline quotation (for block level quotation see blockquote). Quote elements may be nested. <q> should automatically generate quotation marks in conjunction with style sheets. Practical concerns due to browser non-compliance may force authors to find workarounds. The cite attribute gives the source, and must be a fully qualified URI. Standardized in HTML 4.0; still current. Note: Lengthy inline quotations may be displayed as indented blocks (as block-quote) using style sheets. For example, with a suitable CSS rule associated with q.lengthy: <q class"lengthy">An inline quotation of significant length (say 25 words, for example) goes here...</q> <rb>...</rb> Represents the base component of a ruby annotation. Standardized in HTML5. <rp>...</rp> Provides fallback parenthesis for browsers lacking ruby annotation support. Standardized in HTML5. <rt>...</rt> Indicates pronunciation for a character in a ruby annotation. Standardized in HTML5. <rtc>...</rtc> Semantic annotations for a ruby annotation. Standardized in HTML5. <ruby>...</ruby> Represents a ruby annotation for showing the pronunciation of East Asian characters. Standardized in HTML5. <script>...</script> Places a script in the document. Also usable in the head and in block contexts. Note: <script> is not itself either a block or inline element; by itself it should not display at all, but it can contain instructions to dynamically generate either both block or inline content. Standardized in HTML 3.2; still current. <sub>...</sub> and <sup>...</sup> Mark subscript or superscript text. (Equivalent CSS: {vertical-align: sub} or {vertical-align: super}.) Both were proposed in the HTML 3.0 Drafts; Standardized in HTML 3.2; still current. <template>...</template> Code fragments to be copied by scripts. Standardized in HTML5. <time>...</time> Represents a time on the 24-hour clock or a date on the Gregorian calendar, optionally with time and timezone information. Also allows times and dates to be represented in a machine-readable format. Standardized in HTML5. <wbr/> An optional word break. Was widely used (and supported by all major browsers) for years despite being non-standard until finally being standardized in HTML5. Images and objects <applet>...</applet> (deprecated) Embeds a Java applet in the page. Deprecated in favour of <object>, as it could only be used with Java applets, and had accessibility limitations. Standardized in HTML 3.2; deprecated in HTML 4.0 Transitional; invalid in HTML 4.0 Strict. As of 2011, still widely used as the implementations of the replacing <object> are not consistent between different browsers. <area/> Specifies a focusable area in a map. Standardized in HTML 3.2; still current. <audio>...</audio> Adds playable HTML5 audio to the page. The audio URL is determined using the src attribute. Supported audio formats vary from browser to browser. Standardized in HTML5. <canvas>...</canvas> Adds a canvas whose contents can be edited with JavaScript. Frequently used for online games. Standardized in HTML5. <embed>...</embed> Inserts a non-standard object (like applet) or external content (typically non-HTML) into the document. Deprecated in HTML 4 in favor of the object tag, but then was added back into the HTML5 specification <img/> Used by visual user agents to insert an image in the document. The src attribute specifies the image URL. The required alt attribute provides alternative text in case the image cannot be displayed. (Though alt is intended as alternative text, Microsoft Internet Explorer 7 and below render it as a tooltip if no title is given. Safari and Google Chrome, on the other hand, do not display the alt attribute at all.) img was proposed by Marc Andreessen and implemented in the NSCA Mosaic web browser. IMG existed in HTML Internet Draft 1.2, and was standardized in HTML 2.0; still current. <map>...</map> Specifies a client-side image map. Standardized in HTML 3.2; still current. <object>...</object> Includes an object in the page of the type specified by the type attribute. This may be in any MIME-type the user agent understands, such as an embedded HTML page, a file to be handled by a plug-in such as Flash, a Java applet, a sound file, etc. Standardized in HTML 4.0; still current. <param/> Originally introduced with applet, this element is now used with, and should only occur as a child of object. It uses HTML attributes to set a parameter for the object, e.g. width, height, font, background colour, etc., depending on the type of object. An object can have multiple params. Standardized in HTML 3.2; still current. <source>...</source> Specifies different sources for audio or video. Makes use of the src attribute in a way similar to the video and audio elements. Standardized in HTML5. <track>...</track> Provides text tracks, like subtitles and captions, for audio and video. Standardized in HTML5. <video>...</video> Adds a playable HTML5 video to the page. The video URL is determined using the src attribute. Supported video formats vary from browser to browser. Standardized in HTML5. Forms These elements can be combined into a form or in some instances used separately as user-interface controls; in the document, they can be simple HTML or used in conjunction with Scripts. HTML markup specifies the elements that make up a form, and the method by which it will be submitted. However, some form of scripts (server-side, client-side, or both) must be used to process the user’s input once it is submitted. (These elements are either block or inline elements, but are collected here as their use is more restricted than other inline or block elements.) <form action"url">...</form> Creates a form. The form element specifies and operates the overall action of a form area, using the required action attribute. Standardized in HTML 2.0; still current. <button>...</button> A generic form button which can contain a range of other elements to create complex buttons. Standardized in HTML 4.0; still current. <datalist>...</datalist> A list of options for use in form elements. Standardized in HTML5. <fieldset>...</fieldset> A container for adding structure to forms. For example, a series of related controls can be grouped within a field-set, which can then have a legend added in order to identify their function. Standardized in HTML 4.0; still current. <input/> input elements allow a variety of standard form controls to be implemented. Standardized in HTML 2.0; still current. Input Types: type"checkbox" A checkbox. Can be checked or unchecked. type"radio" A radio button. If multiple radio buttons are given the same name, the user will only be able to select one of them from this group. type"button" A general-purpose button. The element <button> is preferred if possible (i.e. if the client supports it) as it provides richer possibilities. type"submit" A submit button. type"image" An image button. The image URL may be specified with the src attribute. type"reset" A reset button for resetting the form to default values. type"text" A one-line text input field. The size attribute specifies the default width of the input in character-widths. max-length sets the maximum number of characters the user can enter (which may be greater than size). type"search" A variation of text which produces a search bar. type"password" A variation of text. The difference is that text typed in this field is masked — characters are displayed as an asterisk, a dot or another replacement. It should be noted, however, that the password is still submitted to the server as clear text, so an underlying secure transport layer like HTTPS is needed if confidentiality is a concern. type"file" A file select field (for uploading files to a server). type"tel" A variation of text for telephone numbers. type"email" A variation of text for email addresses. type"url" A variation of text for URLs. type"date" A date selector. type"time" A time selector. type"number" A variation of text for numbers. type"range" Produces a slider for that returns a number, but the number is not visible to the user. type"color" A color picker. type"hidden" hidden inputs are not visible in the rendered page, but allow a designer to maintain a copy of data that needs to be submitted to the server as part of the form. This may, for example, be data that this web user entered or selected on a previous form that needs to be processed in conjunction with the current form. Not displayed to the user but data can still be altered client-side by editing the HTML source. <isindex/> (deprecated) isindex could either appear in the document head or in the body, but only once in a document. Isindex operated as a primitive HTML search form; but was de facto obsoleted by more advanced HTML forms introduced in the early to mid-1990s. Represents a set of hyperlinks composed of a base URI, an ampersand and percent-encoded keywords separated by plus signs. ISINDEX existed in HTML Tags; standardized in HTML 2.0; deprecated in HTML 4.0 Transitional; invalid in HTML 4.0 Strict. <keygen>...</keygen> A key pair generator. Standardized in HTML5. <label for"id">...</label> Creates a label for a form input (e.g. radio button). Clicking on the label fires a click on the matching input. Standardized in HTML 4.0; still current. <legend>...</legend> A legend (caption) for a fieldset. Standardized in HTML 4.0; still current. <meter>...</meter> A meter which needs a value attribute. Can also have: min, low, high, max. Standardized in HTML5. <option value"x">...</option> Creates an item in a select list. Standardized in HTML 2.0; still current. <optgroup>...</optgroup> Identifies a group of options in a select list. Standardized in HTML 4.0; still current. <output>...</output> The value of a form element. Standardized in HTML5. <progress>...</progress> A bar for showing the progress of an action. Standardized in HTML5. <select name"xyz">...</select> Creates a selection list, from which the user can select a single option. May be rendered as a dropdown list. Standardized in HTML 2.0; still current. <textarea rows"8">...</textarea> A multiple-line text area, the size of which is specified by cols (where a col is a one-character width of text) and rows HTML attributes. The content of this element is restricted to plain text, which appears in the text area as default text when the page is loaded. Standardized in HTML 2.0; still current. Tables The format of HTML Tables was proposed in the HTML 3.0 Drafts and the later RFC 1942 HTML Tables. They were inspired by the CALS Table Model. Some elements in these proposals were included in HTML 3.2; the present form of HTML Tables was standardized in HTML 4. (Many of the elements used within tables are neither block nor inline elements.) <table>...</table> Identifies a table. Several HTML attributes are possible in HTML Transitional, but most of these are invalid in HTML Strict and can be replaced with style sheets. The summary attribute is however informally required for accessibility purposes, though its usage is not simple. Proposed in the HTML 3.0 Drafts; Standardized in HTML 3.2; still current. <tr>...</tr> Contains a row of cells in a table. Proposed in the HTML 3.0 Drafts; Standardized in HTML 3.2; still current. <th>...</th> A table header cell; contents are conventionally displayed bold and centered. An aural user agent may use a louder voice for these items. Proposed in the HTML 3.0 Drafts; Standardized in HTML 3.2; still current. <td>...</td> A table data cell. Proposed in the HTML 3.0 Drafts; Standardized in HTML 3.2; still current. <colgroup>...</colgroup> Specifies a column group in a table. Proposed in HTML Tables; Standardized in HTML 4.0; still current. <col>...</col> Specifies a column in a table. Proposed in HTML Tables; Standardized in HTML 4.0; still current. <caption>...</caption> Specifies a caption for a table. Proposed in the HTML 3.0 Drafts; Standardized in HTML 3.2; still current. <thead>...</thead> Specifies the header part of a table. This section may be repeated by the user agent if the table is split across pages (in printing or other paged media). Proposed in HTML Tables; Standardized in HTML 4.0; still current. <tbody>...</tbody> Specifies a body of data for the table. Proposed in HTML Tables; Standardized in HTML 4.0; still current. <tfoot>...</tfoot> Specifies the footer part of a table. Like <thead>, this section may be repeated by the user agent if the table is split across pages (in printing or other paged media). Proposed in HTML Tables; Standardized in HTML 4.0; still current. Frames Frames allow a visual HTML Browser window to be split into segments, each of which can show a different document. This can lower bandwidth use, as repeating parts of a layout can be used in one frame, while variable content is displayed in another. This may come at a certain usability cost, especially in non-visual user agents, due to separate and independent documents (or websites) being displayed adjacent to each other and being allowed to interact with the same parent window. Because of this cost, frames (excluding the <iframe> element) are only allowed in HTML 4.01 Frame-set. Iframes can also hold documents on different servers. In this case the interaction between windows is blocked by the browser. Sites like Facebook and Twitter use iframes to display content (plugins) on third party websites. Google AdSense uses iframes to display banners on third party websites. In HTML 4.01, a document may contain a <head> and a <body> or a <head> and a <frameset>, but not both a <body> and a <frameset>. However, <iframe> can be used in a normal document body. <frameset>...</frameset> (deprecated) Contains the set of frame elements for a document. The layout of frames is given by comma separated lists in the rows and cols HTML attributes. Standardized in HTML 4.0 Frameset, obsolete in HTML5. <frame/> (deprecated) Defines a single frame, or region, within the frameset. A separate document is linked to a frame using the src attribute inside the frame element. Standardized in HTML 4.0 Frameset, obsolete in HTML5. <noframes>...</noframes> (deprecated) Contains normal HTML content for user agents that don't support frames. Standardized in HTML 4.0 Transitional, obsolete in HTML5. <iframe>...</iframe> An inline frame places another HTML document in a frame. Unlike an object element, an inline frame can be the "target" frame for links defined by other elements, and it can be selected by the user agent as the focus for printing, viewing its source, and so on. The content of the element is used as alternative text to be displayed if the browser does not support iframes. First introduced by Microsoft Internet Explorer in 1997, standardized in HTML 4.0 Transitional, allowed in HTML5. Longdesc In HTML, longdesc is an attribute used within the image element, frame element, or iframe element. It is supposed to be a URL to a document that provides a long description for the image, frame, or iframe in question. Note that this attribute should contain a URL, and not as is commonly mistaken, the text of the description itself. Longdesc was designed to be used by screen readers to display image information for computer users with accessibility issues, such as the blind or visually impaired, and is widely implemented by both web browsers and screen readers. Some developers object that it is actually seldom used for this purpose, because there are relatively few authors who use the attribute, and most of those authors use it incorrectly, and have used this argument to recommend dropping longdesc. The publishing industry has responded, advocating the retention of longdesc. Example Content of description.html: Linking to the long description in the text Since very few graphical browsers support making the link available natively (Opera and iCab being the exceptions), it is useful to include a link to the description page near the img element whenever possible, as this can also aid sighted users. Example Historic elements The following elements were part of the early HTML developed by Tim Berners-Lee from 1989–91; they are mentioned in HTML Tags, but deprecated in HTML 2.0 and were never part of HTML standards. <listing>...</listing> (deprecated) This element displayed the text inside the tags in a monospace font and without interpreting the HTML. The HTML 2.0 specification recommended rendering the element at up to 132 characters per line. Deprecated in HTML 3.2; obsolete in HTML5. <plaintext/> (deprecated) plaintext does not have an end tag, as it terminates the markup and causes the rest of the document to be parsed as if it were plain text. plaintext existed in HTML Tags; deprecated in HTML 2.0; invalid in HTML 4.0. <xmp>...</xmp> (deprecated) This element displayed the text inside the tags in a monospace font and without interpreting the HTML. The HTML 2.0 specification recommended rendering the element at 80 characters per line. Deprecated in HTML 3.2; obsolete in HTML5. <nextid/> (deprecated) This element enabled NeXT web designing tool to generate automatic NAME labels for its anchors and was itself automatically generated. nextid existed in HTML Tags (described as obsolete); deprecated in HTML 2.0; invalid in HTML 3.2 and later. Non-standard elements This section lists some widely used obsolete elements, which means they are not used in valid code. They may not be supported in all user agents. <blink>...</blink> (deprecated) Causes text to blink. Introduced in imitation of the ANSI escape codes. Can be done with CSS where supported: {text-decoration: blink} (This effect may have negative consequences for people with photosensitive epilepsy; its use on the public Internet should follow the appropriate guidelines.) blink originated in Netscape Navigator and is mostly recognized by its descendants, including Firefox; deprecated or invalid in HTML 2.0 and later. Note that the replacement CSS tag, while standard, is not required to be supported. <marquee>...</marquee> (deprecated) Creates scrolling text. Can be done with scripting instead. (This effect may have negative consequences for people with photosensitive epilepsy; its use on the public Internet should follow the appropriate guidelines.) There are three options, including Alternate, Scroll and slide. Scrolldelay can also be added. marquee originated in Microsoft Internet Explorer; deprecated or invalid in HTML 4.01 and later. <nobr>...</nobr> (deprecated) Causes text to not break at end of line, preventing word wrap where text exceeds the width of the enclosing object. Adjacent text may break before and after it. Can be done with CSS: {white-space: nowrap;} nobr is a proprietary element which is recognized by most browsers for compatibility reasons; deprecated or invalid in HTML 2.0 and later. <noembed>...</noembed> (deprecated) Specifies alternative content, if the embed cannot be rendered. Replaced by the content of the embed or object element. Comments <!-- A Comment --> A comment in HTML (and related XML, SGML and SHTML) uses the same syntax as the SGML comment or XML comment, depending on the doctype. Unlike most HTML tags, comments do not nest. The markup <!--Xbegin<!--Y-->Xend--> will yield the comment Xbegin<!--Y and the text Xend--> after it. Comments can appear anywhere in a document, as the HTML parser is supposed to ignore them no matter where they appear so long as they are not inside other HTML tag structures. Comments can even appear before the doctype declaration; no other tags are permitted to do this. However, not all browsers and HTML editors are fully compliant with the HTML syntax framework and may do unpredictable things under some syntax conditions. Defective handling of comments only affects about 5% of all browsers and HTML editors in use (IE6 accounting for most of this high percentage). Even then only certain versions are affected by comment mishandling issues. There are a few compatibility quirks involving comments: Placing comments – or indeed any characters except for white-space – before the doctype will cause Internet Explorer 6 to use quirks mode for the HTML page. None of its enclosed contents are processed. For compatibility with some pre-1995 browsers, the contents of style and script elements are still sometimes surrounded by comment delimiters. The BlueGriffon HTML editor, in versions 1.7.x makes comments that are not embedded in the syntax structure <style> ... {comment tags} ...</style> show up on screen. Other HTML editors may have this same defect. Notes References Bibliography External links HTML 4.01 (Dec 24, 1999): elements and attributes HTML5 (Oct 28, 2014): elements and attributes ) ) ) ) "; </script> <!-- TODO: update in all languages--> ( => ( => ( => HTML element [pageid] => 274393 ) => <div class="mw-parser-output"><div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable"><span class="plainlinks selfreference noprint">This article is about the "<a href="/HTML" title="HTML">HTML</a> elements in general. For information on how to format Wikipedia entries, see "<a href="/Help:Wiki_markup" class="mw-redirect" title="Help:Wiki markup">Help:Wiki markup</a> and "<a href="/Help:HTML_in_wikitext" title="Help:HTML in wikitext">Help:HTML in wikitext</a>.</span></div> <div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">"nobr" redirects here. For the chemical compound NOBr, see "<a href="/Nitrosyl_bromide" title="Nitrosyl bromide">Nitrosyl bromide</a>.</div> <table class="vertical-navbox nowraplinks" style="float:right;clear:right;width:22.0em;margin:0 0 1.0em 1.0em;background:#f9f9f9;border:1px solid #aaa;padding:0.2em;border-spacing:0.4em 0;text-align:center;line-height:1.4em;font-size:88%"> <tr> <th style="padding:0.2em 0.4em 0.2em;font-size:145%;line-height:1.2em">"<a href="/HTML" title="HTML">HTML</a></th> </tr> <tr> <td class="hlist" style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em"> <ul> <li>"<a href="/HTML" title="HTML">HTML</a></li> <li>"<a href="/Dynamic_HTML" title="Dynamic HTML">Dynamic HTML</a></li> <li>"<a href="/HTML5" title="HTML5">HTML5</a> <ul> <li>"<a href="/HTML5_Audio" title="HTML5 Audio">audio</a></li> <li>"<a href="/Canvas_element" title="Canvas element">canvas</a></li> <li>"<a href="/HTML5_video" title="HTML5 video">video</a></li> </ul> </li> <li>"<a href="/XHTML" title="XHTML">XHTML</a> <ul> <li>"<a href="/XHTML_Basic" title="XHTML Basic">Basic</a></li> <li>"<a href="/XHTML_Mobile_Profile" title="XHTML Mobile Profile">Mobile Profile</a></li> <li>"<a href="/C-HTML" title="C-HTML">C-HTML</a></li> </ul> </li> <li><a class="mw-selflink selflink">HTML element</a> <ul> <li>"<a href="/Span_and_div" title="Span and div">span and div</a></li> </ul> </li> <li>"<a href="/HTML_attribute" title="HTML attribute">HTML attribute</a></li> <li>"<a href="/Framing_(World_Wide_Web)" title="Framing (World Wide Web)">HTML frame</a></li> <li>"<a href="/HTML_editor" title="HTML editor">HTML editor</a></li> <li>"<a href="/Character_encodings_in_HTML" title="Character encodings in HTML">Character encodings</a> <ul> <li>"<a href="/Unicode_and_HTML" title="Unicode and HTML">Unicode</a></li> </ul> </li> <li>"<a href="/Language_code" title="Language code">Language code</a></li> <li>"<a href="/Document_Object_Model" title="Document Object Model">Document Object Model</a></li> <li>"<a href="/Browser_Object_Model" title="Browser Object Model">Browser Object Model</a></li> <li>"<a href="/Style_sheet_(web_development)" title="Style sheet (web development)">Style sheets</a> <ul> <li>"<a href="/Cascading_Style_Sheets" title="Cascading Style Sheets">CSS</a></li> </ul> </li> <li>"<a href="/Font_family_(HTML)" title="Font family (HTML)">Font family</a></li> <li>"<a href="/Web_colors" title="Web colors">Web colors</a></li> <li>"<a href="/HTML_scripting" title="HTML scripting">HTML scripting</a></li> <li>"<a href="/JavaScript" title="JavaScript">JavaScript</a> <ul> <li>"<a href="/WebGL" title="WebGL">WebGL</a></li> <li>"<a href="/WebCL" title="WebCL">WebCL</a></li> </ul> </li> <li>"<a href="/World_Wide_Web_Consortium" title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</a> <ul> <li>"<a href="/W3C_Markup_Validation_Service" title="W3C Markup Validation Service">Validator</a></li> </ul> </li> <li>"<a href="/WHATWG" title="WHATWG">WHATWG</a></li> <li>"<a href="/Quirks_mode" title="Quirks mode">Quirks mode</a></li> <li>"<a href="/Web_storage" title="Web storage">Web storage</a></li> <li>"<a href="/Web_browser_engine" title="Web browser engine">Web browser (layout) engine</a></li> </ul> </td> </tr> <tr> <th style="padding:0.1em">Comparisons</th> </tr> <tr> <td class="hlist" style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em"> <ul> <li>"<a href="/Comparison_of_document_markup_languages" title="Comparison of document markup languages">Document markup languages</a></li> <li>"<a href="/Comparison_of_web_browsers" title="Comparison of web browsers">Web browsers</a></li> <li>"<a href="/Comparison_of_layout_engines_(HTML)" title="Comparison of layout engines (HTML)">HTML</a></li> <li>"<a href="/Comparison_of_layout_engines_(non-standard_HTML)" title="Comparison of layout engines (non-standard HTML)">Non-standard HTML</a></li> <li>"<a href="/Comparison_of_layout_engines_(HTML5)" title="Comparison of layout engines (HTML5)">HTML5</a> <ul> <li>"<a href="/Comparison_of_layout_engines_(HTML5_canvas)" title="Comparison of layout engines (HTML5 canvas)">canvas</a></li> <li>"<a href="/Comparison_of_layout_engines_(HTML5_media)" title="Comparison of layout engines (HTML5 media)">media</a></li> </ul> </li> <li>"<a href="/Comparison_of_layout_engines_(XHTML)" title="Comparison of layout engines (XHTML)">XHTML</a> <ul> <li>"<a href="/Comparison_of_layout_engines_(XHTML_1.1)" title="Comparison of layout engines (XHTML 1.1)">1.1</a></li> </ul> </li> </ul> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="text-align:right;font-size:115%;border-top:1px solid #aaa;"> <div class="plainlinks hlist navbar mini"> <ul> <li class="nv-view">"<a href="/Template:HTML" title="Template:HTML"><abbr title="View this template">v</abbr></a></li> <li class="nv-talk">"<a href="/Template_talk:HTML" title="Template talk:HTML"><abbr title="Discuss this template">t</abbr></a></li> <li class="nv-edit"><a class="external text" href="//en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:HTML&amp;action=edit"><abbr title="Edit this template">e</abbr></a></li> </ul> </div> </td> </tr> </table> <p>An <b><abbr title="Hyper Text Markup Language">HTML</abbr> element</b> is an individual component of an "<a href="/HTML" title="HTML">HTML</a> document or "<a href="/Web_page" title="Web page">web page</a>, once this has been parsed into the "<a href="/HTML_Document_Object_Model" class="mw-redirect" title="HTML Document Object Model">Document Object Model</a>. HTML is composed of a "<a href="/Tree_structure" title="Tree structure">tree</a> of HTML "<a href="/Node_(computer_science)" title="Node (computer science)">nodes</a>, such as text nodes. Each node can have "<a href="/HTML_attribute" title="HTML attribute">HTML attributes</a> specified. Nodes can also have content, including other nodes and text. Many HTML nodes represent "<a href="/Semantics" title="Semantics">semantics</a>, or meaning. For example, the <code>title</code> node represents the title of the document.