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The charts below show the way in which the "International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents "Polish language pronunciations in "Wikipedia articles.

All "voiced "obstruents /b, d, ɡ, v, z, ʐ, ʑ, dʐ, dʑ/ are devoiced (so /d/ becomes ["t], etc.) "at the ends of words and "in clusters ending in any unvoiced obstruents /p, t, k, f, s, x, ʂ, ɕ, tʂ, tɕ/. Voiceless obstruents are voiced (/x/ becoming ["ɣ], etc.) in clusters ending in any voiced obstruent except /v, ʐ/, which are then themselves devoiced.

See "Polish phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Polish.

"Consonants
"IPA "Polish Example English approximation
"b b bardzo bike
"ɕ ś, s(i)[1] Jaś she
"d d dawno door
"dz[2] dz dzban beds
"[2] dź, dz(i)[1] dziadek jeep[3]
" [2] akarta jug[3]
"f f foka feist
"ɡ g grać girl
"ɡʲ g(i)[1] Gienek argue
"ɣ ch, h niechby roughly like go but without completely blocking air flow on the g
"j j, i[1] jak yes
"[4] ń koń voice
"k k krowa scam
" k(i)[1] kierowca skew
"l l lampa lion
"m m[5] morze mile
"n n[5] nad Nile
"ɲ ń, n(i)[5][1] nie canyon
"ŋ[6] n[5] bank bank
"p p policja spike
"r r różowy "rolled r like Italian Roma
"s s smak sign
"ʂ sz szybko shore[3]
"t t tak stow
"[2] ć, c(i)[1] cierpki cheer[3]
"ts[2] c całkiem cats
"[2] cz czy child[3]
"v w wartość vile
"w[7] "ł ładny way
"x ch, h chleb ("Scottish) loch
" ch(i), h(i)[1] hiacynt huge
"z z zebra zebra
"ʑ ź, z(i)[1] ziarno vision, azure[3]
"ʐ ż, rz rzadko
"Vowels
"IPA "Polish Example English approximation
"a a tam father
"ɛ e krem bet
"ɛ̃ "ę[5] kęs French vin
"i i[1] piwo eat
"ɨ y my roses
"ɔ o rok rock
"ɔ̃ "ą[5] wąs French son
"u u, "ó duży boot
Other symbols used for Polish
IPA Explanation
"ˈ Primary stress (placed before the stressed syllable), usually the penultimate syllable of a word.
"ˌ Secondary stress (placed before the stressed syllable).
". Syllable break.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j The letter ⟨i⟩, when it is followed by a vowel, represents a pronunciation like a ⟨j⟩ or a "soft" pronunciation of the preceding consonant (so pies is pronounced as if it were spelt ⟨pjes⟩). It has the same effect as an "acute accent on alveolar consonants (⟨s⟩, ⟨z⟩, ⟨c⟩, ⟨dz⟩, ⟨n⟩) so się, cios and niania are pronounced as if they were spelt ⟨śę⟩, ⟨ćos⟩, ⟨ńańa⟩. A following ⟨i⟩ also softens consonants when it is itself pronounced as a vowel: zima, ci and dzisiaj are pronounced as if they were spelled ⟨źima⟩, ⟨ći⟩, ⟨dźiśaj⟩.
  2. ^ a b c d e f The "affricates /ts, dz, tɕ, dʑ, tʂ, dʐ/) may be written more precisely with "ligature ties: /t͡s, d͡z, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ʂ, d͡ʐ/, but they are omitted in transcriptions as they do not display correctly in all browsers. Nonetheless, Polish contrasts affricates with stop–fricative clusters: for example, czysta ""About this sound [ˈt͡ʂɨsta]  "clean" versus trzysta ""About this sound [ˈtʂɨsta] "three hundred".
  3. ^ a b c d e f Polish makes contrasts between "retroflex and "alveolo-palatal consonants, both of which sound like the English postalveolars /ʃ, ʒ, tʃ, dʒ/. The retroflex sounds are pronounced "hard", with the tip of the tongue approaching the "alveolar ridge and the blade of the tongue somewhat lowered, and the alveolo-palatal sounds are "soft", realized with the middle of the tongue raised, adding a bit of an ⟨ee⟩ sound to them.
  4. ^ Allophone of /ɲ/ in coda position or before "fricatives.
  5. ^ a b c d e f The letters ⟨"ą⟩ and ⟨"ę⟩ represent the "nasal vowels /ɔ̃, ɛ̃/ except when they are followed by a "stop or "affricate, when they represent oral vowels /ɔ, ɛ/ followed by a "nasal consonant "homorganic with the following stop or affricate: kąt [ˈkɔnt], gęba [ˈɡɛmba], ręka [ˈrɛŋka], piszący [piˈʂɔnt͡sɨ], pieniądze [pjɛˈɲɔnd͡zɛ], pięć [ˈpjɛɲt͡ɕ], jęczy [ˈjɛnt͡ʂɨ] (as if spelled *kont, *gemba, *renka, *piszoncy, *pieńondze, *pieńć, *jenczy).
  6. ^ Allophone of /n/ before a "velar /ɡ, k, x/.
  7. ^ The traditional pronunciation ["ɫ] is still found in a minority of speakers.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

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