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Harold Keith Johnson
""HaroldJohnson.png
Joseph Richards Essig's portrait of General Johnson
Nickname(s) Johnny[1]
Born (1912-02-22)February 22, 1912
"Bowesmont, North Dakota
Died September 24, 1983(1983-09-24) (aged 71)
"Washington, D.C.
Allegiance United States of America
Service/branch ""United States Army seal "United States Army
Years of service 1933–1968
Rank "General
Commands held "Chief of Staff of the United States Army
"Commandant of the United States Army Command and General Staff College
"8th Cavalry Regiment
3d Battalion, 7th Infantry
Battles/wars "World War II
"Korean War
Awards

Harold Keith "Johnny" Johnson (February 22, 1912 – September 24, 1983) was "Chief of Staff of the United States Army from 1964 to 1968. Regarded as a premier tactician, Johnson became skeptical that the level of resources given to the "Vietnam War, much of which went into 'find, fix, and destroy the big main force units' operations, could deliver victory. Johnson came to believe that the Communist forces held a trump card, because they controlled whether there were engagements with US forces, giving an option to simply avoid battle with US forces if the situation warranted it.

As Johnson saw it, the Communist units would always keep their casualties below what they considered a prohibitive level, and could not be swept away by US firepower. He did, however, acknowledge that the U.S. Commander in Vietnam, General "William Westmoreland, had little choice but to engage the enemy's main formations, which had to be prevented from securing base areas where they could concentrate. Johnson was instrumental in altering the focus to a counterinsurgency approach, but was frustrated at the US Congress' refusal to provide the manpower necessary for successful pacification. In his later years Johnson said it had been obvious that US national mobilization was required to win in Vietnam, and he regretted not resigning in protest at the government asking the army to fight a war without hope of ultimate victory.

Contents

Early career and World War II[edit]

Harold Keith Johnson was born in "Bowesmont, North Dakota on February 22, 1912. After graduation from high school in 1929, Johnson attended the "United States Military Academy, West Point, New York. On June 13, 1933, he was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the infantry. Johnson’s first duty assignment was with the "3rd Infantry (Old Guard) at "Fort Snelling, Minnesota.

In 1938, Johnson attended "Infantry School at "Fort Benning. Upon graduation, he was assigned to the "28th Infantry at "Fort Niagara, New York. Requesting overseas transfer, Johnson was reassigned to the "57th Infantry (Philippines Scouts) at "Fort McKinley, Philippine Islands in 1940. After the "Battle of Bataan, Johnson became a prisoner of the Japanese on 9 April 1942. Participating in the "Bataan Death March, Johnson was eventually imprisoned at "Camp O'Donnell, Cabanatuan and "Bilibid Prison. In December 1944, the Japanese attempted to transfer Johnson and 1600 other POWs out of the Philippines. On 14 December 1944, American fighter planes sunk the Japanese ship the "Ōryoku Maru killing over 300 of the POWs. Johnson survived and was eventually transferred to Japan. Unwilling to give up their POWs to the advancing Allies, Japan again transferred Johnson. Finally ending up in Korea, Johnson was liberated by the "7th Infantry Division on September 7, 1945.

Post World War II[edit]

After Johnson’s return to the United States, his first assignment was with the Ground Forces School. In August 1946, he attended the "Command & General Staff College at "Fort Leavenworth, Kansas where he remained as an instructor for another two years. Johnson next attended the "Armed Forces Staff College in Norfolk, Virginia in 1949. After graduation, he was assigned as commanding officer, 3rd Battalion, "7th Infantry at "Fort Devens, Massachusetts.

Johnson organized the 1st Provisional Infantry Battalion at Fort Devens and, in August 1950, he was dispatched to Korea. The battalion became the 3rd Battalion, "8th Cavalry, assigned to the "1st Cavalry Division for the defense of the "Pusan Perimeter. Still with the 1st Cavalry Division, Johnson was later promoted to command the "5th and the 8th Cavalry Regiments. In February 1951, he was reassigned as Assistant Chief of Staff, G3 of "I Corps.