</p> <p></p> <div id="toc" class="toc"> <div class="toctitle"> <h2>Contents</h2> </div> <ul> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-1"><a href="#Concepts"><span class="tocnumber">1</span> <span class="toctext">Concepts</span></a> <ul> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-2"><a href="#Document_vs._DOM"><span class="tocnumber">1.1</span> <span class="toctext">Document vs. DOM</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-3"><a href="#Elements_vs._tags"><span class="tocnumber">1.2</span> <span class="toctext">Elements vs. tags</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-4"><a href="#SGML_vs._XML"><span class="tocnumber">1.3</span> <span class="toctext">SGML vs. XML</span></a> <ul> <li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-5"><a href="#.25block.3B_vs._box"><span class="tocnumber">1.3.1</span> <span class="toctext">%block; vs. box</span></a></li> </ul> </li> </ul> </li> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-6"><a href="#Overview"><span class="tocnumber">2</span> <span class="toctext">Overview</span></a> <ul> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-7"><a href="#Syntax"><span class="tocnumber">2.1</span> <span class="toctext">Syntax</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-8"><a href="#Element_standards"><span class="tocnumber">2.2</span> <span class="toctext">Element standards</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-9"><a href="#Element_status"><span class="tocnumber">2.3</span> <span class="toctext">Element status</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-10"><a href="#Content_vs._presentation_and_behavior"><span class="tocnumber">2.4</span> <span class="toctext">Content vs. presentation and behavior</span></a></li> </ul> </li> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-11"><a href="#Document_structure_elements"><span class="tocnumber">3</span> <span class="toctext">Document structure elements</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-12"><a href="#Document_head_elements"><span class="tocnumber">4</span> <span class="toctext">Document head elements</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-13"><a href="#Document_body_elements"><span class="tocnumber">5</span> <span class="toctext">Document body elements</span></a> <ul> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-14"><a href="#Block_elements"><span class="tocnumber">5.1</span> <span class="toctext">Block elements</span></a> <ul> <li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-15"><a href="#Basic_text"><span class="tocnumber">5.1.1</span> <span class="toctext">Basic text</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-16"><a href="#Lists"><span class="tocnumber">5.1.2</span> <span class="toctext">Lists</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-17"><a href="#Other_block_elements"><span class="tocnumber">5.1.3</span> <span class="toctext">Other block elements</span></a></li> </ul> </li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-18"><a href="#Inline_elements"><span class="tocnumber">5.2</span> <span class="toctext">Inline elements</span></a> <ul> <li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-19"><a href="#Anchor"><span class="tocnumber">5.2.1</span> <span class="toctext">Anchor</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-20"><a href="#Phrase_elements"><span class="tocnumber">5.2.2</span> <span class="toctext">Phrase elements</span></a> <ul> <li class="toclevel-4 tocsection-21"><a href="#General"><span class="tocnumber">5.2.2.1</span> <span class="toctext">General</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-4 tocsection-22"><a href="#Computer_phrase_elements"><span class="tocnumber">5.2.2.2</span> <span class="toctext">Computer phrase elements</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-4 tocsection-23"><a href="#Presentation"><span class="tocnumber">5.2.2.3</span> <span class="toctext">Presentation</span></a></li> </ul> </li> <li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-24"><a href="#Span"><span class="tocnumber">5.2.3</span> <span class="toctext">Span</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-25"><a href="#Other_inline_elements"><span class="tocnumber">5.2.4</span> <span class="toctext">Other inline elements</span></a></li> </ul> </li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-26"><a href="#Images_and_objects"><span class="tocnumber">5.3</span> <span class="toctext">Images and objects</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-27"><a href="#Forms"><span class="tocnumber">5.4</span> <span class="toctext">Forms</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-28"><a href="#Tables"><span class="tocnumber">5.5</span> <span class="toctext">Tables</span></a></li> </ul> </li> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-29"><a href="#Frames"><span class="tocnumber">6</span> <span class="toctext">Frames</span></a> <ul> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-30"><a href="#Longdesc"><span class="tocnumber">6.1</span> <span class="toctext">Longdesc</span></a> <ul> <li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-31"><a href="#Example"><span class="tocnumber">6.1.1</span> <span class="toctext">Example</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-32"><a href="#Linking_to_the_long_description_in_the_text"><span class="tocnumber">6.1.2</span> <span class="toctext">Linking to the long description in the text</span></a> <ul> <li class="toclevel-4 tocsection-33"><a href="#Example_2"><span class="tocnumber">6.1.2.1</span> <span class="toctext">Example</span></a></li> </ul> </li> </ul> </li> </ul> </li> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-34"><a href="#Historic_elements"><span class="tocnumber">7</span> <span class="toctext">Historic elements</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-35"><a href="#Non-standard_elements"><span class="tocnumber">8</span> <span class="toctext">Non-standard elements</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-36"><a href="#Comments"><span class="tocnumber">9</span> <span class="toctext">Comments</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-37"><a href="#Notes"><span class="tocnumber">10</span> <span class="toctext">Notes</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-38"><a href="#References"><span class="tocnumber">11</span> <span class="toctext">References</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-39"><a href="#Bibliography"><span class="tocnumber">12</span> <span class="toctext">Bibliography</span></a> <ul> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-40"><a href="#HTML_standards"><span class="tocnumber">12.1</span> <span class="toctext">HTML standards</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-41"><a href="#Other_sources"><span class="tocnumber">12.2</span> <span class="toctext">Other sources</span></a></li> </ul> </li> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-42"><a href="#External_links"><span class="tocnumber">13</span> <span class="toctext">External links</span></a></li> </ul> </div> <p></p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Concepts">Concepts</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a target="_new" rel="nofollow" href="http://wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=HTML_element&amp;action=edit&amp;section=1" title="Edit section: Concepts">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Document_vs._DOM">Document vs. DOM</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a target="_new" rel="nofollow" href="http://wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=HTML_element&amp;action=edit&amp;section=2" title="Edit section: Document vs. DOM">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3> <p>HTML documents are delivered as "documents".<sup id="cite_ref-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-1">[note 1]</a></sup> These are then "<a href="/Parsing" title="Parsing">parsed</a>, which turns them into the "<a href="/HTML_Document_Object_Model" class="mw-redirect" title="HTML Document Object Model">Document Object Model</a> (DOM) internal representation, within the web browser.<sup id="cite_ref-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-4">[note 2]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-5">[note 3]</a></sup></p> <p>Presentation by the web browser, such as screen rendering or access by JavaScript, is then performed on this internal model, not the original document.</p> <p>Early HTML documents, and to a lesser extent today, were largely "<a href="/Invalid_HTML" class="mw-redirect" title="Invalid HTML">invalid HTML</a> and riddled with "<a href="/Well-formed_HTML" class="mw-redirect" title="Well-formed HTML">syntax errors</a>. The parsing process was also required to "fix-up" these errors, as best it could. The resultant model was often not <i>correct</i> (i.e. it did not represent what a careless coder had originally intended), but it would at least be "<a href="/Valid_HTML" class="mw-redirect" title="Valid HTML">valid</a>, according to the HTML standard. A valid model was produced, no matter how bad the ""<a href="/Tag_soup" title="Tag soup">tag soup</a>" supplied had been. Only in the rarest cases would the parser abandon parsing altogether.</p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Elements_vs._tags">Elements vs. tags</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a target="_new" rel="nofollow" href="http://wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=HTML_element&amp;action=edit&amp;section=3" title="Edit section: Elements vs. tags">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3> <p>"Elements" and "tags" are terms that are widely confused. HTML documents contain tags, but do not contain the elements. The elements are only generated <i>after</i> the parsing step, from these tags.</p> <p>As is generally understood, the position of an element is indicated as spanning from a start tag, possibly including some child content, and is terminated by an end tag.<sup id="cite_ref-6" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-6">[3]</a></sup> This is the case for many, <i>but not all</i>, elements within an HTML document.</p> <p>As HTML is based on "<a href="/SGML" class="mw-redirect" title="SGML">SGML</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-7" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-7">[4]</a></sup> its parsing also depends on the use of a "<a href="/Document_Type_Definition" class="mw-redirect" title="Document Type Definition">DTD</a>, specifically an HTML DTD such as that for HTML 4.01.<sup id="cite_ref-W3C.2C_HTML_401_DTD_8-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-W3C.2C_HTML_401_DTD-8">[5]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-9" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-9">[note 4]</a></sup> The DTD specifies which element types are possible (i.e. it defines the set of element types that go to make up HTML) and it also specifies the valid combinations in which they may appear in a document. It is part of general SGML behavior that where only one valid structure is <i>possible</i> (per the DTD), it is not generally a requirement that the document explicitly states that structure. As a simple example, the <code class="mw-highlight" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">p</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code> start tag indicating the start of a paragraph element should be closed by a <code class="mw-highlight" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">p</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code> end tag, indicating the end of the element. Also the DTD states that paragraph elements cannot be nested. The HTML document fragment:</p> <dl> <dd><code class="mw-highlight" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">p</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>Para 1 <span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">p</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>Para 2 <span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">p</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>Para 3</code></dd> </dl> <p>can thus be inferred to be equivalent to:</p> <dl> <dd><code class="mw-highlight" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">p</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>Para 1 <span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">p</span><span class="p">&gt;&lt;</span><span class="nt">p</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>Para 2 <span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">p</span><span class="p">&gt;&lt;</span><span class="nt">p</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>Para 3</code></dd> </dl> <p>(If one paragraph element cannot contain another, any currently open paragraph must be closed before starting another.)</p> <p>Because of this implied behavior, based on the combination of the DTD and the individual document, it is not possible to infer elements from the document tags <i>alone</i>, but only by also using an SGML or HTML aware parser, with knowledge of the DTD.</p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="SGML_vs._XML">SGML vs. XML</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a target="_new" rel="nofollow" href="http://wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=HTML_element&amp;action=edit&amp;section=4" title="Edit section: SGML vs. XML">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3> <p>SGML is complex, which has limited its widespread adoption and understanding. "<a href="/XML" title="XML">XML</a> was developed as a simpler alternative. XML is similar to SGML, that can also use the DTD mechanism to specify the supported elements and their permitted combinations as document structure. XML parsing is simpler. The relation from tags to elements is always that of parsing the actual tags included in the document, without the implied closures that are part of SGML.<sup id="cite_ref-10" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-10">[note 5]</a></sup></p> <p>In Macros HTML can be formed as XML, either through "<a href="/XHTML" title="XHTML">XHTML</a> or through "<a href="/HTML5" title="HTML5">HTML5</a>, the parsing of document tags as DOM elements is simplified. Once the DOM of elements is obtained, behaviour beyond that point (i.e. screen rendering) is identical.<sup id="cite_ref-12" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-12">[note 6]</a></sup></p> <h4><span id="%block;_vs._box"></span><span class="mw-headline" id=".25block.3B_vs._box"><code>%block;</code> vs. box</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a target="_new" rel="nofollow" href="http://wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=HTML_element&amp;action=edit&amp;section=5" title="Edit section: %block; vs. box">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4> <p>Part of this CSS presentation behavior is the notion of the ""<a href="/CSS_box_model" title="CSS box model">box model</a>". This is applied to those elements that CSS considers to be "block" elements, set through the CSS <code class="mw-highlight" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="nt">display</span><span class="o">:</span> <span class="nt">block</span><span class="o">;</span></code> declaration.</p> <p>HTML also has a similar concept, although different, and the two are very frequently confused. <code>%block;</code> and <code>%inline;</code> are groups within the HTML DTD that group elements as being either "block-level" or "inline".<sup id="cite_ref-W3C.2C_HTML_4.01.2C_block_and_inline_13-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-W3C.2C_HTML_4.01.2C_block_and_inline-13">[7]</a></sup> This is used to define their nesting behavior: block-level elements cannot be placed into an inline context.<sup id="cite_ref-14" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-14">[note 7]</a></sup> This behavior cannot be changed, it is fixed in the DTD. Block and inline elements have the appropriate and different CSS behaviors attached to them by default,<sup id="cite_ref-W3C.2C_HTML_4.01.2C_block_and_inline_13-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-W3C.2C_HTML_4.01.2C_block_and_inline-13">[7]</a></sup> including the relevance of the box model for particular element types.</p> <p>Note though that this CSS behavior can, and frequently is, changed from the default. Lists with <code class="mw-highlight" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">ul</span><span class="p">&gt;&lt;</span><span class="nt">li</span><span class="p">&gt;</span> ...</code> are <code>%block;</code> elements and are presented as block elements by default. However, it is quite common to set these with CSS to display as an inline list.<sup id="cite_ref-15" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-15">[8]</a></sup></p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Overview">Overview</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a target="_new" rel="nofollow" href="http://wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=HTML_element&amp;action=edit&amp;section=6" title="Edit section: Overview">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Syntax">Syntax</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a target="_new" rel="nofollow" href="http://wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=HTML_element&amp;action=edit&amp;section=7" title="Edit section: Syntax">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner noresize" style=""> <div class="thumbimage" style=""><span class="mwe-math-element"><span 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mathvariant="sans-serif">S</mi> <mi mathvariant="sans-serif">t</mi> <mi mathvariant="sans-serif">a</mi> <mi mathvariant="sans-serif">r</mi> <mi mathvariant="sans-serif">t</mi> <mtext mathvariant="sans-serif">&#xA0;</mtext> <mi mathvariant="sans-serif">t</mi> <mi mathvariant="sans-serif">a</mi> <mi mathvariant="sans-serif">g</mi> </mrow> </mrow> </mover> <mover> <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-OP"> <mover> <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"> <mstyle mathcolor="#00A64F"> <mi mathvariant="monospace">T</mi> <mi mathvariant="monospace">h</mi> <mi mathvariant="monospace">i</mi> <mi mathvariant="monospace">s</mi> <mtext mathvariant="monospace">&#xA0;</mtext> <mi mathvariant="monospace">i</mi> <mi mathvariant="monospace">s</mi> <mtext mathvariant="monospace">&#xA0;</mtext> <mi mathvariant="monospace">a</mi> <mtext mathvariant="monospace">&#xA0;</mtext> <mi mathvariant="monospace">p</mi> <mi mathvariant="monospace">a</mi> <mi mathvariant="monospace">r</mi> <mi mathvariant="monospace">a</mi> <mi mathvariant="monospace">g</mi> <mi mathvariant="monospace">r</mi> <mi mathvariant="monospace">a</mi> <mi mathvariant="monospace">p</mi> <mi mathvariant="monospace">h</mi> <mo mathvariant="monospace">.</mo> </mstyle> </mrow> <mo accent="false">&#x23DE;<!-- ⏞ --></mo> </mover> </mrow> <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"> <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"> <mi mathvariant="sans-serif">C</mi> <mi mathvariant="sans-serif">o</mi> <mi mathvariant="sans-serif">n</mi> <mi mathvariant="sans-serif">t</mi> <mi mathvariant="sans-serif">e</mi> <mi mathvariant="sans-serif">n</mi> <mi mathvariant="sans-serif">t</mi> </mrow> </mrow> </mover> <mover> <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-OP"> <mover> <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"> <mstyle mathcolor="#B6321C"> <mo mathvariant="monospace">&lt;</mo> <mspace width="negativethinmathspace" /> <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"> <mo mathvariant="monospace">/</mo> </mrow> <mi mathvariant="monospace">p</mi> <mspace width="negativethinmathspace" /> <mo mathvariant="monospace">&gt;</mo> </mstyle> </mrow> <mo accent="false">&#x23DE;<!-- ⏞ --></mo> </mover> </mrow> <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"> <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"> <mfrac linethickness="0"> <mrow> <mi mathvariant="sans-serif">E</mi> <mi mathvariant="sans-serif">n</mi> <mi mathvariant="sans-serif">d</mi> </mrow> <mrow> <mi mathvariant="sans-serif">t</mi> <mi mathvariant="sans-serif">a</mi> <mi mathvariant="sans-serif">g</mi> </mrow> </mfrac> </mrow> </mrow> </mover> </mrow> <mo accent="false">&#x23DE;<!-- ⏞ --></mo> </mover> </mrow> <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"> <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"> <mi mathvariant="sans-serif">E</mi> <mi mathvariant="sans-serif">l</mi> <mi mathvariant="sans-serif">e</mi> <mi mathvariant="sans-serif">m</mi> <mi mathvariant="sans-serif">e</mi> <mi mathvariant="sans-serif">n</mi> <mi mathvariant="sans-serif">t</mi> </mrow> </mrow> </mover> </mstyle> </mrow> <annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \overbrace {\overbrace {{\mathtt {\color {BrickRed}&lt;\!p\ }}\color {Magenta}\underbrace {\mathtt {class}} _{\mathsf {\color {Black}{Attribute \atop name}}}{\mathtt {=''}}\!\underbrace {\mathtt {foo}} _{\mathsf {\color {White}{Attr} \atop \color {Black}value}}''{\mathtt {\color {BrickRed}&gt;}}} ^{\mathsf {Start\ tag}}\overbrace {\mathtt {\color {Green}This\ is\ a\ paragraph.}} ^{\mathsf {Content}}\overbrace {\mathtt {\color {BrickRed}&lt;\!/p\!&gt;}} ^{\mathsf {End \atop tag}}} ^{\mathsf {Element}}}</annotation> </semantics> </math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/9b19f2818482c6618c82e23b4e6a5a3a4d94c57d" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -5.005ex; margin-right: -0.02ex; width:48.387ex; height:14.676ex;" alt="{\displaystyle \overbrace {\overbrace {{\mathtt {\color {BrickRed}&lt;\!p\ }}\color {Magenta}\underbrace {\mathtt {class}} _{\mathsf {\color {Black}{Attribute \atop name}}}{\mathtt {=&#039;&#039;}}\!\underbrace {\mathtt {foo}} _{\mathsf {\color {White}{Attr} \atop \color {Black}value}}&#039;&#039;{\mathtt {\color {BrickRed}&gt;}}} ^{\mathsf {Start\ tag}}\overbrace {\mathtt {\color {Green}This\ is\ a\ paragraph.}} ^{\mathsf {Content}}\overbrace {\mathtt {\color {BrickRed}&lt;\!/p\!&gt;}} ^{\mathsf {End \atop tag}}} ^{\mathsf {Element}}}" /></span></div> <div class="thumbcaption">Parts of an HTML container element</div> </div> </div> <p>In the HTML syntax, most elements are written with a start tag and an end tag, with the content in between. An <b>HTML tag</b> is composed of the name of the element, surrounded by "<a href="/Angle_brackets" class="mw-redirect" title="Angle brackets">angle brackets</a>. An end tag also has a slash after the opening angle bracket, to distinguish it from the start tag. For example, a paragraph, which is represented by the <code>p</code> element, would be written as</p> <div class="mw-highlight mw-content-ltr" dir="ltr"> <pre> <span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">p</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>In the HTML syntax, most elements are written ...<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">p</span><span class="p">&gt;</span> </pre></div> <p>However, not all of these elements <i>require</i> the end tag, or even the start tag, to be present. Some elements, the so-called <i>void elements</i> or <span id="Empty_element"></span> <i>empty elements</i>, do not have an end tag. A typical example is the <code>br</code> element, which represents a significant "<a href="/Hard_return" class="mw-redirect" title="Hard return">line break</a>, such as in a poem or an address. A void element's behavior is predefined, and it cannot contain any content or other elements. For example, an address would be written as</p> <div class="mw-highlight mw-content-ltr" dir="ltr"> <pre> <span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">p</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>P. Sherman<span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">br</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>42 Wallaby Way<span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">br</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>Sydney<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">p</span><span class="p">&gt;</span> </pre></div> <p>When using an "<a href="/XHTML" title="XHTML">XHTML</a> "<a href="/Document_Type_Declaration" class="mw-redirect" title="Document Type Declaration">DTD</a>, it is required to open and close the element with a single tag. To specify that it is a void element, a "/" is included at the <b>end</b> of the tag (not to be confused with the "/" at the <b>beginning</b> of a closing tag).</p> <div class="mw-highlight mw-content-ltr" dir="ltr"> <pre> <span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">p</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>P. Sherman<span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">br</span><span class="p">/&gt;</span>42 Wallaby Way<span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">br</span><span class="p">/&gt;</span>Sydney<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">p</span><span class="p">&gt;</span> </pre></div> <p>"<a href="/HTML_attributes" class="mw-redirect" title="HTML attributes">HTML attributes</a> are specified inside the start tag. For example, the <code>abbr</code> element, which represents an "<a href="/Abbreviation" title="Abbreviation">abbreviation</a>, expects a <code>title</code> attribute within its opening tag. This would be written as</p> <div class="mw-highlight mw-content-ltr" dir="ltr"> <pre> <span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">abbr</span> <span class="na">title</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">"abbreviation"</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>abbr.<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">abbr</span><span class="p">&gt;</span> </pre></div> <p>There are multiple kinds of "<a href="/HTML" title="HTML">HTML</a> elements: void elements, raw text elements, and normal elements.</p> <p><b>Void elements</b> only have a start tag, which contains any "<a href="/HTML_attributes" class="mw-redirect" title="HTML attributes">HTML attributes</a>. They may not contain any children, such as text or other elements. Often they are place holders for elements which reference external files, such as the image (<code class="nowrap" style="">&lt;img /&gt;</code>) element. The attributes included in the element will then point to the external file in question. Another example of a void element is the <code class="nowrap" style="">&lt;link /&gt;</code> element, for which the syntax is</p> <div class="mw-highlight mw-content-ltr" dir="ltr"> <pre> <span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">link</span> <span class="na">rel</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">"stylesheet"</span> <span class="na">href</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">"fancy.css"</span> <span class="na">type</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">"text/css"</span><span class="p">&gt;</span> </pre></div> <p>This <code class="nowrap" style="">&lt;link /&gt;</code> element points the browser at a "<a href="/Style_sheet_(web_development)" title="Style sheet (web development)">style sheet</a> to use when presenting the HTML document to the user. Note that in the HTML syntax, attributes don't have to be quoted if they are composed only of certain characters: letters, digits, the hyphen-minus and the full stop. When using the "<a href="/XML" title="XML">XML</a> syntax ("<a href="/XHTML" title="XHTML">XHTML</a>), on the other hand, all attributes must be quoted, and a trailing "<a href="/Slash_(punctuation)" title="Slash (punctuation)">slash</a> is required before the last angle bracket:</p> <div class="mw-highlight mw-content-ltr" dir="ltr"> <pre> <span class="nt">&lt;link</span> <span class="na">rel=</span><span class="s">"stylesheet"</span> <span class="na">href=</span><span class="s">"fancy.css"</span> <span class="na">type=</span><span class="s">"text/css"</span> <span class="nt">/&gt;</span> </pre></div> <p><b>Raw text elements</b> are constructed with:</p> <ul> <li>a <i>start tag</i> (<code class="mw-highlight" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">tag</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code>) marking the beginning of an element, which may incorporate any number of "<a href="/HTML_attributes" class="mw-redirect" title="HTML attributes">HTML attributes</a>;</li> <li>some amount of text <i>content</i>, but no elements (all tags, apart from the applicable end tag, will be interpreted as content);</li> <li>an <i>end tag</i>, in which the element name is prefixed with a slash: <code class="mw-highlight" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">tag</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code>. In some versions of HTML, the end tag is optional for some elements. The end tag is required in "<a href="/XHTML" title="XHTML">XHTML</a>.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i>"<a href="/Wikipedia:Please_clarify" title="Wikipedia:Please clarify"><span title="The text in the vicinity of this tag needs examples for clarification (January 2012)">examples needed</span></a></i>]</sup></li> </ul> <p><b>Normal elements</b> usually have both a start tag and an end tag, although for some elements the end tag, or both tags, can be omitted. It is constructed in a similar way:</p> <ul> <li>a <i>start tag</i> (<code class="mw-highlight" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">tag</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code>) marking the beginning of an element, which may incorporate any number of "<a href="/HTML_attributes" class="mw-redirect" title="HTML attributes">HTML attributes</a>;</li> <li>some amount of <i>content</i>, including text and other elements;</li> <li>an <i>end tag</i>, in which the element name is prefixed with a "<a href="/Slash_(punctuation)" title="Slash (punctuation)">slash</a>: <code class="mw-highlight" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">tag</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code>.</li> </ul> <p>"<a href="/HTML_attributes" class="mw-redirect" title="HTML attributes">HTML attributes</a> define desired behavior or indicate additional element properties. Most attributes require a <i>value</i>. In HTML, the value can be left unquoted if it doesn't include spaces (<code>name=value</code>), or it can be quoted with single or double quotes (<code>name='value'</code> or <code>name="value"</code>). In XML, those quotes are required. "<a href="/Boolean_data_type" title="Boolean data type">Boolean</a> attributes, on the other hand, don't require a value to be specified. An example is the <code>checked</code> for checkboxes:</p> <div class="mw-highlight mw-content-ltr" dir="ltr"> <pre> <span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">input</span> <span class="na">type</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">checkbox</span> <span class="na">checked</span><span class="p">&gt;</span> </pre></div> <p>In the XML syntax, though, the name should be repeated as the value:</p> <div class="mw-highlight mw-content-ltr" dir="ltr"> <pre> <span class="nt">&lt;input</span> <span class="na">type=</span><span class="s">"checkbox"</span> <span class="na">checked=</span><span class="s">"checked"</span> <span class="nt">/&gt;</span> </pre></div> <p>Informally, HTML elements are sometimes referred to as "tags" (an example of "<a href="/Synecdoche" title="Synecdoche">synecdoche</a>), though many prefer the term <i>tag</i> strictly in reference to the markup delimiting the start and end of an element.</p> <p>Element (and attribute) names may be written in any combination of upper or lower case in HTML, but must be in lower case in "<a href="/XHTML" title="XHTML">XHTML</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-XHTML10-42_16-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-XHTML10-42-16">[9]</a></sup> The canonical form was upper-case until "<a href="/HTML_4" class="mw-redirect" title="HTML 4">HTML 4</a>, and was used in HTML specifications, but in recent years, lower-case has become more common.</p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Element_standards">Element standards</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a target="_new" rel="nofollow" href="http://wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=HTML_element&amp;action=edit&amp;section=8" title="Edit section: Element standards">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3> <p>HTML elements are defined in a series of freely available open standards issued since 1995, initially by the "<a href="/IETF" class="mw-redirect" title="IETF">IETF</a> and subsequently by the "<a href="/W3C" class="mw-redirect" title="W3C">W3C</a>.