Kissinger's involvement in "Indochina started prior to his appointment as National Security Adviser to Nixon. While still at Harvard, he had worked as a consultant on foreign policy to both the "White House and State Department. Kissinger says that "In August 1965 ... ["Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr.], an old friend serving as "Ambassador to Saigon, had asked me to visit Vietnam as his consultant. I toured Vietnam first for two weeks in October and November 1965, again for about ten days in July 1966, and a third time for a few days in October 1966 ... Lodge gave me a free hand to look into any subject of my choice". He became convinced of the meaninglessness of military victories in Vietnam, "... unless they brought about a political reality that could survive our ultimate withdrawal". In a 1967 peace initiative, he would mediate between Washington and "Hanoi.
Nixon had been elected in 1968 on the promise of achieving "peace with honor" and ending the Vietnam War. In office, and assisted by Kissinger, Nixon implemented a policy of "Vietnamization that aimed to gradually withdraw U.S. troops while expanding the combat role of the "South Vietnamese Army so that it would be capable of independently defending its government against the "National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam, a Communist guerrilla organization, and North Vietnamese army ("Vietnam People's Army or PAVN). Kissinger played a key role in "bombing Cambodia to disrupt PAVN and Viet Cong units launching raids into South Vietnam from within Cambodia's borders and resupplying their forces by using the "Ho Chi Minh trail and other routes, as well as the 1970 "Cambodian Incursion and subsequent widespread bombing of "Khmer Rouge targets in Cambodia. The bombing campaign contributed to the chaos of the "Cambodian Civil War, which saw the forces of leader "Lon Nol unable to retain foreign support to combat the growing Khmer Rouge insurgency that would overthrow him in 1975. Documents uncovered from the Soviet archives after 1991 reveal that the North Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia in 1970 was launched at the explicit request of the Khmer Rouge and negotiated by "Pol Pot's then second in command, "Nuon Chea. The American bombing of Cambodia resulted in 40,000-150,000 deaths from 1969 to 1973, including at least 5,000 civilians. Kissinger himself said there were about 50,000 civilian casualties in the bombing. Pol Pot biographer "David P. Chandler argues that the bombing "had the effect the Americans wanted—it broke the Communist encirclement of "Phnom Penh." However, Ben Kiernan and Taylor Owen suggest that "the bombs drove ordinary Cambodians into the arms of the Khmer Rouge, a group that seemed initially to have slim prospects of revolutionary success."
Along with "North Vietnamese Politburo Member "Le Duc Tho, Kissinger was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize on December 10, 1973, for their work in negotiating the ceasefires contained in the "Paris Peace Accords on "Ending the War and Restoring Peace in Vietnam", signed the previous January. According to "Irwin Abrams, this prize was the most controversial to date. For the first time in the history of the Peace Prize, two members left the Nobel Committee in protest. Tho rejected the award, telling Kissinger that peace had not been restored in South Vietnam. Kissinger wrote to the Nobel Committee that he accepted the award "with humility," and "donated the entire proceeds to the children of American servicemembers killed or missing in action in Indochina." After the "Fall of Saigon in 1975, Kissinger attempted to return the award.
Under Kissinger's guidance, the United States government supported Pakistan in the "Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971. Kissinger was particularly concerned about the expansion of Soviet influence in South Asia as a result of a treaty of friendship recently signed by India and the "USSR, and sought to demonstrate to the People's Republic of China (Pakistan's ally and an enemy of both India and the USSR) the value of a tacit alliance with the United States.
Kissinger sneered at people who "bleed" for "the dying Bengalis" and ignored the first telegram from the United States consul general in East Pakistan, "Archer K. Blood, and 20 members of his staff, which informed the US that their allies West Pakistan were undertaking, in Blood's words, "a selective genocide". In the second, more famous, "Blood Telegram the word "genocide was again used to describe the events, and further that with its continuing support for West Pakistan the US government had "evidenced [...] moral bankruptcy". As a direct response to the dissent against US policy Kissinger and Nixon ended Archer Blood's tenure as United States consul general in East Pakistan and put him to work in the State Department's Personnel Office.
