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"Paja toquilla hatmaker, "Cuenca, "Ecuador
Canada's early fur trade was largely built on the fashion for "beaver hats in Europe, particularly "top hats. The steps in manufacturing hats are illustrated in this image from 1858.
Hat-maker making a felt hat

Hatmaking or millinery is the "design, manufacture and sale of "hats and head-ware. A person engaged in this trade is called a milliner or hatter.

Millinery is sold to women, men and children, though some definitions limit the term to women's hats.[1] Historically, milliners, typically female shopkeepers, produced or imported an inventory of garments for men, women, and children, including hats, shirts, cloaks, shifts, caps, neckerchiefs, and undergarments, and sold these garments in their millinery shop.

More recently, the term milliner has evolved to describe a person who designs, makes, sells or trims hats primarily for a female clientele.

The origin of the term is probably the Middle English milener, meaning an inhabitant of the city of "Milan or one who deals in items from Milan,[2] known for its fashion and clothing.



Many styles of headgear have been popular through history and worn for different functions and events. They can be part of uniforms or worn to indicate social status. Styles include the "top hat, hats worn as part of military uniforms, "cowboy hat, and "cocktail hat.

Notable hatters and milliners[edit]

This is a partial list of people who have had a significant influence on hatmaking and millinery.



"The Millinery Shop by Edgar Degas

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Milliner". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 2012-06-07. 
  2. ^ American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Third Edition
  3. ^ Bowler hat makes a comeback Telegraph (London). Retrieved 9 June 2012
  4. ^ Reynolds, William and Rich Rand (1995) The Cowboy Hat book. Pg 8 "ISBN "0-87905-656-8
  5. ^ Jones, Stephen & Cullen, Oriole (editor) (2009). Hats: An Anthology. V&A Publishing. "ISBN "1-85177-557-9. 
  6. ^ "Steele, Valerie (2010). The Berg Companion to Fashion. Berg. pp. 72–73. "ISBN "1847885926. Retrieved 9 June 2012. 
  7. ^ "John Boyd". The FMD - 
  8. ^ "Mr. John, 91, Hat Designer for Stars and Society". 29 June 1993. 
  9. ^ Biography of Stephen Jones on the V&A Museum website, accessed 1 April 2009
  10. ^ "Hillier, Bevis (13 October 1985). "Hat Trick". "LA Times. Retrieved 24 January 2013. 

External links[edit]

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