</p> <p>During the "<a href="/Browser_wars" title="Browser wars">browser wars</a> of the 1990s, developers of "<a href="/User_agent" title="User agent">user agents</a> (e.g. "<a href="/Web_browser" title="Web browser">web browsers</a>) often developed their own elements, some of which have been adopted in later standards. Other user agents may not recognize non-standard elements, and they will be ignored, possibly causing the page to be displayed improperly.</p> <p>In 1998, "<a href="/XML" title="XML">XML</a> (a simplified form of SGML) introduced mechanisms to allow anyone to develop their own elements and incorporate them in "<a href="/XHTML" title="XHTML">XHTML</a> documents, for use with XML-aware user agents.<sup id="cite_ref-17" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-17">[10]</a></sup></p> <p>Subsequently, HTML 4.01 was rewritten in an "<a href="/XML" title="XML">XML</a>-compatible form, <a href="#XHTML10">XHTML 1.0</a> (<i>eXtensible HTML</i>). The elements in each are identical, and in most cases valid "<a href="/XHTML" title="XHTML">XHTML</a> 1.0 documents will be valid or nearly valid HTML 4.01 documents. This article mainly focuses on real HTML, unless noted otherwise; however, it remains applicable to "<a href="/XHTML" title="XHTML">XHTML</a>. <i>(See "<a href="/HTML#SGML-based_versus_XML-based_HTML" title="HTML">HTML</a> for a discussion of the minor differences between the two).</i></p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Element_status">Element status</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a target="_new" rel="nofollow" href="http://wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=HTML_element&amp;action=edit&amp;section=9" title="Edit section: Element status">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3> <p>Since the first version of HTML, several elements have become outmoded, and are <i>"<a href="/Deprecated" class="mw-redirect" title="Deprecated">deprecated</a></i> in later standards, or do not appear at all, in which case they are <i>invalid</i> (and will be found invalid, and perhaps not displayed, by "<a href="/XML_validation" title="XML validation">validating</a> user agents).<sup id="cite_ref-XML10-51_18-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-XML10-51-18">[11]</a></sup></p> <p>At present, the status of elements is complicated by the existence of three types of "<a href="/HTML_4.01" class="mw-redirect" title="HTML 4.01">HTML 4.01</a> / "<a href="/XHTML_1.0" class="mw-redirect" title="XHTML 1.0">XHTML 1.0</a> "<a href="/Document_Type_Definition" class="mw-redirect" title="Document Type Definition">DTD</a>:</p> <ul> <li><b>Transitional</b>, which contain deprecated elements, but which were intended to provide a transitional period during which authors could update their practices;</li> <li><b>Frameset</b>, which are versions of the Transitional DTDs which also allow authors to write <b>frameset</b> documents;</li> <li><b>Strict</b>, which is the up-to-date (as at 1999) form of HTML.</li> </ul> <p>The first Standard ("<a href="/HTML#First_specifications" title="HTML">HTML 2.0</a>) contained four deprecated elements, one of which was invalid in "<a href="/HTML_3.2" class="mw-redirect" title="HTML 3.2">HTML 3.2</a>. All four are invalid in "<a href="/HTML_4" class="mw-redirect" title="HTML 4">HTML 4.01 Transitional</a>, which also deprecated a further ten elements. All of these, plus two others, are invalid in "<a href="/HTML_4" class="mw-redirect" title="HTML 4">HTML 4.01 Strict</a>. While the frame elements are still current in the sense of being present in the Transitional and Frameset DTDs, there are no plans to preserve them in future standards, as their function has been largely replaced, and they are highly problematic for user accessibility.</p> <p>(Strictly speaking, the most recent <i>XHTML</i> standard, "<a href="/XHTML_1.1" class="mw-redirect" title="XHTML 1.1">XHTML 1.1</a> (2001), does not include frames at all; it is approximately equivalent to "<a href="/XHTML_1.0" class="mw-redirect" title="XHTML 1.0">XHTML 1.0 Strict</a>, but also includes the <b>"<a href="/Ruby_(annotation_markup)" class="mw-redirect" title="Ruby (annotation markup)">Ruby markup</a></b> module.)<sup id="cite_ref-XHTML11_19-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-XHTML11-19">[12]</a></sup></p> <p>A common source of confusion is the loose use of <i>deprecated</i> to refer to both deprecated and invalid status, and to elements which are expected to be formally deprecated in future.</p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Content_vs._presentation_and_behavior">Content vs. presentation and behavior</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a target="_new" rel="nofollow" href="http://wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=HTML_element&amp;action=edit&amp;section=10" title="Edit section: Content vs. presentation and behavior">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3> <p>Since HTML 4, HTML has increasingly focused on the separation of content (the visible text and images) from presentation (like color, font size, and layout).<sup id="cite_ref-20" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-20">[13]</a></sup> This is often referred to as a "<a href="/Separation_of_concerns" title="Separation of concerns">separation of concerns</a>. HTML is used to represent the structure or content of a document, its presentation remains the sole responsibility of "<a href="/CSS" class="mw-redirect" title="CSS">CSS</a> "<a href="/Style_sheet_(web_development)" title="Style sheet (web development)">style sheets</a>. A default style sheet is suggested as part of the CSS standard, giving a default rendering for HTML.<sup id="cite_ref-21" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-21">[14]</a></sup></p> <p>Behavior (interactivity) is also kept separate from content, and is handled by "<a href="/Client-side_scripting" class="mw-redirect" title="Client-side scripting">scripts</a>. Images are contained in separate "<a href="/Graphics" title="Graphics">graphics</a> files, separate from text, though they can also be considered part of the content of a page.</p> <p>Separation of concerns allows the document to be presented by different user agents according to their purposes and abilities. For example, a user agent can select an appropriate style sheet to present a document by displaying on a monitor, printing on paper, or to determine speech characteristics in an audio-only user agent. The structural and semantic functions of the markup remain identical in each case.</p> <p>Historically, user agents did not always support these features. In the 1990s, as a stop-gap, presentational elements (like &lt;b&gt; and &lt;i&gt;) were added to HTML, at the cost of creating problems for interoperability and user accessibility. This is now regarded as outmoded and has been superseded by style sheet-based design; most presentational elements are now deprecated.<sup id="cite_ref-HTML401-141_22-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-HTML401-141-22">[15]</a></sup></p> <p>External image files are incorporated with the <b>img</b> or <b>object</b> elements. (With "<a href="/XHTML" title="XHTML">XHTML</a>, the "<a href="/SVG" class="mw-redirect" title="SVG">SVG</a> language can also be used to write graphics within the document, though linking to external SVG files is generally simpler.)<sup id="cite_ref-SVG11-23_23-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-SVG11-23-23">[16]</a></sup> Where an image is not purely decorative, HTML allows replacement content with similar semantic value to be provided for non-visual user agents.</p> <p>An HTML document can also be extended through the use of scripts to provide additional behaviors beyond the abilities of HTML hyperlinks and forms.</p> <p>The elements <b>style</b> and <b>script</b>, with related "<a href="/HTML_attributes" class="mw-redirect" title="HTML attributes">HTML attributes</a>, provide reference points in HTML markup for links to style sheets and scripts. They can also contain instructions directly.</p> <ul> <li>In the document head, <b>script</b> and <b>style</b> may either link to shared external documents, or contain embedded instructions. (The <b>link</b> element can also be used to link style sheets.)</li> <li>The <i>style attribute</i> is valid in most document body elements for inclusion of <i>inline style</i> instructions.</li> <li><i>Event-handling attributes</i>, which provide links to scripts, are optional in most elements.</li> <li><b>script</b> can occur at any point in the document body.</li> <li>For user agents which do not operate scripts, the <b>noscript</b> element provides alternative content where appropriate; however, it can only be used as a block-level element.</li> </ul> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Document_structure_elements">Document structure elements</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a target="_new" rel="nofollow" href="http://wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=HTML_element&amp;action=edit&amp;section=11" title="Edit section: Document structure elements">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2> <p><span id="html"></span><span id="html_tag"></span><code class="html" title="HTML" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;html</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/html&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>The "<a href="/Root_element" title="Root element">root element</a> of an "<a href="/HTML" title="HTML">HTML</a> document; all other elements are contained in this.</dd> <dd>The HTML element delimits the beginning and the end of an HTML document.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML20">HTML 2.0</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="head"></span><span id="head_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Head" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;head</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/head&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Container for processing information and metadata for an HTML document.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML20">HTML 2.0</a>; still current.</dd> <dd>(See <a href="#Document_head_elements">document head elements</a> for child elements.)</dd> </dl> <p><span id="body"></span><span id="body_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Body" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;body</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/body&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Container for the displayable content of an HTML document.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML20">HTML 2.0</a>; still current.</dd> <dd>(See <a href="#Document_body_elements">document body elements</a> for child elements.)</dd> </dl> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Document_head_elements">Document head elements</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a target="_new" rel="nofollow" href="http://wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=HTML_element&amp;action=edit&amp;section=12" title="Edit section: Document head elements">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2> <p><span id="base"></span><span id="base_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Base" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;base</b><b style="color:#006633">/&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Specifies a <b>base "<a href="/Uniform_Resource_Locator" class="mw-redirect" title="Uniform Resource Locator">URL</a></b> for all relative <code>href</code> and other links in the document. Must appear before any element that refers to an external resource. HTML permits only one <code>base</code> element for each document. The <code>base</code> element has "<a href="/HTML_attributes" class="mw-redirect" title="HTML attributes">HTML attributes</a>, but no contents.</dd> <dd>A development version of <b>BASE</b> is mentioned in <i><a href="#HTMLTAGS">HTML Tags</a></i>; <b>standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML20">HTML 2.0</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="basefont"></span><span id="basefont_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Base Font" style="font-size:116%;"><del style="color:grey;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;basefont</b><b style="color:#006633">/&gt;</b></del> <b>(deprecated)</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Specifies a base font size, typeface, and color for the document. Used together with <code>font</code> elements. "<a href="/Deprecation" title="Deprecation">Deprecated</a> in favour of "<a href="/Style_sheet_(web_development)" title="Style sheet (web development)">style sheets</a>.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML32">HTML 3.2</a>; <b>deprecated</b> in <a href="#HTML401">HTML 4.0 Transitional</a>; <b>invalid</b> in <a href="#HTML401">HTML 4.0 Strict</a>.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="isindex"></span><span id="isindex_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Index" style="font-size:116%;"><del style="color:grey;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;isindex</b><b style="color:#006633">/&gt;</b></del> <b>(deprecated)</b></code></p> <dl> <dd><b><code>isindex</code></b> could either appear in the document head or in the body, but only once in a document. See "<a href="/Fieldset" class="mw-redirect" title="Fieldset">Forms</a>.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="link"></span><span id="link_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Link" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;link</b><b style="color:#006633">/&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Specifies links to other documents, such as <i>previous</i> and <i>next</i> links, or alternate versions.<sup id="cite_ref-24" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-24">[17]</a></sup> A common use is to link to external "<a href="/Cascading_Style_Sheets" title="Cascading Style Sheets">style sheets</a>, using the form: <dl> <dd><code class="mw-highlight" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">link</span> <span class="na">rel</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">"stylesheet"</span> <span class="na">type</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">"text/css"</span> <span class="na">href</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">"url"</span> <span class="na">title</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">"description_of_style"</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code><sup id="cite_ref-25" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-25">[18]</a></sup></dd> </dl> </dd> <dd>A less-common, but important, usage is to supply navigation hints consistently through use of "<a href="/Microformat" title="Microformat">microformats</a>. Several common relationships are defined, that may be exposed to users through the browser interface rather than directly in the web page. <dl> <dd><code class="mw-highlight" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">link</span> <span class="na">rel</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">"next"</span> <span class="na">href</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">"url"</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code></dd> </dl> </dd> <dd>A document's <code>head</code> element may contain any number of <code>link</code> elements. The <code>link</code> element has "<a href="/HTML_attributes" class="mw-redirect" title="HTML attributes">HTML attributes</a>, but no contents.</dd> <dd><b>LINK</b> existed in <i><a href="#HTMLDRAFT12">HTML Internet Draft 1.2</a></i>, and was <b>standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML20">HTML 2.0</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="meta"></span><span id="meta_tag"></span>"<a href="/Meta_element" title="Meta element"><code class="html" title="Meta" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;meta</b><b style="color:#006633">/&gt;</b></code></a></p> <div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: "<a href="/Meta_element" title="Meta element">Meta element</a></div> <dl> <dd>Can be used to specify additional "<a href="/Metadata" title="Metadata">metadata</a> about a document, such as its author, publication date, expiration date, page description, keywords, or other information not provided through the other header elements and "<a href="/HTML_attributes" class="mw-redirect" title="HTML attributes">HTML attributes</a>. Because of their generic nature, <code>meta</code> elements specify associative "<a href="/Associative_array" title="Associative array">key-value pairs</a>. In general, a meta element conveys hidden information about the document. Several meta tags can be used, all of which should be nested in the head element. The specific purpose of each <i>meta</i> element is defined by its attributes.</dd> <dd>In one form, <code>meta</code> elements can specify "<a href="/HTTP" class="mw-redirect" title="HTTP">HTTP</a> headers which should be sent by a "<a href="/Web_server" title="Web server">web server</a> before the actual content, for example: <dl> <dd><code class="mw-highlight" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">meta</span> <span class="na">http-equiv</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">"foo"</span> <span class="na">content</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">"bar"</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code></dd> </dl> </dd> <dd>— this specifies that the page should be served with an HTTP header called <code>foo</code> that has a value <code>bar</code>.</dd> <dd>In the general form, a <code>meta</code> element specifies <code>name</code> and associated <code>content</code> "<a href="/HTML_attributes" class="mw-redirect" title="HTML attributes">HTML attributes</a> describing aspects of the HTML page. To prevent possible ambiguity, an optional third attribute, <code>scheme</code>, may be supplied to specify a semantic framework that defines the meaning of the key and its value: for example: <dl> <dd><code class="mw-highlight" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">meta</span> <span class="na">name</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">"foo"</span> <span class="na">content</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">"bar"</span> <span class="na">scheme</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">"DC"</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code></dd> </dl> </dd> <dd>In this example, the <code>meta</code> element identifies itself as containing the <code>foo</code> element, with a value of <code>bar</code>, from the DC or "<a href="/Dublin_Core" title="Dublin Core">Dublin Core</a> "<a href="/Resource_Description_Framework" title="Resource Description Framework">resource description framework</a>.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML20">HTML 2.0</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="object"></span><code class="html" title="Object" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;object</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/object&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Used for including generic objects within the document header. Though rarely used within a <code>head</code> element, it could potentially be used to extract foreign data and associate it with the current document.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML401">HTML 4.0</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="script"></span><span id="script_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Script" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;script</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/script&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Can act as a container for script instructions or link to an external script with the optional <code>src</code> attribute.<sup id="cite_ref-26" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-26">[19]</a></sup> Also usable in the document body to dynamically generate either both block or inline content.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML32">HTML 3.2</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="style"></span><span id="style_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Style" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;style</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/style&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Specifies a "<a href="/Cascading_Style_Sheets" title="Cascading Style Sheets">style</a> for the document, usually in the form: <dl> <dd><code class="mw-highlight" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">style</span> <span class="na">type</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">"text/css"</span><span class="p">&gt;</span> <span class="o">...</span> <span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">style</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code></dd> </dl> </dd> <dd>Can either act as a container for style instructions or link to external style sheets – for example, in "<a href="/Cascading_Style_Sheets" title="Cascading Style Sheets">CSS</a>, with <code class="mw-highlight" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">@</span><span class="k">import</span></code> directives of the form: <dl> <dd><code class="mw-highlight" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">style</span><span class="p">&gt;</span> <span class="p">@</span><span class="k">import</span> <span class="nt">url</span><span class="p">;</span> <span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">style</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code><sup id="cite_ref-27" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-27">[20]</a></sup></dd> </dl> </dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML32">HTML 3.2</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="title"></span><span id="title_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Title" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;title</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/title&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Define a document title. Required in every "<a href="/HTML" title="HTML">HTML</a> and "<a href="/XHTML" title="XHTML">XHTML</a> document. User agents may use the title in different ways. For example: <ul> <li>Web browsers usually display it in a window's "<a href="/Title_bar" class="mw-redirect" title="Title bar">title bar</a> when the window is open, and (where applicable) in the "<a href="/Task_bar" class="mw-redirect" title="Task bar">task bar</a> when the window is minimized.</li> <li>It may become the default file-name when saving the page.</li> <li>"<a href="/Web_search_engine" title="Web search engine">Web search engines</a>’ "<a href="/Web_crawler" title="Web crawler">web crawlers</a> may pay particular attention to the words used in the title.</li> </ul> </dd> <dd>The <code>title</code> element must not contain other elements, only text. Only one <code>title</code> element is permitted in a document.</dd> <dd><b>TITLE</b> existed in <i><a href="#HTMLTAGS">HTML Tags</a></i>, and was <b>standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML20">HTML 2.0</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Document_body_elements">Document body elements</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a target="_new" rel="nofollow" href="http://wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=HTML_element&amp;action=edit&amp;section=13" title="Edit section: Document body elements">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2> <p>In visual browsers, displayable elements can be rendered as either <i>block</i> or <i>inline</i>. While all elements are part of the document sequence, block elements appear within their parent elements:</p> <ul> <li>as rectangular objects which do not break across lines;</li> <li>with block margins, width and height properties which can be set independently of the surrounding elements.</li> </ul> <p>Conversely, inline elements are treated as part of the flow of document text; they cannot have margins, width or height set, and do break across lines.</p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Block_elements">Block elements</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a target="_new" rel="nofollow" href="http://wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=HTML_element&amp;action=edit&amp;section=14" title="Edit section: Block elements">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3> <p>Block elements, or block-level elements, have a rectangular structure. By default, these elements will span the entire width of its parent element, and will thus not allow any other element to occupy the same horizontal space as it is placed on.</p> <p>The rectangular structure of a block element is often referred to as the ""<a rel="nofollow" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:W3C_and_Internet_Explorer_box_models.svg" title="File:W3C and Internet Explorer box models.svg">box model</a>, and is made up of several parts. Each element contains the following:</p> <ul> <li>The <b>content</b> of an element is the actual text (or other media) placed between the opening and closing tags of an element.</li> <li>The <b>padding</b> of an element is the space around that content, which still form part of said element. Padding is physically part of an element, and should not be used to create white space between two elements. Any background style assigned to the element, such as a background image or color, will be visible within the padding. Increasing the size of an element's padding increases the amount of space this element will take up.</li> <li>The <b>border</b> of an element is the absolute end of an element, and spans the perimeter of that element. The thickness of a border increases the size of an element.</li> <li>The <b>margin</b> of an element is the white-space that surrounds an element. The content, padding and border of any other element will not be allowed to enter this area, unless forced to do so by some advanced "<a href="/CSS" class="mw-redirect" title="CSS">CSS</a> placement. Using most standard "<a href="/Document_Type_Definition" class="mw-redirect" title="Document Type Definition">DTDs</a>, margins on the left and right of different elements will push each other away. Margins on the top or bottom of an element, on the other hand, will not stack, or will intermingle. This means that the white-space between these elements will be as big as the larger margin between them.</li> </ul> <p>The above section refers only to the detailed implementation of CSS rendering and has no relevance to HTML elements themselves.</p> <h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Basic_text">Basic text</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a target="_new" rel="nofollow" href="http://wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=HTML_element&amp;action=edit&amp;section=15" title="Edit section: Basic text">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4> <p><span id="p"></span><span id="p_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Paragraph" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;p</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/p&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Creates a paragraph, perhaps the most common block level element.</dd> <dd><code>P</code> existed in <i><a href="#HTMLTAGS">HTML Tags</a></i>, and was <b>standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML20">HTML 2.0</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="heading"></span><span id="h1"></span><span id="h1_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Primary Headline" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;h1</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/h1&gt;</b></code> <span id="h2"></span><span id="h2_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Secondary Headline" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;h2</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/h2&gt;</b></code> <span id="h3"></span><span id="h3_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Third Level Headline" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;h3</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/h3&gt;</b></code> <span id="h4"></span><span id="h4_tag"></span><code class="html" title="4. Level Headline" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;h4</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/h4&gt;</b></code> <span id="h5"></span><span id="h5_tag"></span><code class="html" title="5. Level Headline" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;h5</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/h5&gt;</b></code> <span id="h6"></span><span id="h6_tag"></span><code class="html" title="6. Level Headline" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;h6</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/h6&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Section headings at different levels. <code>&lt;h1&gt;</code> delimits the highest-level heading, <code>&lt;h2&gt;</code> the next level down (sub-section), <code>&lt;h3&gt;</code> for a level below that, and so on to <code>&lt;h6&gt;</code>. They are sometimes referred to collectively as <code>&lt;h<i>n</i>&gt;</code> tags, <i>n</i> meaning any of the available heading levels.