Henry Kissinger had also come under fire for private comments he made to Nixon during the Bangladesh–Pakistan War in which he described Indian Prime Minister "Indira Gandhi as a ""bitch" and a ""witch". He also said "The Indians are bastards", shortly before the war. Kissinger has since expressed his regret over the comments.
Israeli policy and Soviet Jewry
According to notes taken by "H. R. Haldeman, Nixon "ordered his aides to exclude all Jewish-Americans from policy-making on Israel", including Kissinger. One note quotes Nixon as saying "get K. [Kissinger] out of the play—"Haig handle it".
In 1973, Kissinger did not feel that pressing the Soviet Union concerning the plight of "Jews being persecuted there was in the interest of U.S. foreign policy. In conversation with Nixon shortly after a meeting with "Golda Meir on March 1, 1973, Kissinger stated, "The emigration of Jews from the Soviet Union is not an objective of American foreign policy, and if they put Jews into gas chambers in the Soviet Union, it is not an American concern. Maybe a humanitarian concern." Kissinger argued, however:
That emigration existed at all was due to the actions of "realists" in the White House. Jewish emigration rose from 700 a year in 1969 to near 40,000 in 1972. The total in Nixon's first term was more than 100,000. To maintain this flow by quiet diplomacy, we never used these figures for political purposes. ... The issue became public because of the success of our Middle East policy when Egypt evicted Soviet advisers. To restore its relations with Cairo, the Soviet Union put a tax on Jewish emigration. There was no Jackson–Vanik Amendment until there was a successful emigration effort. Sen. Henry Jackson, for whom I had, and continue to have, high regard, sought to remove the tax with his amendment. We thought the continuation of our previous approach of quiet diplomacy was the wiser course. ... Events proved our judgment correct. Jewish emigration fell to about a third of its previous high.
1973 Yom Kippur War
Documents show that Kissinger delayed telling President Richard Nixon about the start of the "Yom Kippur War in 1973 to keep him from interfering. On October 6, 1973, the Israelis informed Kissinger about the attack at 6 am; Kissinger waited nearly 3 and a half hours before he informed Nixon.
According to Kissinger, in an interview in November 2013, he was notified at 6:30 a.m. (12:30 pm. Israel time) that war was imminent, and his urgent calls to the Soviets and Egyptians were ineffective. He says Golda Meir's decision not to preempt was wise and reasonable, balancing the risk of Israel looking like the aggressor and Israel's actual ability to strike within such a brief span of time.
The war began on October 6, 1973, when "Egypt and "Syria attacked "Israel. Kissinger published lengthy telephone transcripts from this period in the 2002 book Crisis. On October 12, under Nixon's direction, and against Kissinger's initial advice, while Kissinger was on his way to Moscow to discuss conditions for a cease-fire, Nixon sent a message to "Brezhnev giving Kissinger full negotiating authority.
Israel regained the territory it lost in the early fighting and gained new territories from Syria and Egypt, including land in Syria east of the previously captured "Golan Heights, and additionally on the western bank of the "Suez Canal, although they did lose some territory on the eastern side of the Suez Canal that had been in Israeli hands since the end of the "Six Day War. Kissinger pressured the Israelis to "cede some of the newly captured land back to its Arab neighbors, contributing to the first phases of Israeli-Egyptian non-aggression. The move saw a warming in "U.S.–Egyptian relations, bitter since the 1950s, as the country moved away from its former independent stance and into a close partnership with the United States. The peace was finalized in 1978 when U.S. President "Jimmy Carter mediated the "Camp David Accords, during which Israel returned the "Sinai Peninsula in exchange for an Egyptian peace agreement that included the recognition of the state of Israel.
Turkish invasion of Cyprus
Following a period of steady relations between the U.S. Government and the "Greek military regime after 1967, Secretary of State Kissinger was faced with the coup by the Greek junta and the "Turkish invasion of Cyprus in July and August 1974. In an August 1974 edition of the "New York Times, it was revealed that Kissinger and State Department were informed in advance οf the impending coup by the Greek junta in "Cyprus. Indeed, according to the journalist, the official version of events as told by the State Department was that it felt it had to warn the Greek military regime not to carry out the coup. The warning had been delivered by July 9, according to repeated assurances from its "Athens services, that is, the U.S. embassy and the American ambassador "Henry J. Tasca himself.