Returning to the United States, Johnson was assigned to the Office of the Chief of the Army Field Forces, "Fort Monroe, Virginia. In 1952, he attended the "National War College. After graduation, Johnson was assigned to the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, G3, where he served first, as Chief of Joint War Plans Branch, then as the Assistant to the Chief of the Plans Division, and finally as the Executive Officer of the Assistant Chief of Staff.

In January 1956, Johnson was assigned to duty as Assistant Division Commander of the "8th Infantry Division at "Fort Carson, Colorado. Later in 1956, he transferred with the 8th Division to West Germany. Johnson’s next assignment was as chief of staff, "Seventh Army Headquarters at "Stuttgart-Vaihingen. Then in April 1959, Johnson moved to Headquarters, United States Army, Europe, as Assistant Chief of Staff, G3. The following December, he was appointed chief of staff, Central Army Group at "NATO Headquarters concerned with planning for the employment of French, German, and American troop operations in Central Europe.

Returning to the United States, Johnson was assigned as commandant, Command and General Staff College, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. In February 1963, he became assistant deputy chief of staff for military operations (operations and plans), Department of the Army, and in July was appointed as deputy chief of staff for military operations.

Chief of Staff[edit]

On 3 July 1964 Johnson was appointed the 24th Chief of Staff of the United States Army; his reputation as an expert tactician led to him being selected over candidates with more seniority. He had told the "National Guard Association that year that that "military force ... should be committed with the object beyond war in mind." and "broadly speaking, the object beyond war should be the restoration of stability with the minimum of destruction, so that society and lawful government may proceed in an atmosphere of justice and order."[2]

Vietnam War[edit]

Johnson went to Vietnam in December 1965 after the "Battle of Ia Drang. He "concluded that it had not been a victory at all and that Westmoreland's big-unit strategy was misconceived".[3] However Johnson publicly said there was no alternative to disrupting enemy main force units in the "Central Highlands as preventing them establishing base areas in the middle country was essential. After talking to junior officers involved in the first major actions Johnson concluded that enemy main force units had the ability to evade engagements giving them the option keep casualties below an acceptable level, but they were in fact accepting the actual kill ratios being achieved, as evidenced by them attacking US forces. Johnson started the process to have Westmoreland replaced in Vietnam, and commissioned the PROVN Study, which noted that "aerial attacks and artillery fire, applied indiscriminately, also have exacted a toll on village allegiance." There was a deep seated reluctance among the Joint Chiefs to interfere with the command decisions of Westmoreland, however harassing artillery fire, by US forces at least, was greatly reduced.[4][5]

Conditions for enlisted personnel[edit]

As Chief of Staff, one of Johnson's noteworthy accomplishments was creating the office of the "Sergeant Major of the Army to improve the quality of life for enlisted personnel. He selected Sergeant Major "William O. Wooldridge to be the first to hold this post. Johnson also served as acting "Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff for a few months in 1967 during the convalescence of General "Earle Wheeler. Johnson retired from active duty in July 1968. For three years later, General Johnson headed the "Freedoms Foundation at Valley Forge and afterwards worked as a banking executive until retiring for good.

Final years[edit]

Johnson married Dorothy Rennix in 1935. During his term as chief of staff, had been involved in many policy debates regarding the escalation of the Vietnam War as a proponent of full military mobilization to achieve a pacification of "South Vietnam. He considered resigning in protest over President "Lyndon B. Johnson's decision not to mobilize the reserves, and at the end of his life expressed regret at not doing so. He was the subject of a biography, Honorable Warrior, by Lewis Sorley. He died September 24, 1983, in "Washington, D.C.. Johnson came to regret having not opposed the escalation of the Vietnam War, lamenting that "I am now going to my grave with that lapse in moral courage on my back."[6]

Tributes[edit]

"He had an unusual sense of loyalty to the men under him, the kind of thing ordinary soldiers notice and value when they grade an officer..."[7]

"He was the best, someone born to lead men. I think he was always thinking about what was good for us. Nothing ever got by him."[8]

Military career chronology[edit]