</dd> <dd>Most visual browsers show headings as large bold text by default, though this can be overridden with "<a href="/Cascading_Style_Sheets" title="Cascading Style Sheets">CSS</a>. Heading elements are not intended merely for creating large or bold text—in fact, they should <i>not</i> be used for explicitly styling text. Rather, they describe the document’s structure and organization. Some programs use them to generate outlines and tables of contents.</dd> <dd>Headings existed in <i><a href="#HTMLTAGS">HTML Tags</a></i>, and were <b>standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML20">HTML 2.0</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Lists">Lists</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a target="_new" rel="nofollow" href="http://wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=HTML_element&amp;action=edit&amp;section=16" title="Edit section: Lists">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4> <p><span id="dl"></span><span id="dl_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Definition List" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;dl</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/dl&gt;</b></code></p> <div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">"Definition list" redirects here. For Wikipedia's article on lists of definitions, see "<a href="/Glossary" title="Glossary">Glossary</a>.</div> <dl> <dd>A description list (a.k.a. "<a href="/Association_list" title="Association list">association list</a>), which consists of name–value groups,<sup id="cite_ref-W3C-5-DL_28-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-W3C-5-DL-28">[21]</a></sup> and was known as a definition list prior to HTML5.<sup id="cite_ref-29" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-29">[22]</a></sup> Description lists are intended for groups of "terms and definitions, metadata topics and values, questions and answers, or any other groups of name–value data".<sup id="cite_ref-30" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-30">[23]</a></sup></dd> <dd><code>DL</code> existed in <i><a href="#HTMLTAGS">HTML Tags</a></i>, and was <b>standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML20">HTML 2.0</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="dt"></span><span id="dt_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Definition Term" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;dt</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/dt&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>A name in a description list (previously definition term in a definition list).</dd> <dd><code>DT</code> existed in <i><a href="#HTMLTAGS">HTML Tags</a></i>, and was <b>standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML20">HTML 2.0</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="dd"></span><span id="dd_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Definition" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;dd</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/dd&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>A value in a description list (previously definition data in a definition list).</dd> <dd><code>DD</code> existed in <i><a href="#HTMLTAGS">HTML Tags</a></i>, and was <b>standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML20">HTML 2.0</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="ol"></span><span id="ol_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Ordered List" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;ol</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/ol&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>An ordered (enumerated) list. The <code>type</code> attribute can be used to specify the kind of marker to use in the list, but style sheets give more control. The default is Arabic numbering. CSS: <code>list-style-type: <var>foo</var></code>. HTML attribute: <code class="nowrap" style="">&lt;ol type="<var>foo</var>"&gt;</code>, in either case, replacing <code><var>foo</var></code> with one of the following: <ul> <li><code>A</code> for A, B, C...</li> <li><code>a</code> for a, b, c...</li> <li><code>I</code> for I, II, III...</li> <li><code>i</code> for i, ii, iii...</li> <li><code>1</code> for 1, 2, 3...</li> </ul> </dd> <dd><code>OL</code> existed in <i><a href="#HTMLDRAFT12">HTML Internet Draft 1.2</a></i>, and was <b>standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML20">HTML 2.0</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="ul"></span><span id="ul_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Unordered List" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;ul</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/ul&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>An unordered (bulleted) list. Style sheets can be used to specify the list marker: <code>list-style-type: <var>foo</var></code>. The default marker type is <code>disc</code>, other values are <code>square</code>, <code>circle</code> and <code>none</code>.</dd> <dd><code>UL</code> existed in <i><a href="#HTMLTAGS">HTML Tags</a></i>, and was <b>standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML20">HTML 2.0</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="li"></span><span id="li_tag"></span><code class="html" title="List Item" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;li</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/li&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>A list item in ordered (<b>ol</b>) or unordered (<b>ul</b>) lists.</dd> <dd><code>LI</code> existed in <i><a href="#HTMLTAGS">HTML Tags</a></i>, and was <b>standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML20">HTML 2.0</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="dir"></span><span id="dir_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Directory List" style="font-size:116%;"><del style="color:grey;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;dir</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/dir&gt;</b></del> <b>(deprecated)</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>A directory listing. The original purpose of this element was never widely supported; deprecated in favor of <code>&lt;ul&gt;</code>.</dd> <dd><code>DIR</code> existed in <i><a href="#HTMLTAGS">HTML Tags</a></i>, and was <b>standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML20">HTML 2.0</a>; <b>deprecated</b> in <a href="#HTML401">HTML 4.0 Transitional</a>; <b>invalid</b> in <a href="#HTML401">HTML 4.0 Strict</a>.</dd> </dl> <h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Other_block_elements">Other block elements</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a target="_new" rel="nofollow" href="http://wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=HTML_element&amp;action=edit&amp;section=17" title="Edit section: Other block elements">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4> <p><span id="address"></span><span id="address_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Address" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;address</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/address&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Contact information for the document author.</dd> <dd><code>ADDRESS</code> existed in <i><a href="#HTMLTAGS">HTML Tags</a></i>, and was <b>standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML20">HTML 2.0</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="article"></span><span id="article_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Article" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;article</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/article&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Used for articles and other similar content.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML5">HTML5</a>.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="aside"></span><span id="aside_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Aside" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;aside</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/aside&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Used for content in a document which is separate from the main page content, for example, sidebars or advertising.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML5">HTML5</a>.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="blockquote"></span> <span id="blockquote"></span><span id="blockquote_tag"></span><code class="html" title="BlockQuotation" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;blockquote</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/blockquote&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>A "<a href="/Blockquote" class="mw-redirect" title="Blockquote">block level quotation</a>, for when the quotation includes block level elements, e.g. paragraphs. The <code>cite</code> attribute may give the source, and must be a fully qualified "<a href="/Uniform_Resource_Identifier" title="Uniform Resource Identifier">Uniform Resource Identifier</a>.</dd> <dd>The default presentation of block quotations in visual browsers is usually to indent them from both margins. This has led to the element being unnecessarily used just to indent paragraphs, regardless of semantics. For quotations not containing block level elements see the quote (<a href="#q"><code>q</code></a>) element.</dd> <dd><code>BLOCKQUOTE</code> existed in <i><a href="#HTMLDRAFT12">HTML Internet Draft 1.2</a></i>, and was <b>standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML20">HTML 2.0</a>; still current. See "<a href="/Blockquote_element" title="Blockquote element">blockquote element</a> for more information.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="center"></span><span id="center_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Centered Text" style="font-size:116%;"><del style="color:grey;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;center</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/center&gt;</b></del> <b>(deprecated)</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Creates a block-level center-aligned division. Deprecated in favor of <code>&lt;div&gt;</code> or another element with centering defined using style sheets.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML32">HTML 3.2</a>; <b>deprecated</b> in <a href="#HTML401">HTML 4.0</a>; <b>not supported</b> in <a href="#HTML5">HTML5</a>.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="del"></span><span id="del_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Deleted Section" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;del</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/del&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Marks a deleted section of content. This element can also be used as <i>inline</i>.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML401">HTML 4.0</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="div"></span><span id="div_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Logical division" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;div</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/div&gt;</b></code></p> <div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: "<a href="/Span_and_div" title="Span and div">Span and div</a></div> <dl> <dd>A block-level logical division. A generic element with no semantic meaning used to distinguish a document section, usually for purposes such as presentation or behaviour controlled by "<a href="/Cascading_Style_Sheets" title="Cascading Style Sheets">style sheets</a> or "<a href="/Document_Object_Model" title="Document Object Model">DOM</a> calls.</dd> <dd>Proposed in the <a href="#HTML30">HTML 3.0 Drafts</a>; <b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML32">HTML 3.2</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="figure"></span><span id="figure_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Figure" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;figure</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/figure&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Used to group images and captions, along with <code>figcaption</code>.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML5">HTML5</a>.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="figcaption"></span><span id="figcaption_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Figure Caption" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;figcaption</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/figcaption&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>A caption for an image. Always placed inside the figure element.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML5">HTML5</a>.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="footer"></span><span id="footer_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Footer" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;footer</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/footer&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Used for document footers. These may contain author or copyright information, or links to other pages.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML5">HTML5</a>.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="header"></span><span id="header_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Header" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;header</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/header&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Used for document headers. These typically contain content introducing the page.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML5">HTML5</a>.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="hr"></span><span id="hr_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Horizontal Rule" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;hr</b><b style="color:#006633">/&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>A horizontal rule. Presentational rules can also be drawn with style sheets.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML20">HTML 2.0</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="ins"></span><span id="ins_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Inserted Section" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;ins</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/ins&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Marks a section of inserted content. This element can also be used as <i>inline</i>.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML401">HTML 4.0</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="main"></span><span id="main_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Main Content" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;main</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/main&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Contains the main content of a document.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML5">HTML5</a>.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="menu"></span><span id="menu_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Menu" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;menu</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/menu&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>HTML 2.0: A menu listing. Should be more compact than a <code>&lt;ul&gt;</code> list.</dd> <dd><code>MENU</code> existed in <i><a href="#HTMLTAGS">HTML Tags</a></i>, and was <b>standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML20">HTML 2.0</a>; <b>deprecated</b> in <a href="#HTML401">HTML 4.0 Transitional</a>; <b>invalid</b> in <a href="#HTML401">HTML 4.0 Strict</a>; but then redefined in <a href="#HTML5">HTML5</a>.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="nav"></span><span id="nav_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Navigation" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;nav</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/nav&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Used in navigational sections of articles (areas of webpages which contain links to other webpages).</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML5">HTML5</a>.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="noscript"></span><span id="noscript_tag"></span><code class="html" title="JavaScript Fallback" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;noscript</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/noscript&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Replacement content for scripts. Unlike <b>script</b> this can only be used as a block-level element.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML401">HTML 4.0</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="pre"></span><span id="pre_tag"></span><code class="html" title="PreFormattedText" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;pre</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/pre&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd><i>Pre-formatted</i> text. Text within this element is typically displayed in a "<a href="/Non-proportional_font" class="mw-redirect" title="Non-proportional font">non-proportional font</a> exactly as it is laid out in the file (see "<a href="/ASCII_art" title="ASCII art">ASCII art</a>). Whereas browsers ignore "<a href="/Whitespace_(computer_science)" class="mw-redirect" title="Whitespace (computer science)">white-space</a> for other HTML elements, in <code>pre</code>, white-space should be rendered as authored. (With the CSS properties: <code class="mw-highlight" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">{</span><span class="k">white-space</span><span class="p">:</span> <span class="kc">pre</span><span class="p">;</span> <span class="k">font-family</span><span class="p">:</span> <span class="kc">monospace</span><span class="p">;}</span></code>, other elements can be presented in the same way.) This element can contain any inline element except: image (<code>IMG</code>), object (<code>OBJECT</code>), big font size (<code>BIG</code>), small font size (<code>SMALL</code>), superscript (<code>SUP</code>), and subscript (<code>SUB</code>).</dd> <dd><code>PRE</code> existed in <i><a href="#HTMLDRAFT12">HTML Internet Draft 1.2</a></i>, and was <b>standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML20">HTML 2.0</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="section"></span><span id="section_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Section" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;section</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/section&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Used for generic sections of a document. This is different from <code>div</code> in that it is only used to contain sections of a page, which the W3C defines as a group of content with a similar theme.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML5">HTML5</a>.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="script"></span><span id="script_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Script" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;script</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/script&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Places a script in the document. Also usable in the head and in inline contexts. <dl> <dd>Note: <code>SCRIPT</code> is not itself either a block or inline element; by itself it should not display at all, but it can contain instructions to dynamically generate either both block or inline content.</dd> </dl> </dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML32">HTML 3.2</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Inline_elements">Inline elements</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a target="_new" rel="nofollow" href="http://wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=HTML_element&amp;action=edit&amp;section=18" title="Edit section: Inline elements">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3> <p>Inline elements cannot be placed directly inside the <code>body</code> element; they must be wholly nested within block-level elements.<sup id="cite_ref-31" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-31">[24]</a></sup></p> <h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Anchor">Anchor</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a target="_new" rel="nofollow" href="http://wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=HTML_element&amp;action=edit&amp;section=19" title="Edit section: Anchor">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4> <p><span id="a"></span><span id="a_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Anchor" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;a</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/a&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>An anchor element is called an anchor because web designers can use it to anchor a URL to some text on a web page. When users view the web page in a browser, they can click the text to activate the link and visit the page whose URL is in the link.<sup id="cite_ref-32" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-32">[25]</a></sup></dd> <dd>In HTML, an <b>anchor</b> can be either the origin (the "<a href="/Anchor_text" title="Anchor text">anchor text</a>) or the <i>target</i> (destination) end of a <b>"<a href="/Hyperlink" title="Hyperlink">hyperlink</a></b>.</dd> <dd>With the attribute <code>href</code>,<sup id="cite_ref-33" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-33">[26]</a></sup> the anchor becomes a hyperlink to either another part of the document or another resource (e.g. a webpage) using an external "<a href="/Uniform_Resource_Locator" class="mw-redirect" title="Uniform Resource Locator">URL</a>. Alternatively (and sometimes concurrently), with the <code>name</code> or <code>id</code> "<a href="/HTML_attributes" class="mw-redirect" title="HTML attributes">HTML attributes</a> set, the element becomes a <b>target</b>. A "<a href="/Uniform_Resource_Locator" class="mw-redirect" title="Uniform Resource Locator">Uniform Resource Locator</a> can link to this target via a "<a href="/Fragment_identifier" title="Fragment identifier">fragment identifier</a>. In HTML5, any element can now be made into a target by using the <code>id</code> attribute,<sup id="cite_ref-34" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-34">[27]</a></sup> so using <code class="mw-highlight" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">a</span> <span class="na">name</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">"foo"</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>...<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">a</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code> is not necessary, although this way of adding anchors continues to work.</dd> <dd>To illustrate: the header of a table of contents section on <code>example.com</code> could be turned into a target by writing <dl> <dd><code class="mw-highlight" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">h1</span> <span class="na">id</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">"contents"</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>Table of contents<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">h1</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code></dd> </dl> </dd> <dd>Continuing with this example, now that the section has been marked up as a target, it can be referred to from external sites with a link like <dl> <dd><code class="mw-highlight" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">a</span> <span class="na">href</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">"http://example.com#contents"</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>see contents<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">a</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code></dd> </dl> </dd> <dd>or with a link on the same page like: <dl> <dd><code class="mw-highlight" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">a</span> <span class="na">href</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">"#contents"</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>contents, above<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">a</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code></dd> </dl> </dd> <dd>The attribute <code>title</code> may be set to give brief information about the link: <dl> <dd><code class="mw-highlight" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">a</span> <span class="na">href</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">"URL"</span> <span class="na">title</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">"additional information"</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>link text<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">a</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code></dd> </dl> </dd> <dd>In most graphical browsers, when the cursor hovers over a link, the cursor changes into a hand with an extended index finger and the <code>title</code> is displayed in a "<a href="/Tooltip" title="Tooltip">tooltip</a> or in some other manner. Some browsers render "<a href="/Alt_attribute" title="Alt attribute">alt text</a> the same way, although this is not what the specification calls for.</dd> <dd><code>A</code> existed in <i><a href="#HTMLTAGS">HTML Tags</a></i>, and was <b>standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML20">HTML 2.0</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Phrase_elements">Phrase elements</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a target="_new" rel="nofollow" href="http://wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=HTML_element&amp;action=edit&amp;section=20" title="Edit section: Phrase elements">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4> <h5><span class="mw-headline" id="General">General</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a target="_new" rel="nofollow" href="http://wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=HTML_element&amp;action=edit&amp;section=21" title="Edit section: General">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h5> <p><span id="abbr"></span><span id="abbr_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Abbreviation" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;abbr</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/abbr&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Marks an "<a href="/Abbreviation" title="Abbreviation">abbreviation</a>, and can make the full form available: <dl> <dd><code class="mw-highlight" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">abbr</span> <span class="na">title</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">"abbreviation"</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>abbr.<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">abbr</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code></dd> </dl> </dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML401">HTML 4.0</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="acronym"></span><span id="acronym_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Acronym" style="font-size:116%;"><del style="color:grey;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;acronym</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/acronym&gt;</b></del> <b>(deprecated)</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Similar to the <code>abbr</code> element, but marks an "<a href="/Acronym" title="Acronym">acronym</a>: <dl> <dd><code class="mw-highlight" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">acronym</span> <span class="na">title</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">"Hyper-Text Mark-up Language"</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>HTML<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">acronym</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code></dd> </dl> </dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML401">HTML 4.0</a>; still current, <b>not supported</b> in <a href="#HTML5">HTML5</a>.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="dfn"></span><span id="dfn_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Definition" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;dfn</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/dfn&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>inline definition of a single term.</dd> <dd><code>DFN</code> existed in <i><a href="#HTMLDRAFT12">HTML Internet Draft 1.2</a></i>, and was fully <b>standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML32">HTML 3.2</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="em"></span><span id="em_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Emphasis" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;em</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/em&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd><i>Emphasis</i> (conventionally displayed in italics)</dd> <dd><code>EM</code> existed in <i><a href="#HTMLDRAFT12">HTML Internet Draft 1.2</a></i>, and was <b>standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML20">HTML 2.0</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="strong"></span><span id="strong_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Strong Emphasis" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;strong</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/strong&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd><strong>strong emphasis</strong> (conventionally displayed bold).</dd> <dd>An "<a href="/Voice_browser" title="Voice browser">aural user agent</a> may use different voices for emphasis.