Ioannis Zigdis, then a Greek MP for "Centre Union and former minister, stated in an Athenian newspaper that "the Cyprus crisis will become Kissinger's "Watergate". Zigdis also stressed: “Not only did Kissinger know about the coup for the overthrow of "Archbishop Makarios before July 15th, he also encouraged it, if he did not instigate it.”
Kissinger was a target of "anti-American sentiment which was a significant feature of Greek public opinion at the time—particularly among young people—viewing the U.S. role in Cyprus as negative. In a demonstration by students in "Heraklion, "Crete, soon after the second phase of the Turkish invasion in August 1974, slogans such as "Kissinger, murderer", "Americans get out", "No to Partition" and "Cyprus is no Vietnam" were heard.
Some years later, Kissinger expressed the opinion that the Cyprus issue was resolved in 1974, a position very similar to that held by Turkish prime minister "Bulent Ecevit, who had ordered the invasion.
Latin American policy
The United States continued to recognize and maintain relationships with non-left-wing governments, democratic and authoritarian alike. "John F. Kennedy's "Alliance for Progress was ended in 1973. In 1974, negotiations about a new settlement over the "Panama Canal started. They eventually led to the "Torrijos-Carter Treaties and the handing over of the Canal to Panamanian control.
Kissinger initially supported the normalization of "United States-Cuba relations, broken since 1961 (all U.S.–Cuban trade was blocked in February 1962, a few weeks after the exclusion of Cuba from the "Organization of American States because of U.S. pressure). However, he quickly changed his mind and followed Kennedy's policy. After the involvement of the "Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces in the independence struggles in "Angola and "Mozambique, Kissinger said that unless Cuba withdrew its forces relations would not be normalized. Cuba refused.
Intervention in Chile
Chilean "Socialist Party presidential candidate "Salvador Allende was elected by a "plurality of 36.2% in 1970, causing serious concern in Washington, D.C. due to his openly socialist and pro-Cuban politics. The Nixon administration, with Kissinger's input, authorized the "Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to encourage a "military coup that would prevent Allende's inauguration, but the plan was not successful.:115:495:177
"United States-Chile relations remained frosty during Salvador Allende's tenure, following the complete "nationalization of the partially U.S.-owned copper mines and the Chilean subsidiary of the U.S.-based "ITT Corporation, as well as other Chilean businesses. The U.S. claimed that the Chilean government had greatly undervalued fair compensation for the "nationalization by subtracting what it deemed "excess profits". Therefore, the U.S. implemented "economic sanctions against Chile. The CIA also provided funding for the mass anti-government strikes in 1972 and 1973, and extensive "black propaganda in the newspaper "El Mercurio.:93
The most expeditious way to prevent Allende from assuming office was somehow to convince the Chilean congress to confirm "Jorge Alessandri as the winner of the election. Once elected by the congress, Alessandri—a party to the plot through intermediaries—was prepared to resign his presidency within a matter of days so that new elections could be held. This first, nonmilitary, approach to stopping Allende was called the "Track I approach. The CIA's second approach, the "Track II approach, was designed to encourage a military overthrow.
On September 11, 1973, Allende died during a military coup launched by Army Commander-in-Chief "Augusto Pinochet, who became President. A document released by the CIA in 2000 titled "CIA Activities in Chile" revealed that the United States, acting through the CIA, actively supported the "military junta after the overthrow of Allende and that it made many of Pinochet's officers into paid contacts of the CIA or U.S. military.
In 1976, "Orlando Letelier, a Chilean opponent of the Pinochet regime, was "assassinated in Washington, D.C. with a car bomb. Previously, Kissinger had helped secure his release from prison, and had chosen to cancel a letter to Chile warning them against carrying out any political assassinations. The U.S. ambassador to Chile, "David H. Popper, said that Pinochet might take as an insult any inference that he was connected with assassination plots. It has been confirmed that Pinochet directly ordered the assassination. This murder was part of "Operation Condor, a covert program of political repression and assassination carried out by "Southern Cone nations that Kissinger has been "accused of being involved in.