No insignia "Private, United States Army: January 7, 1929
No insignia "Cadet, "United States Military Academy: July 1, 1929
""US-O1 insignia.svg "Second lieutenant, "Regular Army: June 13, 1933
""US-O2 insignia.svg "First lieutenant, Regular Army: June 13, 1936
""US-O3 insignia.svg "Captain, "Army of the United States: September 9, 1940
""US-O4 insignia.svg "Major, Army of the United States: December 19, 1941
""US-O5 insignia.svg "Lieutenant colonel, Army of the United States: April 7, 1942
""US-O3 insignia.svg "Captain, Regular Army: June 13, 1943
""US-O6 insignia.svg "Colonel, Army of the United States: September 2, 1945
""US-O5 insignia.svg "Lieutenant colonel, Army of the United States: May 1, 1946
(Reduced in rank.)
""US-O4 insignia.svg "Major, Regular Army: July 15, 1948
""US-O5 insignia.svg "Lieutenant colonel, Regular Army: July 28, 1950
""US-O6 insignia.svg "Colonel, Army of the United States: December 30, 1950
""US-O7 insignia.svg "Brigadier general, Army of the United States: January 1, 1956
""US-O6 insignia.svg "Colonel, Regular Army: February 1, 1956
""US-O8 insignia.svg "Major general, Army of the United States: July 1, 1959
""US-O7 insignia.svg "Brigadier general, Regular Army: May 22, 1960
""US-O8 insignia.svg "Major general, Regular Army: November 5, 1962
""US-O9 insignia.svg "Lieutenant general, Army of the United States: July 1, 1963
""US-O10 insignia.svg "General, Army of the United States: July 1, 1964
""US-O10 insignia.svg "General, Regular Army, Retired: June 30, 1968

Decorations and awards[edit]

""CIB2.png   "Combat Infantryman Badge, 2 awards

"" "Distinguished Service Cross
""Bronze oak leaf cluster
""
"Distinguished Service Medal with oak leaf cluster
""Bronze oak leaf cluster
""Bronze oak leaf cluster
""Bronze oak leaf cluster
""
"Legion of Merit with three oak leaf clusters
"" "Bronze Star
"" "Prisoner of War Medal
""Bronze star
""
"American Defense Service Medal with one "service star
"" "American Campaign Medal
""Bronze star
""Bronze star
""Bronze star
""Bronze star
""
"Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal with four "bronze stars
"" "World War II Victory Medal
""Bronze star
""
"National Defense Service Medal with one bronze star
""Silver star
""Bronze star
""
"Korean Service Medal with silver and bronze service stars
"" "Cheon-Su Medal
"" "Philippine Legion of Honor
"" AFP Long Service Medal
"" "Sam IL Medal
"" "Order of Military Merit (Brazil), Grand Cross
""Bronze star
""
"Philippine Defense Medal with one service star
""Bronze star
""
"Philippine Liberation Medal with one service star
"" "Philippine Independence Medal
"" "United Nations Korea Medal
"" "Korean War Service Medal
""Bronze oak leaf cluster
""Bronze oak leaf cluster
""
"Army Presidential Unit Citation with two oak leaf clusters
"" "Philippine Republic Presidential Unit Citation (Army Version)
"" "Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citation (Army Version)

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Coldest Winter: America and the Korean War, "David Halberstam, p. 19, Hyperion, 2007
  2. ^ Parameters.To Change a War: General Harold K. Johnson and the PROVN Study, LEWIS SORLEY
  3. ^ Parameters.To Change a War: General Harold K. Johnson and the PROVN Study, LEWIS SORLEY
  4. ^ The Ia Drang Campaign 1965: A Successful Operational Campaign or Mere Tactical Failure?, Peter J. Schifferle (1994)
  5. ^ Parameters.To Change a War: General Harold K. Johnson and the PROVN Study, LEWIS SORLEY
  6. ^ Wood, David (30 August 2016). "Would The Military Obey Commander In Chief Trump? Probably.". "Huffington Post. Retrieved 30 August 2016. 
  7. ^ Corporal Lester Urban, cited in Halberstam, p.19
  8. ^ Halberstam, p. 19

External links[edit]

Military offices
Preceded by
"Earle G. Wheeler
"Chief of Staff of the United States Army
1964–1968
Succeeded by
"William C. Westmoreland
Preceded by
Harry Jacob Lemley, Jr.
"Commandant of the Command and General Staff College
1960–1963
Succeeded by
"Lionel C. McGarr
) )