</dd> <dd><code>STRONG</code> existed in <i><a href="#HTMLDRAFT12">HTML Internet Draft 1.2</a></i>, and was <b>standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML20">HTML 2.0</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <h5><span class="mw-headline" id="Computer_phrase_elements">Computer phrase elements</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a target="_new" rel="nofollow" href="http://wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=HTML_element&amp;action=edit&amp;section=22" title="Edit section: Computer phrase elements">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h5> <p>These elements are useful primarily for documenting computer code development and user interaction through differentiation of source code (&lt;code&gt;), source code variables (&lt;var&gt;), user input (&lt;kbd&gt;), and terminal output (&lt;samp&gt;).</p> <p><span id="code"></span><span id="code_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Sourcecode" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;code</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/code&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>A code snippet (<code>code example</code>). Conventionally rendered in a mono-space font.</dd> <dd><code>CODE</code> existed in <i><a href="#HTMLDRAFT12">HTML Internet Draft 1.2</a></i>, and was <b>standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML20">HTML 2.0</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="kbd"></span><span id="kbd_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Keyboard" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;kbd</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/kbd&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Keyboard - text to be entered by the user (<kbd>kbd example</kbd>).</dd> <dd><code>KBD</code> existed in <i><a href="#HTMLDRAFT12">HTML Internet Draft 1.2</a></i>, and was <b>standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML20">HTML 2.0</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="samp"></span><span id="samp_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Sample" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;samp</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/samp&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Sample output - from a program or script: (<samp>samp example</samp>).</dd> <dd><code>SAMP</code> existed in <i><a href="#HTMLDRAFT12">HTML Internet Draft 1.2</a></i>, and was <b>standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML20">HTML 2.0</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="var"></span><span id="var_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Variable" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;var</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/var&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Variable (<var>var example</var>).</dd> <dd><code>VAR</code> existed in <i><a href="#HTMLDRAFT12">HTML Internet Draft 1.2</a></i>, and was <b>standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML20">HTML 2.0</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <h5><span class="mw-headline" id="Presentation">Presentation</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a target="_new" rel="nofollow" href="http://wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=HTML_element&amp;action=edit&amp;section=23" title="Edit section: Presentation">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h5> <p>As visual presentational markup only applies directly to visual browsers, its use is discouraged. Style sheets should be used instead. Several of these elements are deprecated or invalid in HTML 4 / XHTML 1.0, and the remainder are invalid in the current draft of <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2005/WD-xhtml2-20050527/">XHTML 2.0</a>. The current draft of <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/html5/text-level-semantics.html">HTML5</a>, however, re-includes <code class="mw-highlight" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">s</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code>, <code>&lt;u&gt;</code>, and <code>&lt;small&gt;</code>, assigning new semantic meaning to each. In an "<a href="/HTML5" title="HTML5">HTML5</a> document, the use of these elements is no longer discouraged, provided that it is semantically correct.</p> <p><span id="b"></span><span id="b_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Bold" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;b</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/b&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>In "<a href="/HTML_4" class="mw-redirect" title="HTML 4">HTML 4</a>, set font to <b>boldface</b> where possible. Equivalent CSS: <code class="mw-highlight" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">{</span><span class="k">font-weight</span><span class="p">:</span> <span class="kc">bold</span><span class="p">}</span></code>. <code class="mw-highlight" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">strong</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>...<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">strong</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code> usually has the same effect in visual browsers, as well as having more semantic meaning, under "<a href="/HTML_4.01" class="mw-redirect" title="HTML 4.01">HTML 4.01</a>.</dd> <dd>In "<a href="/HTML5" title="HTML5">HTML5</a>, however, <code>b</code> has its own meaning, distinct from that of <code>strong</code>. It denotes "text to which attention is being drawn for utilitarian purposes without conveying any extra importance and with no implication of an alternate voice or mood."<sup id="cite_ref-html5-b-element_35-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-html5-b-element-35">[28]</a></sup></dd> <dd><code>B</code> existed in <i><a href="#HTMLDRAFT12">HTML Internet Draft 1.2</a></i>, and was <b>standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML20">HTML 2.0</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="i"></span><span id="i_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Italic" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;i</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/i&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>In "<a href="/HTML_4" class="mw-redirect" title="HTML 4">HTML 4</a>, set font to <i>italic</i> where possible. Equivalent "<a href="/CSS" class="mw-redirect" title="CSS">CSS</a>: <code class="mw-highlight" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">{</span><span class="k">font-style</span><span class="p">:</span> <span class="kc">italic</span><span class="p">}</span></code>. <code>&lt;em&gt;...&lt;/em&gt;</code> usually has the same effect in visual browsers, as well as having more semantic meaning, under "<a href="/HTML_4.01" class="mw-redirect" title="HTML 4.01">HTML 4.01</a>.</dd> <dd>In "<a href="/HTML5" title="HTML5">HTML5</a>, however, <code>i</code> has its own semantic meaning, distinct from that of <code>em</code>. It denotes "a different quality of text" or "an alternative voice or mood"—e.g., a thought, a ship name, a "<a href="/Binomial_nomenclature" title="Binomial nomenclature">binary species name</a>, a foreign-language phrase, etc.<sup id="cite_ref-html5-i-element_36-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-html5-i-element-36">[29]</a></sup></dd> <dd><code>I</code> existed in <i><a href="#HTMLDRAFT12">HTML Internet Draft 1.2</a></i>, and was <b>standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML20">HTML 2.0</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="u"></span><span id="u_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Underlined" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;u</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/u&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>In "<a href="/HTML_4" class="mw-redirect" title="HTML 4">HTML 4</a>, <u>underlined</u> text. Equivalent CSS: <code class="mw-highlight" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">{</span><span class="k">text-decoration</span><span class="p">:</span> <span class="kc">underline</span><span class="p">}</span></code>. Deprecated in "<a href="/HTML_4.01" class="mw-redirect" title="HTML 4.01">HTML 4.01</a>. Restored in <a href="#HTML5">HTML5</a>.</dd> <dd>In "<a href="/HTML5" title="HTML5">HTML5</a>, the <code>u</code> element denotes "a span of text with an unarticulated, though explicitly rendered, non-textual annotation, such as labelling the text as being a proper name in Chinese text (a Chinese proper name mark), or labelling the text as being misspelt." The "<a href="/HTML5" title="HTML5">HTML5</a> specification reminds developers that other elements are almost always more appropriate than <code>u</code> and admonishes designers not to use underlined text where it could be confused for a hyper-link.<sup id="cite_ref-html5-u-element_37-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-html5-u-element-37">[30]</a></sup></dd> <dd><code>U</code> existed in <i><a href="#HTMLDRAFT12">HTML Internet Draft 1.2</a></i>, was <b>standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML32">HTML 3.2</a> but was <b>deprecated</b> in <a href="#HTML401">HTML 4.0 Transitional</a> and was <b>invalid</b> in <a href="#HTML401">HTML 4.0 Strict</a>. <b>Reintroduced</b> in <a href="#HTML5">HTML5</a>.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="small"></span><span id="small_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Small" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;small</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/small&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>In "<a href="/HTML_4" class="mw-redirect" title="HTML 4">HTML 4</a>, decreased font size (<small>smaller</small> text). Equivalent CSS: <code>{font-size: smaller}</code></dd> <dd>In "<a href="/HTML5" title="HTML5">HTML5</a>, the <code>small</code> element denotes "side comments such as small print."<sup id="cite_ref-html5-small-element_38-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-html5-small-element-38">[31]</a></sup></dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML32">HTML 3.2</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="s"></span><span id="s_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Strikethrough" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;s</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/s&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>In "<a href="/HTML_4" class="mw-redirect" title="HTML 4">HTML 4</a>, indicated strike-through text (<s>Strikethrough</s>) and was equivalent to <code>strike</code>.</dd> <dd>In "<a href="/HTML5" title="HTML5">HTML5</a>, the <code>s</code> element denotes information that is "no longer accurate or no longer relevant", and is not to be confused with <code>del</code>, which indicates removal/deletion.<sup id="cite_ref-html5-s-element_39-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-html5-s-element-39">[32]</a></sup></dd> <dd><code>S</code> was <b>deprecated</b> in <a href="#HTML401">HTML 4.0 Transitional</a> (having not appeared in any previous standard), and was <b>invalid</b> in <a href="#HTML401">HTML 4.0 Strict</a>. <b>Reintroduced</b> in <a href="#HTML5">HTML5</a>.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="big"></span><span id="big_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Big" style="font-size:116%;"><del style="color:grey;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;big</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/big&gt;</b></del> <b>(deprecated)</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Increased font size (<big>bigger</big> text). Equivalent CSS: <code class="mw-highlight" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">{</span><span class="k">font-size</span><span class="p">:</span> <span class="kc">larger</span><span class="p">}</span></code></dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML32">HTML 3.2</a>; <b>not supported</b> in <a href="#HTML5">HTML5</a>.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="strike"></span><span id="strike_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Strikethrough" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;strike</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/strike&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Strike-through text (<s>Strikethrough</s>), (Equivalent CSS: <code class="mw-highlight" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">{</span><span class="k">text-decoration</span><span class="p">:</span> <span class="kc">line-through</span><span class="p">}</span></code>)</dd> <dd><code>STRIKE</code> was standardized in <a href="#HTML32">HTML 3.2</a>; <b>deprecated</b> in <a href="#HTML401">HTML 4.0 Transitional</a>; <b>invalid</b> in <a href="#HTML401">HTML 4.0 Strict</a>.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="tt"></span><span id="tt_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Teletype" style="font-size:116%;"><del style="color:grey;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;tt</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/tt&gt;</b></del> <b>(deprecated)</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>"<a href="/Non-proportional_font" class="mw-redirect" title="Non-proportional font">Fixed-width</a> font (<tt>typewriter-like</tt>), also known as <tt>"<a href="/Teletype" class="mw-redirect" title="Teletype">teletype</a></tt>. (Equivalent CSS: <code class="mw-highlight" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">{</span><span class="k">font-family</span><span class="p">:</span> <span class="kc">monospace</span><span class="p">;}</span></code>)</dd> <dd><code>TT</code> existed in <i><a href="#HTMLDRAFT12">HTML Internet Draft 1.2</a></i>, and was <b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML20">HTML 2.0</a>; not supported<sup id="cite_ref-html5-tt-not-supported_40-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-html5-tt-not-supported-40">[33]</a></sup> in HTML5. Possible replacements: <a href="#kbd"><code class="nowrap" style="">&lt;kbd&gt;...&lt;/kbd&gt;</code></a> for marking keyboard input, <a href="#var"><code class="nowrap" style="">&lt;var&gt;...&lt;/var&gt;</code></a> for variables, <a href="#code"><code class="nowrap" style="">&lt;code&gt;...&lt;/code&gt;</code></a> for computer code, <a href="#samp"><code class="nowrap" style="">&lt;samp&gt;...&lt;/samp&gt;</code></a> for computer output.<sup id="cite_ref-html5-tt-not-supported_40-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-html5-tt-not-supported-40">[33]</a></sup></dd> </dl> <p><span id="font"></span><span id="font_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Teletype" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;font</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/font&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd><code>&lt;font [color=<var>colour</var>] [size=<var>size</var>] [face=<var>face</var>]&gt;...&lt;/font&gt;</code></dd> <dd>Can specify the font colour with the <code>color</code> attribute (note the American spelling), typeface with the <code>face</code> attribute, and absolute or relative size with the <code>size</code> attribute.</dd> <dd>Examples (all uses are deprecated, use CSS equivalents if possible): <ol> <li><code class="mw-highlight" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">font</span> <span class="na">color</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">"green"</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>text<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">font</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code> creates <span style="color:green;">green text</span>.</li> <li><code class="mw-highlight" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">font</span> <span class="na">color</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">"#114499"</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>text<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">font</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code> creates <span style="color:#149;">text with "<a href="/Hex_triplet" class="mw-redirect" title="Hex triplet">hexadecimal color</a> #114499</span>.</li> <li><code class="mw-highlight" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">font</span> <span class="na">size</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">"4"</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>text<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">font</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code> creates <span style="font-size:140%;">text</span> with size 4. Sizes are from 1 to 7. The standard size is 3, unless otherwise specified in the &lt;body&gt; or other tags.</li> <li><code class="mw-highlight" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">font</span> <span class="na">size</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">"+1"</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>text<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">font</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code> creates <span style="font-size:125%;">text with size 1 bigger than the standard.</span> <code class="mw-highlight" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">font</span> <span class="na">size</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">"-1"</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>text<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">font</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code> is opposite.</li> <li><code class="mw-highlight" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">font</span> <span class="na">face</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">"Courier"</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>text<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">font</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code> makes <span style="font-family:Courier;">text</span> with Courier font.</li> </ol> </dd> <dd>Equivalent CSS for font attributes: <ul> <li><code class="mw-highlight" dir="rtl"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">font</span> <span class="na">size</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">"<var>N</var>"</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code> corresponds to <code class="mw-highlight" dir="ltr"><span class="p">{</span><span class="nb">font-size</span><span class="o" style="color: #666;">:</span> <span class="nb"><var>Y</var><var>units</var></span><span class="p">}</span></code> (the HTML specification does not define the relationship between size <var>N</var> and unit-size <var>Y</var>, nor does it define a unit).</li> <li><code class="mw-highlight" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">font</span> <span class="na">color</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">"red"</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code> corresponds to <code>{color: red}</code></li> <li><code class="mw-highlight" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">font</span> <span class="na">face</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">"Courier"</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code> corresponds to <code>{font-family: "Courier"}</code></li> </ul> </dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML32">HTML 3.2</a>; <b>deprecated</b> in <a href="#HTML401">HTML 4.0 Transitional</a>; <b>invalid</b> in <a href="#HTML401">HTML 4.0 Strict</a>. Not part of HTML5.</dd> </dl> <h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Span">Span</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a target="_new" rel="nofollow" href="http://wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=HTML_element&amp;action=edit&amp;section=24" title="Edit section: Span">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4> <p><span id="span"></span><span id="span_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Span" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;span</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/span&gt;</b></code></p> <div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: "<a href="/Span_and_div" title="Span and div">Span and div</a></div> <dl> <dd>An inline logical division. A generic element with no semantic meaning used to distinguish a document section, usually for purposes such as presentation or behaviour controlled by "<a href="/Cascading_Style_Sheets" title="Cascading Style Sheets">style sheets</a> or "<a href="/Document_Object_Model" title="Document Object Model">DOM</a> calls.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML401">HTML 4.0</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Other_inline_elements">Other inline elements</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a target="_new" rel="nofollow" href="http://wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=HTML_element&amp;action=edit&amp;section=25" title="Edit section: Other inline elements">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4> <p><span id="br"></span><span id="br_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Line Break" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;br</b><b style="color:#006633">/&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>A forced line break.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML20">HTML 2.0</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="bdi"></span><span id="bdi_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Bidirectional Isolation" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;bdi</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/bdi&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Isolates an inline section of text that may be formatted in a different direction from other text outside of it, such as user-generated content with unknown directionality.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML5">HTML5</a>.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="bdo"></span><span id="bdo_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Bidirectional Override" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;bdo</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/bdo&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Marks an inline section of text in which the reading direction is the opposite from that of the parent element.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML401">HTML 4.0</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="cite"></span><span id="cite_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Citation" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;cite</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/cite&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>A citation or a reference for a quote or statement in the document.</dd> <dd><b>CITE</b> existed in <i><a href="#HTMLDRAFT12">HTML Internet Draft 1.2</a></i>, and was <b>standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML20">HTML 2.0</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="data"></span><span id="data_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Data" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;data</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/data&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Links inline content with a machine-readable translation.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML5">HTML5</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-41" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-41">[34]</a></sup></dd> </dl> <p><span id="del"></span><span id="del_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Deleted" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;del</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/del&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Deleted text. Typically rendered as a "<a href="/Strikethrough" title="Strikethrough">strikethrough</a>: <del>Deleted text.</del></dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML401">HTML 4.0</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="ins"></span><span id="ins_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Inserted" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;ins</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/ins&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Inserted text. Often used to mark up replacement text for <code>&lt;del&gt;</code>'d text. Typically rendered "<a href="/Underline" title="Underline">underlined</a>: <ins>Inserted text.</ins></dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML401">HTML 4.0</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <dl> <dd> <dl> <dd>Note, both <code>&lt;ins&gt;</code> and <code>&lt;del&gt;</code> elements may also be used as block elements: containing other block and inline elements. However, these elements must still remain wholly within their parent element to maintain a well-formed HTML document. For example, deleting text from the middle of one paragraph across several other paragraphs and ending in a final paragraph would need to use three separate <code>&lt;del&gt;</code> elements. Two <code>&lt;del&gt;</code> elements would be required as inline element to indicate the deletion of text in the first and last paragraphs, and a third, used as a block element, to indicate the deletion in the intervening paragraphs.</dd> </dl> </dd> </dl> <p><span id="mark"></span><span id="mark_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Mark" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;mark</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/mark&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Produces text that looks <mark>like this</mark>. Intended for highlighting relevant text in a quotation.</dd> </dl> <p><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML5">HTML5</a>.</p> <p><span id="q"></span><span id="q_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Quote" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;q</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/q&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>An inline quotation (for block level quotation see <a href="#blockquote"><code>blockquote</code></a>). Quote elements may be nested.</dd> <dd><code>&lt;q&gt;</code> <i>should</i> automatically generate quotation marks in conjunction with style sheets. Practical concerns due to browser non-compliance may force authors to find workarounds.</dd> <dd>The <code>cite</code> <i>attribute</i> gives the source, and must be a fully qualified "<a href="/Uniform_Resource_Identifier" title="Uniform Resource Identifier">URI</a>.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML401">HTML 4.0</a>; still current. <dl> <dd>Note: Lengthy inline quotations may be displayed as indented blocks (as <code>block-quote</code>) using style sheets. For example, with a suitable CSS rule associated with <code>q.lengthy</code>: <dl> <dd><code class="mw-highlight" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">q</span> <span class="na">class</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">"lengthy"</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code>An inline quotation of significant length (say 25 words, for example) goes here...<code class="mw-highlight" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">q</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code></dd> </dl> </dd> </dl> </dd> </dl> <p><span id="rb"></span><span id="rb_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Ruby Annotation Base" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;rb</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/rb&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Represents the base component of a "<a href="/Ruby_character" title="Ruby character">ruby annotation</a>.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML5">HTML5</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-42" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-42">[35]</a></sup></dd> </dl> <p><span id="rp"></span><span id="rp_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Ruby Fallback Parenthesis" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;rp</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/rp&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Provides fallback parenthesis for browsers lacking "<a href="/Ruby_character" title="Ruby character">ruby annotation</a> support.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML5">HTML5</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-43" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-43">[36]</a></sup></dd> </dl> <p><span id="rt"></span><span id="rt_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Ruby Annotation Pronunciation" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;rt</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/rt&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Indicates pronunciation for a character in a "<a href="/Ruby_character" title="Ruby character">ruby annotation</a>.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML5">HTML5</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-44" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-44">[37]</a></sup></dd> </dl> <p><span id="rtc"></span><span id="rtc_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Ruby Semantic Annotation" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;rtc</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/rtc&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Semantic annotations for a "<a href="/Ruby_character" title="Ruby character">ruby annotation</a>.