On September 10, 2001, the family of Chilean general "René Schneider filed a suit against Kissinger, accusing him of collaborating in arranging Schneider's kidnapping which resulted in his death. According to phone records, Kissinger claimed to have "turned off" the operation. However, the CIA claimed that no such "stand-down" order was ever received, and he and Nixon later joked that an "incompetent" CIA had struggled to kill Schneider. A subsequent Congressional investigation found that the CIA was not directly involved in Schneider's death. The case was later dismissed by a U.S. District Court, citing separation of powers: "The decision to support a coup of the Chilean government to prevent Dr. Allende from coming to power, and the means by which the United States Government sought to effect that goal, implicate policy makers in the murky realm of foreign affairs and national security best left to the political branches." Decades later the CIA admitted its involvement in the kidnapping of General Schneider, but not his murder, and subsequently paid the group responsible for his death $35,000 "to keep the prior contact secret, maintain the goodwill of the group, and for humanitarian reasons."
Kissinger took a similar line as he had toward Chile when the Argentinian military, led by "Jorge Videla, toppled the elected government of "Isabel Perón in 1976 with a process called the "National Reorganization Process by the military, with which they consolidated power, launching brutal reprisals and ""disappearances" against political opponents. During a meeting with Argentinian foreign minister "César Augusto Guzzetti, Kissinger assured him that the United States was an ally, but urged him to "get back to normal procedures" quickly before the "U.S. Congress reconvened and had a chance to consider sanctions. According to declassified state department files, Kissinger also attempted to thwart the Carter Administration's efforts to halt the mass killings by the 1976-83 military dictatorship.
In September 1976 Kissinger was actively involved in negotiations regarding the "Rhodesian Bush War. Kissinger, along with South Africa's Prime Minister "John Vorster, pressured "Rhodesian Prime Minister "Ian Smith to hasten the transition to black "majority rule in Rhodesia. With "FRELIMO in control of Mozambique and even South Africa withdrawing its support, Rhodesia's isolation was nearly complete. According to Smith's autobiography, Kissinger told Smith of Mrs. Kissinger's admiration for him, but Smith stated that he thought Kissinger was asking him to sign Rhodesia's "death certificate". Kissinger, bringing the weight of the United States, and corralling other relevant parties to put pressure on Rhodesia, hastened the end of minority-rule.
The Portuguese decolonization process brought U.S. attention to the former Portuguese colony of "East Timor, which lies within the Indonesian archipelago and declared its independence in 1975. Indonesian president "Suharto was a strong U.S. ally in Southeast Asia and began to mobilize the Indonesian army, preparing to annex the nascent state, which had become increasingly dominated by the popular leftist "FRETILIN party. In December 1975, Suharto discussed the invasion plans during a meeting with Kissinger and President Ford in the Indonesian capital of "Jakarta. Both Ford and Kissinger made clear that U.S. relations with Indonesia would remain strong and that it would not object to the proposed "annexation. They only wanted it done "fast" and proposed that it be delayed until after they had returned to Washington. Accordingly, Suharto delayed the operation for one day. Finally on December 7 Indonesian forces invaded the former Portuguese colony. U.S. arms sales to Indonesia continued, and Suharto went ahead with the annexation plan. According to "Ben Kiernan, the invasion and occupation resulted in the deaths of nearly a quarter of the Timorese population from 1975 to 1981.
In February 1976 Kissinger considered launching air strikes against ports and military installations in Cuba, as well as deploying Marine battalions based at the US Navy base at "Guantanamo Bay, in retaliation for Cuban President "Fidel Castro's decision in late 1975 to send troops to "Angola to help the newly independent nation fend off attacks from "South Africa and right-wing guerrillas.
Kissinger left office when Democrat "Jimmy Carter defeated Republican Gerald Ford in the 1976 presidential elections. Kissinger continued to participate in policy groups, such as the "Trilateral Commission, and to maintain political consulting, speaking, and writing engagements.
Shortly after Kissinger left office in 1977, he was offered an endowed chair at "Columbia University. There was significant student opposition to the appointment, which eventually became a subject of wide media commentary. Columbia cancelled the appointment as a result.
Kissinger was then appointed to "Georgetown University's "Center for Strategic and International Studies. He taught at Georgetown's "Edmund Walsh School of Foreign Service for several years in the late 1970s. In 1982, with the help of a loan from the international banking firm of "E.M. Warburg, Pincus and Company, Kissinger founded a consulting firm, "Kissinger Associates, and is a partner in affiliate "Kissinger McLarty Associates with "Mack McLarty, former "chief of staff to President "Bill Clinton. He also serves on the board of directors of "Hollinger International, a Chicago-based newspaper group, and as of March 1999, was a director of "Gulfstream Aerospace.
From 1995 to 2001, Kissinger served on the board of directors for "Freeport-McMoRan, a "multinational copper and gold producer with significant mining and milling operations in "Papua, Indonesia. In February 2000, then-president of Indonesia "Abdurrahman Wahid appointed Kissinger as a political advisor. He also serves as an honorary advisor to the "United States-Azerbaijan Chamber of Commerce.
From 2000–2006, Kissinger served as chairman of the board of trustees of "Eisenhower Fellowships. In 2006, upon his departure from Eisenhower Fellowships, he received the Dwight D. Eisenhower Medal for Leadership and Service.
In November 2002, he was appointed by "President "George W. Bush to chair the newly established "National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States to investigate the "September 11 attacks. Kissinger stepped down as chairman on December 13, 2002 rather than reveal his business client list, when queried about potential conflicts of interest.
Kissinger—along with "William Perry, "Sam Nunn, and "George Shultz—has called upon governments to embrace the vision of a world free of nuclear weapons, and in three "Wall Street Journal "op-eds proposed an ambitious program of urgent steps to that end. The four have created the Nuclear Security Project to advance this agenda. In 2010, the four were featured in a documentary film entitled ""Nuclear Tipping Point". The film is a visual and historical depiction of the ideas laid forth in the Wall Street Journal op-eds and reinforces their commitment to a world without nuclear weapons and the steps that can be taken to reach that goal.
On 17 November 2016, Kissinger met with "President Elect "Donald Trump during which they discussed "China, Russia, Iran, the EU and other events and issues around the world".
Views on U.S. foreign policy
In several articles of his and interviews that he gave during the "Yugoslav wars, he criticized the United States' policies in "Southeast Europe, among other things for the recognition of Bosnia and Herzegovina as a sovereign state, which he described as a foolish act. Most importantly he dismissed the notion of "Serbs, and "Croats for that part, being aggressors or separatist, saying that "they can't be separating from something that has never existed". In addition, he repeatedly warned the West of inserting itself into a conflict that has its roots at least hundreds of years back in time, and said that the West would do better if it allowed the Serbs and Croats to join their respective countries. Kissinger shared similarly critical views on "Western involvement in "Kosovo. In particular, he held a disparaging view of the "Rambouillet Agreement:
The Rambouillet text, which called on Serbia to admit NATO troops throughout Yugoslavia, was a provocation, an excuse to start bombing. Rambouillet is not a document that any Serb could have accepted. It was a terrible diplomatic document that should never have been presented in that form.— Henry Kissinger, "Daily Telegraph, June 28, 1999
However, as the "Serbs did not accept the Rambouillet text and "NATO bombings started, he opted for a continuation of the bombing as NATO's credibility was now at stake, but dismissed the use of ground forces, claiming that it was not worth it.
In 2006, it was reported in the book "State of Denial by "Bob Woodward that Kissinger met regularly with President George W. Bush and Vice President "Dick Cheney to offer advice on the "Iraq War. Kissinger confirmed in recorded interviews with Woodward that the advice was the same as he had given in an August 12, 2005 column in "The Washington Post: "Victory over the insurgency is the only meaningful exit strategy."
In a November 19, 2006, interview on BBC "Sunday AM, Kissinger said, when asked whether there is any hope left for a clear military victory in Iraq, "If you mean by 'military victory' an Iraqi government that can be established and whose writ runs across the whole country, that gets the civil war under control and sectarian violence under control in a time period that the political processes of the democracies will support, I don't believe that is possible. ... I think we have to redefine the course. But I don't believe that the alternative is between military victory as it had been defined previously, or total withdrawal."