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML5">HTML5</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-45" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-45">[38]</a></sup></dd> </dl> <p><span id="ruby"></span><span id="ruby_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Ruby Annotation" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;ruby</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/ruby&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Represents a "<a href="/Ruby_character" title="Ruby character">ruby annotation</a> for showing the pronunciation of East Asian characters.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML5">HTML5</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-46" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-46">[39]</a></sup></dd> </dl> <p><span id="script"></span><span id="script_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Script" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;script</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/script&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Places a "<a href="/Scripting_language" title="Scripting language">script</a> in the document. Also usable in the head and in block contexts. <dl> <dd>Note: <code>&lt;script&gt;</code> is not itself either a block or inline element; by itself it should not display at all, but it can contain instructions to dynamically generate either both block or inline content.</dd> </dl> </dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML32">HTML 3.2</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="sub"></span><span id="sub_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Subscript" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;sub</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/sub&gt;</b></code> and <span id="sup"></span><span id="sup_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Superscript" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;sup</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/sup&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Mark <sub>"<a href="/Subscript" class="mw-redirect" title="Subscript">subscript</a></sub> or <sup>"<a href="/Superscript" class="mw-redirect" title="Superscript">superscript</a></sup> text. (Equivalent CSS: <code>{vertical-align: sub}</code> or <code>{vertical-align: super}</code>.)</dd> <dd>Both were proposed in the <a href="#HTML30">HTML 3.0 Drafts</a>; <b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML32">HTML 3.2</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="template"></span><span id="template_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Template" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;template</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/template&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Code fragments to be copied by scripts.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML5">HTML5</a>.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="time"></span><span id="time_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Time" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;time</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/time&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Represents a time on the 24-hour clock or a date on the "<a href="/Gregorian_calendar" title="Gregorian calendar">Gregorian calendar</a>, optionally with time and timezone information. Also allows times and dates to be represented in a machine-readable format.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML5">HTML5</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-47" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-47">[40]</a></sup></dd> </dl> <p><span id="wbr"></span><span id="wbr_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Word Break Opportunity" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;wbr</b><b style="color:#006633">/&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>An optional word break.</dd> <dd>Was widely used (and supported by all major browsers) for years despite being non-standard until finally being <b>standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML5">HTML5</a>.</dd> </dl> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Images_and_objects">Images and objects</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a target="_new" rel="nofollow" href="http://wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=HTML_element&amp;action=edit&amp;section=26" title="Edit section: Images and objects">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3> <p><span id="applet"></span><span id="applet_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Java Applet" style="font-size:116%;"><del style="color:grey;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;applet</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/applet&gt;</b></del> <b>(deprecated)</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Embeds a "<a href="/Java_applet" title="Java applet">Java applet</a> in the page. Deprecated in favour of <code>&lt;object&gt;</code>, as it could only be used with Java applets, and had accessibility limitations.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML32">HTML 3.2</a>; <b>deprecated</b> in <a href="#HTML401">HTML 4.0 Transitional</a>; <b>invalid</b> in <a href="#HTML401">HTML 4.0 Strict</a>. As of 2011, still widely used as the implementations of the replacing <code>&lt;object&gt;</code> are not consistent between different browsers.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="area"></span><span id="area_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Area" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;area</b><b style="color:#006633">/&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Specifies a "<a href="/Focus_(computing)" title="Focus (computing)">focusable</a> area in a <code>map</code>.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML32">HTML 3.2</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="audio"></span><span id="audio_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Audio" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;audio</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/audio&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Adds playable "<a href="/HTML5_audio" class="mw-redirect" title="HTML5 audio">HTML5 audio</a> to the page. The audio URL is determined using the <code>src</code> attribute. Supported audio formats vary from browser to browser.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML5">HTML5</a>.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="canvas"></span><span id="canvas_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Canvas" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;canvas</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/canvas&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Adds a canvas whose contents can be edited with "<a href="/JavaScript" title="JavaScript">JavaScript</a>. Frequently used for online games.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML5">HTML5</a>.</dd> </dl> <dl> <dt><span id="embed"></span><code class="html" title="Embed" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;embed</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/embed&gt;</b></code></dt> </dl> <dl> <dd>Inserts a non-standard object (like applet) or external content (typically non-HTML) into the document. Deprecated in HTML 4 in favor of the <code>object</code> tag, but then was added back into the HTML5 specification<sup id="cite_ref-48" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-48">[41]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-49" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-49">[42]</a></sup></dd> </dl> <p><span id="img"></span><span id="img_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Image" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;img</b><b style="color:#006633">/&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Used by visual user agents to insert an "<a href="/Image" title="Image">image</a> in the document. The <code>src</code> attribute specifies the image URL. The required "<a href="/Alt_attribute" title="Alt attribute"><code>alt</code> attribute</a> provides alternative text in case the image cannot be displayed.<sup id="cite_ref-50" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-50">[43]</a></sup> (Though <code>alt</code> is intended as alternative text, Microsoft "<a href="/Internet_Explorer" title="Internet Explorer">Internet Explorer</a> 7 and below render it as a "<a href="/Tooltip" title="Tooltip">tooltip</a> if no <code>title</code> is given.<sup id="cite_ref-51" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-51">[44]</a></sup> "<a href="/Safari_(web_browser)" title="Safari (web browser)">Safari</a> and "<a href="/Google_Chrome" title="Google Chrome">Google Chrome</a>, on the other hand, do not display the alt attribute at all.)<sup id="cite_ref-52" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-52">[45]</a></sup> <b>img</b> was proposed by "<a href="/Marc_Andreessen" title="Marc Andreessen">Marc Andreessen</a> and implemented in the "<a href="/Mosaic_(web_browser)" title="Mosaic (web browser)">NSCA Mosaic</a> web browser.<sup id="cite_ref-53" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-53">[46]</a></sup></dd> <dd><b>IMG</b> existed in <i><a href="#HTMLDRAFT12">HTML Internet Draft 1.2</a></i>, and was <b>standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML20">HTML 2.0</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="map"></span><span id="map_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Image Map" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;map</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/map&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Specifies a client-side "<a href="/Image_map" title="Image map">image map</a>.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML32">HTML 3.2</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="object"></span><span id="object_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Object" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;object</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/object&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Includes an "<a href="/Media_Object" class="mw-redirect" title="Media Object">object</a> in the page of the type specified by the <code>type</code> attribute. This may be in any "<a href="/MIME" title="MIME">MIME</a>-type the user agent understands, such as an embedded HTML page, a file to be handled by a plug-in such as "<a href="/Macromedia_Flash" class="mw-redirect" title="Macromedia Flash">Flash</a>, a "<a href="/Java_(programming_language)" title="Java (programming language)">Java</a> "<a href="/Applet" title="Applet">applet</a>, a sound file, etc.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML401">HTML 4.0</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="param"></span><span id="param_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Object Parameter" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;param</b><b style="color:#006633">/&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Originally introduced with <b>applet</b>, this element is now used with, and should only occur as a child of <b>object</b>. It uses "<a href="/HTML_attributes" class="mw-redirect" title="HTML attributes">HTML attributes</a> to set a parameter for the object, e.g. width, height, font, background colour, etc., depending on the type of object. An object can have multiple <b>param</b>s.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML32">HTML 3.2</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="source"></span><span id="source_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Source" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;source</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/source&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Specifies different sources for audio or video. Makes use of the <code>src</code> attribute in a way similar to the <code>video</code> and <code>audio</code> elements.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML5">HTML5</a>.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="track"></span><span id="track_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Track" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;track</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/track&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Provides text tracks, like subtitles and captions, for audio and video.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML5">HTML5</a>.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="video"></span><span id="video_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Video" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;video</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/video&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Adds a playable "<a href="/HTML5_video" title="HTML5 video">HTML5 video</a> to the page. The video URL is determined using the <code>src</code> attribute. Supported video formats vary from browser to browser.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML5">HTML5</a>.</dd> </dl> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Forms">Forms</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a target="_new" rel="nofollow" href="http://wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=HTML_element&amp;action=edit&amp;section=27" title="Edit section: Forms">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3> <div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: "<a href="/Form_(HTML)" title="Form (HTML)">Form (HTML)</a></div> <p>These elements can be combined into a form or in some instances used separately as user-interface controls; in the document, they can be simple HTML or used in conjunction with Scripts. HTML markup specifies the elements that make up a form, and the method by which it will be submitted. However, some form of scripts ("<a href="/Server-side_script" class="mw-redirect" title="Server-side script">server-side</a>, client-side, or both) must be used to process the user’s input once it is submitted.</p> <p>(These elements are either block or inline elements, but are collected here as their use is more restricted than other inline or block elements.)</p> <p><span id="form"></span><span id="form_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Form" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;form</b><var style="color:#660066;" title="requiredAction&#160;(URL)"><b>&#160;action</b>="url"</var><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/form&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Creates a "<a href="/Form_(web)" class="mw-redirect" title="Form (web)">form</a>. The <b>form</b> element specifies and operates the overall action of a form area, using the required <b>action</b> attribute.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML20">HTML 2.0</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="button"></span><span id="button_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Button" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;button</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/button&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>A generic form button which can contain a range of other elements to create complex buttons.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML401">HTML 4.0</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="datalist"></span><span id="datalist_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Data List" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;datalist</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/datalist&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>A list of <code>option</code>s for use in form elements.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML5">HTML5</a>.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="fieldset"></span><span id="fieldset_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Fieldset" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;fieldset</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/fieldset&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>A container for adding structure to forms. For example, a series of related controls can be grouped within a <b>field-set</b>, which can then have a <b>legend</b> added in order to identify their function.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML401">HTML 4.0</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="input"></span><span id="input_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Input" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;input</b><b style="color:#006633">/&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd><b>input</b> elements allow a variety of standard form controls to be implemented.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML20">HTML 2.0</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <dl> <dd><b>Input Types:</b></dd> <dd><var style="color:#660066;" title="impliedField Type&#160;(ENUM)"><b>&#160;type</b>="checkbox"</var> <dl> <dd>A <b>"<a href="/Checkbox" title="Checkbox">checkbox</a></b>. Can be checked or unchecked.</dd> </dl> </dd> </dl> <dl> <dd><var style="color:#660066;" title="impliedField Type&#160;(ENUM)"><b>&#160;type</b>="radio"</var> <dl> <dd>A <b>"<a href="/Radio_button" title="Radio button">radio button</a></b>. If multiple radio buttons are given the same name, the user will only be able to select one of them from this group.</dd> </dl> </dd> </dl> <dl> <dd><var style="color:#660066;" title="impliedField Type&#160;(ENUM)"><b>&#160;type</b>="button"</var> <dl> <dd>A general-purpose button. The element <code>&lt;button&gt;</code> is preferred if possible (i.e. if the client supports it) as it provides richer possibilities.</dd> </dl> </dd> </dl> <dl> <dd><var style="color:#660066;" title="impliedField Type&#160;(ENUM)"><b>&#160;type</b>="submit"</var> <dl> <dd>A <b>submit</b> button.</dd> </dl> </dd> </dl> <dl> <dd><var style="color:#660066;" title="impliedField Type&#160;(ENUM)"><b>&#160;type</b>="image"</var> <dl> <dd>An <b>image button</b>. The image URL may be specified with the <code>src</code> attribute.</dd> </dl> </dd> </dl> <dl> <dd><var style="color:#660066;" title="impliedField Type&#160;(ENUM)"><b>&#160;type</b>="reset"</var> <dl> <dd>A <b>reset button</b> for resetting the form to default values.</dd> </dl> </dd> </dl> <dl> <dd><var style="color:#660066;" title="optionalField Type&#160;(ENUM)"><b>&#160;type</b>="text"</var> <dl> <dd>A <b>one-line text input field</b>. The <code>size</code> attribute specifies the default width of the input in character-widths. <code>max-length</code> sets the maximum number of characters the user can enter (which may be greater than size).</dd> </dl> </dd> </dl> <dl> <dd><var style="color:#660066;" title="impliedField Type&#160;(ENUM)"><b>&#160;type</b>="search"</var> <dl> <dd>A variation of <b>text</b> which produces a search bar.</dd> </dl> </dd> </dl> <dl> <dd><var style="color:#660066;" title="impliedField Type&#160;(ENUM)"><b>&#160;type</b>="password"</var> <dl> <dd>A variation of <b>text</b>. The difference is that text typed in this field is <i>masked</i>&#160;— characters are displayed as an asterisk, a dot or another replacement. It should be noted, however, that the password is still submitted to the server as <i>clear text</i>, so an underlying secure transport layer like "<a href="/HTTPS" title="HTTPS">HTTPS</a> is needed if confidentiality is a concern.</dd> </dl> </dd> </dl> <dl> <dd><var style="color:#660066;" title="impliedField Type&#160;(ENUM)"><b>&#160;type</b>="file"</var> <dl> <dd>A "<a href="/File_select" title="File select">file select</a> field (for uploading files to a server).</dd> </dl> </dd> </dl> <dl> <dd><var style="color:#660066;" title="impliedField Type&#160;(ENUM)"><b>&#160;type</b>="tel"</var> <dl> <dd>A variation of <b>text</b> for "<a href="/Telephone_numbers" class="mw-redirect" title="Telephone numbers">telephone numbers</a>.</dd> </dl> </dd> </dl> <dl> <dd><var style="color:#660066;" title="impliedField Type&#160;(ENUM)"><b>&#160;type</b>="email"</var> <dl> <dd>A variation of <b>text</b> for "<a href="/Email_addresses" class="mw-redirect" title="Email addresses">email addresses</a>.</dd> </dl> </dd> </dl> <dl> <dd><var style="color:#660066;" title="impliedField Type&#160;(ENUM)"><b>&#160;type</b>="url"</var> <dl> <dd>A variation of <b>text</b> for "<a href="/URLs" class="mw-redirect" title="URLs">URLs</a>.</dd> </dl> </dd> </dl> <dl> <dd><var style="color:#660066;" title="impliedField Type&#160;(ENUM)"><b>&#160;type</b>="date"</var> <dl> <dd>A date selector.</dd> </dl> </dd> </dl> <dl> <dd><var style="color:#660066;" title="impliedField Type&#160;(ENUM)"><b>&#160;type</b>="time"</var> <dl> <dd>A time selector.</dd> </dl> </dd> </dl> <dl> <dd><var style="color:#660066;" title="impliedField Type&#160;(ENUM)"><b>&#160;type</b>="number"</var> <dl> <dd>A variation of <b>text</b> for numbers.</dd> </dl> </dd> </dl> <dl> <dd><var style="color:#660066;" title="impliedField Type&#160;(ENUM)"><b>&#160;type</b>="range"</var> <dl> <dd>Produces a slider for that returns a number, but the number is not visible to the user.</dd> </dl> </dd> </dl> <dl> <dd><var style="color:#660066;" title="impliedField Type&#160;(ENUM)"><b>&#160;type</b>="color"</var> <dl> <dd>A color picker.</dd> </dl> </dd> </dl> <dl> <dd><var style="color:#660066;" title="impliedField Type&#160;(ENUM)"><b>&#160;type</b>="hidden"</var> <dl> <dd><b>hidden</b> inputs are not visible in the rendered page, but allow a designer to maintain a copy of data that needs to be submitted to the server as part of the form. This may, for example, be data that this web user entered or selected on a previous form that needs to be processed in conjunction with the current form. Not displayed to the user but data can still be altered client-side by editing the HTML source.</dd> </dl> </dd> </dl> <p><span id="isindex"></span><span id="isindex_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Index" style="font-size:116%;"><del style="color:grey;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;isindex</b><b style="color:#006633">/&gt;</b></del> <b>(deprecated)</b></code></p> <dl> <dd><b><code>isindex</code></b> could either appear in the document head or in the body, but only once in a document.</dd> <dd><b>Isindex</b> operated as a primitive HTML search form; but was "<a href="/De_facto" title="De facto">de facto</a> obsoleted by more advanced HTML forms introduced in the early to mid-1990s. Represents a set of hyperlinks composed of a base URI, an "<a href="/Ampersand" title="Ampersand">ampersand</a> and "<a href="/Percent-encoding" title="Percent-encoding">percent-encoded</a> keywords separated by "<a href="/Plus_sign" class="mw-redirect" title="Plus sign">plus signs</a>.</dd> <dd><b>ISINDEX</b> existed in <i><a href="#HTMLTAGS">HTML Tags</a></i>; <b>standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML20">HTML 2.0</a>; <b>deprecated</b> in <a href="#HTML401">HTML 4.0 Transitional</a>; <b>invalid</b> in <a href="#HTML401">HTML 4.0 Strict</a>.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="keygen"></span><span id="keygen_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Key pair generator" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;keygen</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/keygen&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>A key pair generator.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML5">HTML5</a>.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="label"></span><span id="label_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Label" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;label</b><var style="color:#660066;" title="impliedFor&#160;(ENUM)"><b>&#160;for</b>="id"</var><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/label&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Creates a label for a form input (e.g. radio button). Clicking on the label fires a click on the matching input.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML401">HTML 4.0</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="legend"></span><span id="legend_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Legend" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;legend</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/legend&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>A legend (caption) for a <b>fieldset</b>.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML401">HTML 4.0</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="meter"></span><span id="meter_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Meter" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;meter</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/meter&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>A meter which needs a <b>value</b> attribute. Can also have: min, low, high, max.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML5">HTML5</a>.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="option"></span><span id="option_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Select List Option" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;option</b><var style="color:#660066;" title="requiredValue&#160;(ANY)"><b>&#160;value</b>="x"</var><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/option&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Creates an item in a <code>select</code> list.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML20">HTML 2.0</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="optgroup"></span><span id="optgroup_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Options Group" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;optgroup</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/optgroup&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Identifies a group of <b>option</b>s in a <b>select</b> list.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML401">HTML 4.0</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="output"></span><span id="output_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Output" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;output</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/output&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>The value of a form element.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML5">HTML5</a>.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="progress"></span><span id="progress_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Progress Bar" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;progress</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/progress&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>A bar for showing the progress of an action.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML5">HTML5</a>.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="select"></span><span id="select_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Selection List" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;select</b><var style="color:#660066;" title="impliedName&#160;(NMTOKEN)"><b>&#160;name</b>="xyz"</var><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/select&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>Creates a selection list, from which the user can select a single option. May be rendered as a dropdown list.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML20">HTML 2.0</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <p><span id="textarea"></span><span id="textarea_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Multiline Textarea" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;textarea</b><var style="color:#660066;" title="Rows&#160;(INT)"><b>&#160;rows</b>="8"</var><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/textarea&gt;</b></code></p> <dl> <dd>A multiple-line text area, the size of which is specified by <code>cols</code> (where a <i>col</i> is a one-character width of text) and <code>rows</code> "<a href="/HTML_attributes" class="mw-redirect" title="HTML attributes">HTML attributes</a>. The content of this element is restricted to plain text, which appears in the text area as default text when the page is loaded.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML20">HTML 2.0</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Tables">Tables</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a target="_new" rel="nofollow" href="http://wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=HTML_element&amp;action=edit&amp;section=28" title="Edit section: Tables">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3> <p>The format of HTML Tables was proposed in the <a href="#HTML30">HTML 3.0 Drafts</a> and the later <a class="external mw-magiclink-rfc" rel="nofollow" href="//tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1942">RFC 1942</a> <i><a href="#HTMLTABLES">HTML Tables</a></i>. They were inspired by the "<a href="/CALS_Table_Model" title="CALS Table Model">CALS Table Model</a>. Some elements in these proposals were included in HTML 3.2; the present form of HTML Tables was standardized in HTML 4. (Many of the elements used within tables are neither <i>block</i> nor <i>inline</i> elements.)</p> <dl> <dt><span id="table"></span><span id="table_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Table" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;table</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/table&gt;</b></code></dt> </dl> <dl> <dd>Identifies a table. Several "<a href="/HTML_attributes" class="mw-redirect" title="HTML attributes">HTML attributes</a> are possible in HTML Transitional, but most of these are invalid in HTML Strict and can be replaced with style sheets. The <b>summary</b> attribute is however informally required for accessibility purposes, though its usage is not simple.