In an April 3, 2008, interview with Peter Robinson of the "Hoover Institution, Kissinger reiterated that even though he supported the "2003 invasion of Iraq he thought that the "George W. Bush administration rested too much of its case for war on Saddam's supposed weapons of mass destruction. Robinson noted that Kissinger had criticized the administration for invading with too few troops, for disbanding the Iraqi Army, and for mishandling relations with certain allies.
Kissinger said in April 2008 that "India has parallel objectives to the United States," and he called it an "ally of the U.S.
Kissinger was present at the opening ceremony of the "2008 Beijing Summer Olympics.
In 2011, Kissinger published "On China, chronicling the evolution of "Sino-American relations and laying out the challenges to a partnership of 'genuine strategic trust' between the U.S. and China.
Kissinger's position on this issue of U.S.–Iran talks was reported by the "Tehran Times to be that "Any direct talks between the U.S. and Iran on issues such as the nuclear dispute would be most likely to succeed if they first involved only diplomatic staff and progressed to the level of secretary of state before the heads of state meet."
2014 Ukrainian crisis
On March 5, 2014, The Washington Post published an "op-ed piece by Kissinger, 11 days before the "Crimean referendum on whether "Autonomous Republic of Crimea should officially rejoin in "Ukraine or join neighboring "Russia. In it, he attempted to balance the Ukrainian, Russian and Western desires for a functional state. He made four main points:
- Ukraine should have the right to choose freely its economic and political associations, including with Europe;
- Ukraine should not join NATO, a repetition of the position he took seven years before;
- Ukraine should be free to create any government compatible with the expressed will of its people. Wise Ukrainian leaders would then opt for a policy of reconciliation between the various parts of their country. He imagined an international position for Ukraine like that of "Finland.
- Ukraine should maintain sovereignty over Crimea.
Kissinger also wrote: "The west speaks Ukrainian; the east speaks mostly Russian. Any attempt by one wing of Ukraine to dominate the other—as has been the pattern—would lead eventually to civil war or break up."
Following the publication of his new book titled World Order, Kissinger participated in an interview with "Charlie Rose and updated his position on Ukraine, which he sees as a possible geographical mediator between Russia and the West. In a question he posed to himself for illustration regarding re-conceiving policy regarding Ukraine, Kissinger stated: "If Ukraine is considered an outpost, then the situation is that its eastern border is the NATO strategic line, and NATO will be within 200 miles (320 km) of "Volgograd. That will never be accepted by Russia. On the other hand, if the Russian western line is at the border of Poland, Europe will be permanently disquieted. The Strategic objective should have been to see whether one can build Ukraine as a bridge between East and West, and whether one can do it as a kind of a joint effort."
In December 2016, Kissinger advised "President-elect "Donald Trump to accept "Crimea as a part of Russia" in an attempt to secure a rapprochement between the United States and Russia, whose relations soured as a result of the Crimean crisis.
At the height of Kissinger's prominence, many commented on his wit. In February 1972, at the "Washington Press Club annual congressional dinner, "Kissinger mocked his reputation as a secret swinger." The insight, "Power is the ultimate aphrodisiac", is widely attributed to him, although Kissinger was paraphrasing "Napoleon Bonaparte. Some scholars have ranked Kissinger as the most effective U.S. Secretary of State in the 50 years to 2015. A number of activists and human rights lawyers, however, have sought his prosecution for alleged war crimes. According to historian and Kissinger biographer "Niall Ferguson, however, accusing Kissinger alone of war crimes "requires a double standard" because "nearly all the secretaries of state ... and nearly all the presidents" have taken similar actions.
Kissinger was interviewed in "Back Door Channels: The Price of Peace, a documentary examining the underpinnings of the 1979 peace treaty between Israel and Egypt. In the film, Kissinger revealed how close he felt the world came to nuclear war during the 1973 "Yom Kippur War launched by Egypt and Syria against Israel.