</dd> <dd>Proposed in the <a href="#HTML30">HTML 3.0 Drafts</a>; <b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML32">HTML 3.2</a>; still current.</dd> <dt><span id="tr"></span><span id="tr_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Table Row" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;tr</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/tr&gt;</b></code></dt> </dl> <dl> <dd>Contains a row of cells in a table.</dd> <dd>Proposed in the <a href="#HTML30">HTML 3.0 Drafts</a>; <b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML32">HTML 3.2</a>; still current.</dd> <dt><span id="th"></span><span id="th_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Table Header Cell" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;th</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/th&gt;</b></code></dt> </dl> <dl> <dd>A table header cell; contents are conventionally displayed bold and centered. An aural user agent may use a louder voice for these items.</dd> <dd>Proposed in the <a href="#HTML30">HTML 3.0 Drafts</a>; <b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML32">HTML 3.2</a>; still current.</dd> <dt><span id="td"></span><span id="td_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Table Data Cell" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;td</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/td&gt;</b></code></dt> </dl> <dl> <dd>A table data cell.</dd> <dd>Proposed in the <a href="#HTML30">HTML 3.0 Drafts</a>; <b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML32">HTML 3.2</a>; still current.</dd> <dt><span id="colgroup"></span><span id="colgroup_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Column Group" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;colgroup</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/colgroup&gt;</b></code></dt> </dl> <dl> <dd>Specifies a column group in a table.</dd> <dd>Proposed in <a href="#HTMLTABLES">HTML Tables</a>; <b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML401">HTML 4.0</a>; still current.</dd> <dt><span id="col"></span><span id="col_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Table Column" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;col</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/col&gt;</b></code></dt> </dl> <dl> <dd>Specifies a column in a table.</dd> <dd>Proposed in <a href="#HTMLTABLES">HTML Tables</a>; <b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML401">HTML 4.0</a>; still current.</dd> <dt><span id="caption"></span><span id="caption_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Table Caption" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;caption</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/caption&gt;</b></code></dt> </dl> <dl> <dd>Specifies a caption for a table.</dd> <dd>Proposed in the <a href="#HTML30">HTML 3.0 Drafts</a>; <b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML32">HTML 3.2</a>; still current.</dd> <dt><span id="thead"></span><span id="thead_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Table Header" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;thead</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/thead&gt;</b></code></dt> </dl> <dl> <dd>Specifies the header part of a table. This section may be repeated by the user agent if the table is split across pages (in printing or other paged media).</dd> <dd>Proposed in <a href="#HTMLTABLES">HTML Tables</a>; <b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML401">HTML 4.0</a>; still current.</dd> <dt><span id="tbody"></span><span id="tbody_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Table Body" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;tbody</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/tbody&gt;</b></code></dt> </dl> <dl> <dd>Specifies a body of data for the table.</dd> <dd>Proposed in <a href="#HTMLTABLES">HTML Tables</a>; <b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML401">HTML 4.0</a>; still current.</dd> <dt><span id="tfoot"></span><span id="tfoot_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Table Footer" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;tfoot</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/tfoot&gt;</b></code></dt> </dl> <dl> <dd>Specifies the footer part of a table. Like <code>&lt;thead&gt;</code>, this section may be repeated by the user agent if the table is split across pages (in printing or other paged media).</dd> <dd>Proposed in <a href="#HTMLTABLES">HTML Tables</a>; <b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML401">HTML 4.0</a>; still current.</dd> </dl> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Frames">Frames</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a target="_new" rel="nofollow" href="http://wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=HTML_element&amp;action=edit&amp;section=29" title="Edit section: Frames">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2> <div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: "<a href="/Framing_(World_Wide_Web)" title="Framing (World Wide Web)">Framing (World Wide Web)</a></div> <p>Frames allow a visual HTML Browser window to be split into segments, each of which can show a different document. This can lower bandwidth use, as repeating parts of a layout can be used in one frame, while variable content is displayed in another. This may come at a certain usability cost, especially in non-visual user agents,<sup id="cite_ref-54" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-54">[47]</a></sup> due to separate and independent documents (or websites) being displayed adjacent to each other and being allowed to interact with the same parent window. Because of this cost, frames (excluding the <code class="nowrap" style="">&lt;iframe&gt;</code> element) are only allowed in HTML 4.01 Frame-set. Iframes can also hold documents on different servers. In this case the interaction between windows is blocked by the browser. Sites like "<a href="/Facebook" title="Facebook">Facebook</a> and "<a href="/Twitter" title="Twitter">Twitter</a> use iframes to display content (plugins) on third party websites. Google "<a href="/AdSense" title="AdSense">AdSense</a> uses iframes to display banners on third party websites.</p> <p>In HTML 4.01, a document may contain a <code class="nowrap" style="">&lt;head&gt;</code> and a <code class="nowrap" style="">&lt;body&gt;</code> <i>or</i> a <code class="nowrap" style="">&lt;head&gt;</code> and a <code class="nowrap" style="">&lt;frameset&gt;</code>, but not both a <code class="nowrap" style="">&lt;body&gt;</code> and a <code class="nowrap" style="">&lt;frameset&gt;</code>. However, <code class="nowrap" style="">&lt;iframe&gt;</code> can be used in a normal document body.</p> <dl> <dt><span id="frameset"></span><span id="frameset_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Frameset" style="font-size:116%;"><del style="color:grey;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;frameset</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/frameset&gt;</b></del> <b>(deprecated)</b></code></dt> </dl> <dl> <dd>Contains the set of frame elements for a document. The layout of frames is given by comma separated lists in the <code>rows</code> and <code>cols</code> "<a href="/HTML_attributes" class="mw-redirect" title="HTML attributes">HTML attributes</a>.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML401">HTML 4.0</a> Frameset, <b>obsolete</b> in HTML5.</dd> <dt><span id="frame"></span><span id="frame_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Frame" style="font-size:116%;"><del style="color:grey;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;frame</b><b style="color:#006633">/&gt;</b></del> <b>(deprecated)</b></code></dt> </dl> <dl> <dd>Defines a single frame, or region, within the <code>frameset</code>. A separate document is linked to a frame using the <code>src</code> attribute inside the <code>frame</code> element.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML401">HTML 4.0</a> Frameset, <b>obsolete</b> in HTML5.</dd> <dt><span id="noframes"></span><span id="noframes_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Frame Support Fallback" style="font-size:116%;"><del style="color:grey;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;noframes</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/noframes&gt;</b></del> <b>(deprecated)</b></code></dt> </dl> <dl> <dd>Contains normal HTML content for user agents that don't support frames.</dd> <dd><b>Standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML401">HTML 4.0</a> Transitional, <b>obsolete</b> in HTML5.</dd> <dt><span id="iframe"></span><span id="iframe_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Inline Frame" style="font-size:116%;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;iframe</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/iframe&gt;</b></code></dt> </dl> <dl> <dd>An inline frame places another HTML document in a frame. Unlike an <code>object</code> element, an inline frame can be the "target" frame for links defined by other elements, and it can be selected by the user agent as the focus for printing, viewing its source, and so on.</dd> <dd>The content of the element is used as alternative text to be displayed if the browser does not support iframes.</dd> <dd>First introduced by Microsoft Internet Explorer in 1997, <b>standardized</b> in <a href="#HTML401">HTML 4.0</a> Transitional, <b>allowed</b> in HTML5.</dd> </dl> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Longdesc">Longdesc</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a target="_new" rel="nofollow" href="http://wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=HTML_element&amp;action=edit&amp;section=30" title="Edit section: Longdesc">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3> <p>In "<a href="/HTML" title="HTML">HTML</a>, <b>longdesc</b> is an attribute used within the "<a href="/Image_element" class="mw-redirect" title="Image element">image element</a>, "<a href="/Frame_element" class="mw-redirect" title="Frame element">frame element</a>, or "<a href="/Iframe" class="mw-redirect" title="Iframe">iframe element</a>. It is supposed to be a "<a href="/URL" title="URL">URL</a><sup id="cite_ref-55" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-55">[note 8]</a></sup> to a document that provides a <b>long description</b> for the image, frame, or iframe in question.<sup id="cite_ref-56" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-56">[48]</a></sup> Note that this attribute should contain a URL, and <i>not</i> as is commonly mistaken, the text of the description itself.</p> <p>Longdesc was designed to be used by "<a href="/Screen_reader" title="Screen reader">screen readers</a> to display image information for computer users with "<a href="/Accessibility" title="Accessibility">accessibility</a> issues, such as the blind or visually impaired, and is widely implemented by both web browsers and screen readers.<sup id="cite_ref-57" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-57">[49]</a></sup> Some developers object that <sup id="cite_ref-58" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-58">[50]</a></sup> it is actually seldom used for this purpose, because there are relatively few authors who use the attribute, and most of those authors use it incorrectly, and have used this argument to recommend dropping longdesc.<sup id="cite_ref-59" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-59">[51]</a></sup> The publishing industry has responded, advocating the retention of longdesc.<sup id="cite_ref-60" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-60">[52]</a></sup></p> <h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Example">Example</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a target="_new" rel="nofollow" href="http://wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=HTML_element&amp;action=edit&amp;section=31" title="Edit section: Example">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4> <div class="mw-highlight mw-content-ltr" dir="ltr"> <pre> <span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">img</span> <span class="na">src</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">"Hello.jpg"</span> <span class="na">longdesc</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">"description.html"</span><span class="p">&gt;</span> </pre></div> <p><br /> Content of <code>description.html</code>:</p> <div class="mw-highlight mw-content-ltr" dir="ltr"> <pre> <span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">br</span><span class="p">&gt;</span> <span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">p</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>This is an image of a two-layered birthday cake.<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">p</span><span class="p">&gt;</span> ... </pre></div> <h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Linking_to_the_long_description_in_the_text">Linking to the long description in the text</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a target="_new" rel="nofollow" href="http://wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=HTML_element&amp;action=edit&amp;section=32" title="Edit section: Linking to the long description in the text">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4> <p>Since very few graphical browsers support making the link available natively (Opera and iCab being the exceptions), it is useful to include a link to the description page near the <code>img</code> element whenever possible, as this can also aid sighted users.</p> <h5><span class="mw-headline" id="Example_2">Example</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a target="_new" rel="nofollow" href="http://wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=HTML_element&amp;action=edit&amp;section=33" title="Edit section: Example">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h5> <div class="mw-highlight mw-content-ltr" dir="ltr"> <pre> <span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">img</span> <span class="na">src</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">"Hello.jpg"</span> <span class="na">longdesc</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">"description.html"</span> <span class="p">/&gt;</span> [<span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">a</span> <span class="na">href</span><span class="o">=</span> <span class="s">"description.html"</span> <span class="na">title</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">"long description of the image"</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>D<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">a</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>] </pre></div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Historic_elements">Historic elements</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a target="_new" rel="nofollow" href="http://wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=HTML_element&amp;action=edit&amp;section=34" title="Edit section: Historic elements">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2> <div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: "<a href="/Comparison_of_layout_engines_(Non-standard_HTML)" class="mw-redirect" title="Comparison of layout engines (Non-standard HTML)">Comparison of layout engines (Non-standard HTML)</a></div> <p>The following elements were part of the early HTML developed by "<a href="/Tim_Berners-Lee" title="Tim Berners-Lee">Tim Berners-Lee</a> from 1989–91; they are mentioned in <i>HTML Tags</i>, but deprecated in <i>HTML 2.0</i> and were never part of HTML standards.</p> <dl> <dt><span id="listing"></span><span id="listing_tag"></span><code class="html" title="HTML Listing" style="font-size:116%;"><del style="color:grey;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;listing</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/listing&gt;</b></del> <b>(deprecated)</b></code></dt> </dl> <dl> <dd>This element displayed the text inside the tags in a monospace font and without interpreting the HTML. The <a href="#HTML20">HTML 2.0</a> specification recommended rendering the element at up to 132 characters per line.</dd> <dd><b>Deprecated</b> in <a href="#HTML32">HTML 3.2</a>; <b>obsolete</b> in <a href="#HTML5">HTML5</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-61" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-61">[53]</a></sup></dd> <dt><span id="plaintext"></span><span id="plaintext_tag"></span><code class="html" title="Plaintext" style="font-size:116%;"><del style="color:grey;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;plaintext</b><b style="color:#006633">/&gt;</b></del> <b>(deprecated)</b></code></dt> </dl> <dl> <dd><b><code>plaintext</code></b> does not have an end tag, as it terminates the markup and causes the rest of the document to be parsed as if it were "<a href="/Plain_text" title="Plain text">plain text</a>.</dd> <dd><code>plaintext</code> existed in <i><a href="#HTMLTAGS">HTML Tags</a></i>; <b>deprecated</b> in <a href="#HTML20">HTML 2.0</a>; <b>invalid</b> in <a href="#HTML401">HTML 4.0</a>.</dd> <dt><span id="xmp"></span><span id="xmp_tag"></span><code class="html" title="HTML Example" style="font-size:116%;"><del style="color:grey;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;xmp</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/xmp&gt;</b></del> <b>(deprecated)</b></code></dt> </dl> <dl> <dd>This element displayed the text inside the tags in a monospace font and without interpreting the HTML. The <a href="#HTML20">HTML 2.0</a> specification recommended rendering the element at 80 characters per line.</dd> <dd><b>Deprecated</b> in <a href="#HTML32">HTML 3.2</a>; <b>obsolete</b> in <a href="#HTML5">HTML5</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-62" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-62">[54]</a></sup></dd> <dt><span id="nextid"></span><span id="nextid_tag"></span><code class="html" title="NeXT ID" style="font-size:116%;"><del style="color:grey;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;nextid</b><b style="color:#006633">/&gt;</b></del> <b>(deprecated)</b></code></dt> </dl> <dl> <dd>This element enabled NeXT web designing tool to generate automatic NAME labels for its anchors and was itself automatically generated.<sup id="cite_ref-63" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-63">[55]</a></sup></dd> <dd><code>nextid</code> existed in <i><a href="#HTMLTAGS">HTML Tags</a></i> (described as obsolete); <b>deprecated</b> in <a href="#HTML20">HTML 2.0</a>; <b>invalid</b> in <a href="#HTML32">HTML 3.2</a> and later.</dd> </dl> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Non-standard_elements">Non-standard elements</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a target="_new" rel="nofollow" href="http://wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=HTML_element&amp;action=edit&amp;section=35" title="Edit section: Non-standard elements">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2> <div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: "<a href="/Comparison_of_layout_engines_(Non-standard_HTML)" class="mw-redirect" title="Comparison of layout engines (Non-standard HTML)">Comparison of layout engines (Non-standard HTML)</a></div> <p>This section lists some widely used obsolete elements, which means they are not used in "<a href="/Validator" title="Validator">valid</a> code. They may not be supported in all user agents.</p> <dl> <dt><span id="blink"></span><code class="html" title="Blink" style="font-size:116%;"><del style="color:grey;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;blink</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/blink&gt;</b></del> <b>(deprecated)</b></code></dt> </dl> <dl> <dd>Causes text to blink. Introduced in imitation of the "<a href="/ANSI_escape_code" title="ANSI escape code">ANSI escape codes</a>. Can be done with CSS where supported: <code>{text-decoration: blink}</code> (This effect may have negative consequences for people with "<a href="/Photosensitive_epilepsy" title="Photosensitive epilepsy">photosensitive epilepsy</a>;<sup id="cite_ref-WCAG_64-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-WCAG-64">[56]</a></sup> its use on the public Internet should follow the appropriate guidelines.)</dd> <dd><code>blink</code> originated in "<a href="/Netscape_Navigator" title="Netscape Navigator">Netscape Navigator</a> and is mostly recognized by its descendants, including "<a href="/Firefox" title="Firefox">Firefox</a>; <b>deprecated</b> or <b>invalid</b> in <a href="#HTML20">HTML 2.0</a> and later. Note that the replacement CSS tag, while standard, is not required to be supported.</dd> <dt><span id="marquee"></span><code class="html" title="Marquee" style="font-size:116%;"><del style="color:grey;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;marquee</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/marquee&gt;</b></del> <b>(deprecated)</b></code></dt> </dl> <dl> <dd>Creates scrolling text. Can be done with scripting instead. (This effect may have negative consequences for people with "<a href="/Photosensitive_epilepsy" title="Photosensitive epilepsy">photosensitive epilepsy</a>;<sup id="cite_ref-WCAG_64-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-WCAG-64">[56]</a></sup> its use on the public Internet should follow the appropriate guidelines.) There are three options, including <b>Alternate</b>, <b>Scroll</b> and <b>slide</b>. <b>Scrolldelay</b> can also be added.</dd> <dd><code>marquee</code> originated in "<a href="/Microsoft_Internet_Explorer" class="mw-redirect" title="Microsoft Internet Explorer">Microsoft Internet Explorer</a>; <b>deprecated</b> or <b>invalid</b> in <a href="#HTML20">HTML 4.01</a> and later.</dd> <dt><span id="nobr"></span><code class="html" title="No Break" style="font-size:116%;"><del style="color:grey;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;nobr</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/nobr&gt;</b></del> <b>(deprecated)</b></code></dt> </dl> <dl> <dd>Causes text to not break at end of line, preventing word wrap where text exceeds the width of the enclosing object. Adjacent text may break before and after it. Can be done with CSS: <code>{white-space: nowrap;}</code></dd> <dd><code>nobr</code> is a proprietary element which is recognized by most browsers for compatibility reasons; <b>deprecated</b> or <b>invalid</b> in <a href="#HTML20">HTML 2.0</a> and later.</dd> <dt><span id="noembed"></span><code class="html" title="Embed Fallback" style="font-size:116%;"><del style="color:grey;"><b style="color:#006633">&lt;noembed</b><b style="color:#006633">&gt;</b>...<b style="color:#006633">&lt;/noembed&gt;</b></del> <b>(deprecated)</b></code></dt> </dl> <dl> <dd>Specifies alternative content, if the embed cannot be rendered. Replaced by the content of the <code>embed</code> or <code>object</code> element.</dd> </dl> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Comments">Comments</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a target="_new" rel="nofollow" href="http://wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=HTML_element&amp;action=edit&amp;section=36" title="Edit section: Comments">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2> <div style="clear:both;"></div> <dl> <dt><code class="mw-highlight" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="c">&lt;!-- A Comment --&gt;</span></code></dt> </dl> <p><br /> A "<a href="/Comment_(computer_programming)" title="Comment (computer programming)">comment</a> in HTML (and related XML, SGML and SHTML) uses the same syntax as the "<a href="/SGML_comment" class="mw-redirect" title="SGML comment">SGML comment</a> or "<a href="/XML_comment" class="mw-redirect" title="XML comment">XML comment</a>, depending on the doctype.</p> <p>Unlike most HTML tags, comments do not nest.</p> <p>The markup <code class="mw-highlight" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="c">&lt;!--Xbegin&lt;!--Y--&gt;</span>Xend--&gt;</code> will yield the comment <code>Xbegin&lt;!--Y</code> and the text <code>Xend--&gt;</code> after it.</p> <p>Comments can appear anywhere in a document, as the HTML parser is supposed to ignore them no matter where they appear so long as they are not inside other HTML tag structures.</p> <p>Comments can even appear before the doctype declaration; no other tags are permitted to do this.</p> <p>However, not all browsers and HTML editors are fully compliant with the HTML syntax framework and may do unpredictable things under some syntax conditions. Defective handling of comments only affects about 5% of all browsers and HTML editors in use (IE6 accounting for most of this high percentage). Even then only certain versions are affected by comment mishandling issues.</p> <p>There are a few compatibility quirks involving comments:</p> <ul> <li>Placing comments – or indeed any characters except for white-space – before the doctype will cause Internet Explorer 6 to use "<a href="/Quirks_mode" title="Quirks mode">quirks mode</a> for the HTML page. None of its enclosed contents are processed.</li> <li>For compatibility with some pre-1995 browsers, the contents of <code>style</code> and <code>script</code> elements are still sometimes surrounded by comment delimiters.</li> <li>The "<a href="/BlueGriffon" title="BlueGriffon">BlueGriffon</a> HTML editor, in versions 1.7.x makes comments that are not embedded in the syntax structure <code class="mw-highlight" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">style</span><span class="p">&gt;</span> <span class="o">...</span> <span class="p">{</span><span class="err">comment</span> <span class="err">tags</span><span class="p">}</span> <span class="o">...</span><span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">style</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code> show up on screen. Other HTML editors may have this same defect.</li> </ul> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Notes">Notes</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a target="_new" rel="nofollow" href="http://wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=HTML_element&amp;action=edit&amp;section=37" title="Edit section: Notes">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2> <div class="reflist" style="list-style-type: lower-roman;"> <div class="mw-references-wrap"> <ol class="references"> <li id="cite_note-1"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-1">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">"Document" may refer interchangeably to either a file stored on a computer filesystem, usually on disk, or to a document delivered across the Web by "<a href="/HTTP" class="mw-redirect" title="HTTP">HTTP</a>. Such documents may equally be copies of disk files stored on the web server, or they may be generated on demand.</span></li> <li id="cite_note-4"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-4">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">"<a href="/Document_Object_Model" title="Document Object Model">Document Object Model</a> is now a formalized specification by the "<a href="/W3C" class="mw-redirect" title="W3C">W3C</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-W3C_Current_DOM_version_2-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-W3C_Current_DOM_version-2">[1]</a></sup> It defines <i>an interface to</i> this internal model, rather than the internal model itself. Early web browsers used their own internal representation that bore little relation to the DOM. The term "document tree" has also been applied.<sup id="cite_ref-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-3">[2]</a></sup> However for the purpose here, of explaining the difference between a document of tags and a parsed model of elements, it is convenient to use the term DOM throughout.</span></li> <li id="cite_note-5"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-5">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">The term "web browser" here is used for simplicity. It does of course include other sorts of "<a href="/Web_user_agent" class="mw-redirect" title="Web user agent">web user agent</a>, such as search engine "<a href="/Web_crawler" title="Web crawler">web crawlers</a>, automatic news-feed retrievers etc.</span></li> <li id="cite_note-9"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-9">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">HTML 4.01 is one of a small number of well-known HTML DTDs. It is chosen here as the best illustrative example, although the same behavior applies to the other W3C-published DTDs for HTML.</span></li> <li id="cite_note-10"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-10">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">A macro-like feature of DTDs may still be used within XML.</span></li> <li id="cite_note-12"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-12">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">One minor point is that XML, even after the DOM interface, is case-sensitive.<sup id="cite_ref-11" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-11">[6]</a></sup></span></li> <li id="cite_note-14"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-14">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Although see <code>&lt;object&gt;</code> for the inevitable exception.</span></li> <li id="cite_note-55"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-55">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Strictly an "<a href="/Internationalized_resource_identifier" class="mw-redirect" title="Internationalized resource identifier">IRI</a>, not a URL; although URLs are a subset of IRIs.</span></li> </ol> </div> </div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="References">References</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a target="_new" rel="nofollow" href="http://wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=HTML_element&amp;action=edit&amp;section=38" title="Edit section: References">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2> <div class="reflist columns references-column-width" style="-moz-column-width: 35em; -webkit-column-width: 35em; column-width: 35em; list-style-type: decimal;"> <ol class="references"> <li id="cite_note-W3C_Current_DOM_version-2"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-W3C_Current_DOM_version_2-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/dom">"Document Object Model (DOM) Current Version"</a>. "<a href="/W3C" class="mw-redirect" title="W3C">W3C</a>. 26 July 2016.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=Document+Object+Model+%28DOM%29+Current+Version&amp;rft.pub=W3C&amp;rft.date=2016-07-26&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2FTR%2Fdom&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML+element" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li> <li id="cite_note-3"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-3">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/CSS2/conform.html#doctree">"Definitions – Document tree"</a>. <i>Cascading Style Sheets Level 2 Revision 1 (CSS 2.1) Specification</i>. "<a href="/W3C" class="mw-redirect" title="W3C">W3C</a>. 7 June 2011.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=Cascading+Style+Sheets+Level+2+Revision+1+%28CSS+2.1%29+Specification&amp;rft.atitle=Definitions+%E2%80%93+Document+tree&amp;rft.date=2011-06-07&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2FTR%2FCSS2%2Fconform.html%23doctree&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML+element" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span> <span style="font-size:100%" class="error citation-comment"><code style="color:inherit; border:inherit; padding:inherit;">|section=</code> ignored ("<a href="/Help:CS1_errors#chapter_ignored" title="Help:CS1 errors">help</a>)</span></span></li> <li id="cite_note-6"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-6">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/1999/REC-html401-19991224/intro/sgmltut.html#h-3.2.1">"§3.2.1 Elements"</a>. <i>HTML 4.01 Specification</i>. "<a href="/W3C" class="mw-redirect" title="W3C">W3C</a>. 24 December 1999.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=HTML+4.01+Specification&amp;rft.atitle=%C2%A73.2.1+Elements&amp;rft.date=1999-12-24&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2FTR%2F1999%2FREC-html401-19991224%2Fintro%2Fsgmltut.html%23h-3.2.1&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML+element" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span> <span style="font-size:100%" class="error citation-comment"><code style="color:inherit; border:inherit; padding:inherit;">|section=</code> ignored ("<a href="/Help:CS1_errors#chapter_ignored" title="Help:CS1 errors">help</a>)</span></span></li> <li id="cite_note-7"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-7">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/1999/REC-html401-19991224/intro/sgmltut.html">"§3.1 Introduction to SGML"</a>. <i>HTML 4.01 Specification</i>. "<a href="/W3C" class="mw-redirect" title="W3C">W3C</a>. 24 December 1999.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=HTML+4.01+Specification&amp;rft.atitle=%C2%A73.1+Introduction+to+SGML&amp;rft.date=1999-12-24&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2FTR%2F1999%2FREC-html401-19991224%2Fintro%2Fsgmltut.html&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML+element" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span> <span style="font-size:100%" class="error citation-comment"><code style="color:inherit; border:inherit; padding:inherit;">|section=</code> ignored ("<a href="/Help:CS1_errors#chapter_ignored" title="Help:CS1 errors">help</a>)</span></span></li> <li id="cite_note-W3C.2C_HTML_401_DTD-8"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-W3C.2C_HTML_401_DTD_8-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/1999/REC-html401-19991224/sgml/dtd.html">"HTML 4.01, §21, Document Type Definition"</a>. "<a href="/W3C" class="mw-redirect" title="W3C">W3C</a>. 24 December 1999.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=HTML+4.01%2C+%C2%A721%2C+Document+Type+Definition&amp;rft.pub=W3C&amp;rft.date=1999-12-24&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2FTR%2F1999%2FREC-html401-19991224%2Fsgml%2Fdtd.html&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML+element" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li> <li id="cite_note-11"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-11">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/REC-DOM-Level-2-HTML-20030109/html.html#ID-5353782642">"§1.3. XHTML and the HTML DOM"</a>. <i>Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 HTML Specification</i>. "<a href="/W3C" class="mw-redirect" title="W3C">W3C</a>. 9 January 2003.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=Document+Object+Model+%28DOM%29+Level+2+HTML+Specification&amp;rft.atitle=%C2%A71.3.+XHTML+and+the+HTML+DOM&amp;rft.date=2003-01-09&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2FTR%2F2003%2FREC-DOM-Level-2-HTML-20030109%2Fhtml.html%23ID-5353782642&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML+element" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span> <span style="font-size:100%" class="error citation-comment"><code style="color:inherit; border:inherit; padding:inherit;">|section=</code> ignored ("<a href="/Help:CS1_errors#chapter_ignored" title="Help:CS1 errors">help</a>)</span></span></li> <li id="cite_note-W3C.2C_HTML_4.01.2C_block_and_inline-13"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-W3C.2C_HTML_4.01.2C_block_and_inline_13-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-W3C.2C_HTML_4.01.2C_block_and_inline_13-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/1999/REC-html401-19991224/struct/global.html#h-7.5.3">"§7.5.3 Block-level and inline elements"</a>. <i>HTML 4.01 Specification</i>. "<a href="/W3C" class="mw-redirect" title="W3C">W3C</a>. 24 December 1999.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=HTML+4.01+Specification&amp;rft.atitle=%C2%A77.5.3+Block-level+and+inline+elements&amp;rft.date=1999-12-24&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2FTR%2F1999%2FREC-html401-19991224%2Fstruct%2Fglobal.html%23h-7.5.3&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML+element" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span> <span style="font-size:100%" class="error citation-comment"><code style="color:inherit; border:inherit; padding:inherit;">|section=</code> ignored ("<a href="/Help:CS1_errors#chapter_ignored" title="Help:CS1 errors">help</a>)</span></span></li> <li id="cite_note-15"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-15">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Mark Newhouse (27 September 2002). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://alistapart.com/article/taminglists/">"CSS Design: Taming Lists"</a>. "<a href="/A_List_Apart" title="A List Apart">A List Apart</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=CSS+Design%3A+Taming+Lists&amp;rft.pub=A+List+Apart&amp;rft.date=2002-09-27&amp;rft.au=Mark+Newhouse&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Falistapart.com%2Farticle%2Ftaminglists%2F&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML+element" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li> <li id="cite_note-XHTML10-42-16"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-XHTML10-42_16-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#XHTML10">XHTML 1.0</a> §4.2</span></li> <li id="cite_note-17"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-17">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#XML10">XML 1.0</a> (The ability to produce additional elements is part of the <i>eXtensibility</i> in the acronym.)</span></li> <li id="cite_note-XML10-51-18"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-XML10-51_18-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#XML10">XML 1.0</a> §5.1</span></li> <li id="cite_note-XHTML11-19"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-XHTML11_19-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#XHTML11">XHTML 1.1</a> §A</span></li> <li id="cite_note-20"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-20">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.w3.org/standards/webdesign/htmlcss">"HTML &amp; CSS"</a>. "<a href="/W3C" class="mw-redirect" title="W3C">W3C</a>. 2013.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=HTML+%26+CSS&amp;rft.pub=W3C&amp;rft.date=2013&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2Fstandards%2Fwebdesign%2Fhtmlcss&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML+element" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li> <li id="cite_note-21"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-21">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/CSS2/sample.html">"Appendix D. Default style sheet for HTML 4"</a>. <i>Cascading Style Sheets Level 2 Revision 1 (CSS 2.1) Specification</i>. "<a href="/W3C" class="mw-redirect" title="W3C">W3C</a>. 7 June 2011.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=Cascading+Style+Sheets+Level+2+Revision+1+%28CSS+2.1%29+Specification&amp;rft.atitle=Appendix+D.+Default+style+sheet+for+HTML+4&amp;rft.date=2011-06-07&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2FTR%2FCSS2%2Fsample.html&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML+element" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li> <li id="cite_note-HTML401-141-22"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-HTML401-141_22-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#HTML401">HTML 4.01</a> §14.1</span></li> <li id="cite_note-SVG11-23-23"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-SVG11-23_23-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Ferraiolo, J. Fujisawa, J, and Jackson, D (editors) (2003-01-14). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/REC-SVG11-20030114/">"Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) 1.1 Specification, §2.3 <i>Options for using SVG in Web pages</i>"</a>. "<a href="/W3C" class="mw-redirect" title="W3C">W3C</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2009-03-25</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=Scalable+Vector+Graphics+%28SVG%29+1.1+Specification%2C+%C2%A72.3+Options+for+using+SVG+in+Web+pages&amp;rft.pub=W3C&amp;rft.date=2003-01-14&amp;rft.au=Ferraiolo%2C+J.+Fujisawa%2C+J%2C+and+Jackson%2C+D+%28editors%29&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2FTR%2F2003%2FREC-SVG11-20030114%2F&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML+element" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span><span class="citation-comment" style="display:none; color:#33aa33; margin-left:0.3em">CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list ("<a href="/Category:CS1_maint:_Multiple_names:_authors_list" title="Category:CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list">link</a>) CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list ("<a href="/Category:CS1_maint:_Extra_text:_authors_list" title="Category:CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list">link</a>)</span></span></li> <li id="cite_note-24"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-24">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#HTML401">HTML 4.01</a> §12.3</span></li> <li id="cite_note-25"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-25">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#HTML401">HTML 4.01</a> §14.3.2</span></li> <li id="cite_note-26"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-26">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#HTML401">HTML 4.01</a> §18</span></li> <li id="cite_note-27"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-27">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CSS1">CSS</a> §1.1</span></li> <li id="cite_note-W3C-5-DL-28"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-W3C-5-DL_28-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/html5/grouping-content.html#the-dl-element">"4.4 Grouping content – HTML5"</a>. <i>HTML5: A vocabulary and associated APIs for HTML and XHTML – W3C Recommendation</i>. "<a href="/World_Wide_Web_Consortium" title="World Wide Web Consortium">World Wide Web Consortium</a>. 28 October 2014. 4.4.8 The <tt>dl</tt> element<span class="reference-accessdate">. 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Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2008-12-20</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=Creating+Accessible+Images&amp;rft.pub=WebAim&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.webaim.org%2Ftechniques%2Fimages%2Flongdesc.php%23longdesc&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML+element" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li> <li id="cite_note-59"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-59">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://wiki.whatwg.org/wiki/Longdesc_usage"><i>Longdesc usage - WHATWG Wiki</i></a>, Wiki.whatwg.org<span class="reference-accessdate">, retrieved <span class="nowrap">2012-03-26</span></span></cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Longdesc+usage+-+WHATWG+Wiki&amp;rft.pub=Wiki.whatwg.org&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwiki.whatwg.org%2Fwiki%2FLongdesc_usage&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML+element" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li> <li id="cite_note-60"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-60">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.w3.org/Bugs/Public/show_bug.cgi?id=13461">"Bug 13461 - Commentary on Issue #30 (longdesc) from the Association of American Publishers"</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2011-09-05</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=Bug+13461+-+Commentary+on+Issue+%2330+%28longdesc%29+from+the+Association+of+American+Publishers&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2FBugs%2FPublic%2Fshow_bug.cgi%3Fid%3D13461&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML+element" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li> <li id="cite_note-61"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-61">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/HTML/Element/listing">https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/HTML/Element/listing</a></span></li> <li id="cite_note-62"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-62">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/HTML/Element/xmp">https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/HTML/Element/xmp</a></span></li> <li id="cite_note-63"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-63">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/HTML/Element/nextid">https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/HTML/Element/nextid</a></span></li> <li id="cite_note-WCAG-64"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-WCAG_64-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-WCAG_64-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Chisholm, Wendy; Vanderheiden, Gregg; Jacobs, Ian (1999-05-05). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG10/">"Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0"</a>. World Wide Web Consortium<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2010-07-20</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=Web+Content+Accessibility+Guidelines+1.0&amp;rft.pub=World+Wide+Web+Consortium&amp;rft.date=1999-05-05&amp;rft.aulast=Chisholm&amp;rft.aufirst=Wendy&amp;rft.au=Vanderheiden%2C+Gregg&amp;rft.au=Jacobs%2C+Ian&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2FTR%2FWCAG10%2F&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML+element" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li> </ol> </div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Bibliography">Bibliography</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a target="_new" rel="nofollow" href="http://wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=HTML_element&amp;action=edit&amp;section=39" title="Edit section: Bibliography">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2> <div class="refbegin" style=""> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="HTML_standards">HTML standards</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a target="_new" rel="nofollow" href="http://wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=HTML_element&amp;action=edit&amp;section=40" title="Edit section: HTML standards">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3> <dl> <dt><span id="HTML20">HTML 2.0:</span></dt> <dd><cite class="citation web">Berners-Lee, T.; Connolly, D. (November 1995). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1866">"Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 (RFC 1866)"</a>. "<a href="/IETF" class="mw-redirect" title="IETF">IETF</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2009-03-24</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=Hypertext+Markup+Language+-+2.0+%28RFC+1866%29&amp;rft.pub=IETF&amp;rft.date=1995-11&amp;rft.au=Berners-Lee%2C+T.&amp;rft.au=Connolly%2C+D.&amp;rft_id=%2F%2Ftools.ietf.org%2Fhtml%2Frfc1866&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML+element" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></dd> </dl> <dl> <dt><span id="HTML32">HTML 3.2:</span></dt> <dd><cite class="citation web">"<a href="/Dave_Raggett" title="Dave Raggett">Raggett, Dave</a> (1997-01-14). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html32-19970114">"HTML 3.2 Reference Specification"</a>. "<a href="/W3C" class="mw-redirect" title="W3C">W3C</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2009-03-27</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=HTML+3.2+Reference+Specification&amp;rft.pub=W3C&amp;rft.date=1997-01-14&amp;rft.aulast=Raggett&amp;rft.aufirst=Dave&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2FTR%2FREC-html32-19970114&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML+element" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></dd> </dl> <dl> <dt><span id="HTML401">HTML 4.01:</span></dt> <dd><cite class="citation web">Raggett, Dave; Le Hors, A; Jacobs, I. (1999-12-24). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/1999/REC-html401-19991224/">"HTML 4.01 Specification"</a>. "<a href="/W3C" class="mw-redirect" title="W3C">W3C</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2009-03-24</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=HTML+4.01+Specification&amp;rft.pub=W3C&amp;rft.date=1999-12-24&amp;rft.aulast=Raggett&amp;rft.aufirst=Dave&amp;rft.au=Le+Hors%2C+A&amp;rft.au=Jacobs%2C+I.&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2FTR%2F1999%2FREC-html401-19991224%2F&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML+element" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span> <i>(HTML 4.01 is the updated form of HTML 4.0.)</i></dd> </dl> <dl> <dt><span id="XHTML10">XHTML 1.0:</span></dt> <dd><cite class="citation web">"<a href="/W3C" class="mw-redirect" title="W3C">W3C</a> (2000-01-26). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2002/REC-xhtml1-20020801">"XHTML 1.0: The Extensible HyperText Markup Language (Second Edition)"</a>. "<a href="/W3C" class="mw-redirect" title="W3C">W3C</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2009-03-24</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=XHTML+1.0%3A+The+Extensible+HyperText+Markup+Language+%28Second+Edition%29&amp;rft.pub=W3C&amp;rft.date=2000-01-26&amp;rft.au=W3C&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2FTR%2F2002%2FREC-xhtml1-20020801&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML+element" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></dd> </dl> <dl> <dt><span id="XHTML11">XHTML 1.1:</span></dt> <dd><cite class="citation web">Altheim, M., and McCarron, S. (editors) (2001-05-31). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2001/REC-xhtml11-20010531/">"XHTML 1.1 - Module-based XHTML"</a>. "<a href="/W3C" class="mw-redirect" title="W3C">W3C</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2009-03-25</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=XHTML+1.1+-+Module-based+XHTML&amp;rft.pub=W3C&amp;rft.date=2001-05-31&amp;rft.au=Altheim%2C+M.%2C+and+McCarron%2C+S.+%28editors%29&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2FTR%2F2001%2FREC-xhtml11-20010531%2F&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML+element" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span><span class="citation-comment" style="display:none; color:#33aa33; margin-left:0.3em">CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list ("<a href="/Category:CS1_maint:_Multiple_names:_authors_list" title="Category:CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list">link</a>) CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list ("<a href="/Category:CS1_maint:_Extra_text:_authors_list" title="Category:CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list">link</a>)</span></dd> </dl> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Other_sources">Other sources</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a target="_new" rel="nofollow" href="http://wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=HTML_element&amp;action=edit&amp;section=41" title="Edit section: Other sources">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3> <dl> <dt><i><span id="HTMLTAGS">HTML Tags:</span></i></dt> <dd><cite class="citation web">Berners-Lee, T. (1992-11-03). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.w3.org/History/19921103-hypertext/hypertext/WWW/MarkUp/Tags.html">"HTML Tags"</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2009-03-28</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=HTML+Tags&amp;rft.date=1992-11-03&amp;rft.au=Berners-Lee%2C+T.&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2FHistory%2F19921103-hypertext%2Fhypertext%2FWWW%2FMarkUp%2FTags.html&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML+element" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span> <i>(Part of the first published description of HTML.)</i></dd> </dl> <dl> <dt><i><span id="HTMLDRAFT12">HTML Internet Draft 1.2:</span></i></dt> <dd><cite class="citation web">Berners-Lee, T.; Connolly, D. (June 1993). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.w3.org/MarkUp/draft-ietf-iiir-html-01.txt">"Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)"</a> <span style="font-size:85%;">(text)</span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2009-03-28</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=Hypertext+Markup+Language+%28HTML%29&amp;rft.date=1993-06&amp;rft.au=Berners-Lee%2C+T.&amp;rft.au=Connolly%2C+D.&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2FMarkUp%2Fdraft-ietf-iiir-html-01.txt&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML+element" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></dd> </dl> <dl> <dt><i><span id="HTML30">HTML 3.0 Drafts:</span></i></dt> <dd><cite class="citation web">Raggett, Dave (1995-03-24). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.w3.org/MarkUp/html3/CoverPage.html">"HyperText Markup Language Specification Version 3.0 (draft)"</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2009-04-18</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=HyperText+Markup+Language+Specification+Version+3.0+%28draft%29&amp;rft.date=1995-03-24&amp;rft.aulast=Raggett&amp;rft.aufirst=Dave&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2FMarkUp%2Fhtml3%2FCoverPage.html&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML+element" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span> <i>(This is the final draft of HTML 3.0, which expired without being developed further.)</i></dd> </dl> <dl> <dt><i><span id="HTMLTABLES">HTML Tables:</span></i></dt> <dd><cite class="citation web">Raggett, Dave (May 1996). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1942">"HTML Tables (RFC 1942)"</a>. "<a href="/IETF" class="mw-redirect" title="IETF">IETF</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2009-03-22</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=HTML+Tables+%28RFC+1942%29&amp;rft.pub=IETF&amp;rft.date=1996-05&amp;rft.aulast=Raggett&amp;rft.aufirst=Dave&amp;rft_id=%2F%2Ftools.ietf.org%2Fhtml%2Frfc1942&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML+element" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></dd> </dl> <dl> <dt><span id="XML10">XML 1.0:</span></dt> <dd><cite class="citation web">Bray, T, Paoli, J, Sperberg-McQueen, CM, Maler, E and Yergeau, F (editors) (2008-11-26). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/REC-xml-20081126/">"Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (Fifth Edition)"</a>. "<a href="/W3C" class="mw-redirect" title="W3C">W3C</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2009-03-20</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=Extensible+Markup+Language+%28XML%29+1.0+%28Fifth+Edition%29&amp;rft.pub=W3C&amp;rft.date=2008-11-26&amp;rft.au=Bray%2C+T%2C+Paoli%2C+J%2C+Sperberg-McQueen%2C+CM%2C+Maler%2C+E+and+Yergeau%2C+F+%28editors%29&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2FTR%2F2008%2FREC-xml-20081126%2F&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML+element" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span><span class="citation-comment" style="display:none; color:#33aa33; margin-left:0.3em">CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list ("<a href="/Category:CS1_maint:_Multiple_names:_authors_list" title="Category:CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list">link</a>) CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list ("<a href="/Category:CS1_maint:_Extra_text:_authors_list" title="Category:CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list">link</a>)</span></dd> </dl> <dl> <dt><span id="CSS1">CSS:</span></dt> <dd><cite class="citation web">Lie, H.W.; Bos, B. (2008-04-11). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/CSS1/">"Cascading Style Sheets, level 1 (revised 2008-04-11)"</a>. "<a href="/W3C" class="mw-redirect" title="W3C">W3C</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2009-04-05</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=Cascading+Style+Sheets%2C+level+1+%28revised+2008-04-11%29&amp;rft.pub=W3C&amp;rft.date=2008-04-11&amp;rft.au=Lie%2C+H.W.&amp;rft.au=Bos%2C+B.&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2FTR%2FCSS1%2F&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML+element" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></dd> </dl> </div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="External_links">External links</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a target="_new" rel="nofollow" href="http://wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=HTML_element&amp;action=edit&amp;section=42" title="Edit section: External links">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2> <table role="presentation" class="mbox-small plainlinks sistersitebox" style="background-color:#f9f9f9;border:1px solid #aaa;color:#000"> <tr> <td class="mbox-image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/df/Wikibooks-logo-en-noslogan.svg/40px-Wikibooks-logo-en-noslogan.svg.png" width="40" height="40" class="noviewer" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/df/Wikibooks-logo-en-noslogan.svg/60px-Wikibooks-logo-en-noslogan.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/df/Wikibooks-logo-en-noslogan.svg/80px-Wikibooks-logo-en-noslogan.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="400" data-file-height="400" /></td> <td class="mbox-text plainlist">The Wikibook <i><a href="https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/HyperText_Markup_Language" class="extiw" title="wikibooks:HyperText Markup Language">HyperText Markup Language</a></i> has a page on the topic of: <i><b><a href="https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/HyperText_Markup_Language/Tag_List" class="extiw" title="wikibooks:HyperText Markup Language/Tag List">all elements in HTML</a></b></i></td> </tr> </table> <ul> <li>HTML 4.01 (Dec 24, 1999): <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/html401/index/elements.html">elements</a> and <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/html401/index/attributes.html">attributes</a></li> <li><span id="HTML5">HTML5</span> (Oct 28, 2014): <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/html5/index.html">elements and attributes</a></li> </ul> <!-- NewPP limit report Parsed by mw1264 Cached time: 20171110211209 Cache expiry: 1900800 Dynamic content: false CPU time usage: 0.752 seconds Real time usage: 1.703 seconds Preprocessor visited node count: 11319/1000000 Preprocessor generated node count: 0/1500000 Post‐expand include size: 143378/2097152 bytes Template argument size: 8247/2097152 bytes Highest expansion depth: 11/40 Expensive parser function count: 3/500 Lua time usage: 0.281/10.000 seconds Lua memory usage: 4.68 MB/50 MB --> <!-- Transclusion expansion time report (%,ms,calls,template) 100.00% 1473.960 1 -total 17.88% 263.496 46 Template:Code 12.09% 178.133 2 Template:Reflist 9.18% 135.237 139 Template:Anchor 8.73% 128.641 32 Template:Cite_web 3.22% 47.452 1 Template:Examples 2.86% 42.105 1 Template:Fix 2.56% 37.665 136 Template:XMLElement 2.41% 35.512 10 Template:Citation 1.61% 23.685 1 Template:Category_handler --> </div> <!-- Saved in parser cache with key enwiki:pcache:idhash:274393-0!canonical!math=5 and timestamp 20171110211208 and revision id 808469175 --> ) ) <script> function diffImage(img) { if(img.src.match(/blank/)) { console.log('black'); 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