Attempts have been made to attach liability to Kissinger for injustices in American foreign policy during his tenure in government. In September 2001, relatives and survivors of General Rene Schneider, the former head of the Chilean general staff, commenced civil proceedings in Federal Court in Washington, DC, and, in April 2002, a petition for Kissinger's arrest was filed in the High Court in London by human rights campaigner Peter Tatchell, citing the destruction of civilian populations and the environment in Indochina during the years 1969-75. Both suits were determined to lack legal foundation and were dismissed before trial. British-American journalist and author "Christopher Hitchens authored "The Trial of Henry Kissinger, in which Hitchens calls for the prosecution of Kissinger "for war crimes, for crimes against humanity, and for offenses against common or customary or international law, including conspiracy to commit murder, kidnap, and torture". Critics on the right, such as "Ray Takeyh, have faulted Kissinger for his role in the Nixon administration's opening to China and secret negotiations with North Vietnam. Takeyh writes that while rapprochement with China was a worthy goal, the Nixon administration failed to achieve any meaningful concessions from Chinese officials in return, as China continued to support North Vietnam and various "revolutionary forces throughout the Third World," "nor does there appear to be even a remote, indirect connection between Nixon and Kissinger's diplomacy and the communist leadership's decision, after Mao's bloody rule, to move away from a communist economy towards state capitalism." On Vietnam, Takeyh claims that Kissinger's negotiations with Le Duc Tho were intended only "to secure a 'decent interval' between America's withdrawal and South Vietnam's collapse." Johannes Kadura offers a more positive assessment of Nixon and Kissinger's strategy, arguing that the two men "simultaneously maintained a Plan A of further supporting Saigon and a Plan B of shielding Washington should their maneuvers prove futile." According to Kadura, the "decent interval" concept has been "largely misrepresented," in that Nixon and Kissinger "sought to gain time, make the North turn inward, and create a perpetual equilibrium" rather than acquiescing in the collapse of South Vietnam, but the strength of the anti-war movement and the sheer unpredictability of events in Indochina compelled them to prepare for the possibility that South Vietnam might collapse despite their best efforts. Kadura concludes: "Without Nixon, Kissinger, and Ford's clever use of triangular diplomacy ... The Soviets and the Chinese could have been tempted into a far more aggressive stance" following the "U.S. defeat in Indochina" than actually occurred. In 2011, Chimerica Media released an interview-based documentary, titled Kissinger, in which Kissinger "reflects on some of his most important and controversial decisions" during his tenure as Secretary of State.
Kissinger's record was brought up during the "2016 Democratic Party presidential primaries. "Hillary Clinton had cultivated a close relationship with Kissinger, describing him as a "friend" and a source of "counsel." During the "Democratic Primary Debates, Clinton touted Kissinger's praise for her record as Secretary of State. In response, candidate "Bernie Sanders issued a critique of Kissinger's foreign policy, declaring: "I am proud to say that Henry Kissinger is not my friend. I will not take advice from Henry Kissinger."
Family and personal life
Kissinger married Ann Fleischer, with whom he had two children, Elizabeth and David. They divorced in 1964. Ten years later, he married "Nancy Maginnes. They now live in "Kent, Connecticut and "New York City. His son David Kissinger was an executive with "NBCUniversal before becoming head of "Conaco, "Conan O'Brien's production company.
He described "Diplomacy as his favorite game in a 1973 interview.
Kissinger was described as one of the most influential people in the growth of soccer in the United States. Kissinger was named chairman of the "North American Soccer League board of directors in 1978.
Since his childhood, Kissinger has been a fan of his hometown's "soccer club, "SpVgg Greuther Fürth. Even during his time in office he was informed about the team's results by the German Embassy every Monday morning. He is an honorary member with lifetime season tickets. In September 2012, Kissinger attended a home game in which SpVgg Greuther Fürth lost, 0–2, against "Schalke after promising years ago he would attend a Greuther Fürth home game if they were promoted to the "Bundesliga, the top football league in Germany, from the "2. Bundesliga. Kissinger is an honorary member of the German "soccer club "FC Bayern München.
Awards, honors, and associations
- Kissinger and "Le Duc Tho were jointly offered the 1973 "Nobel Peace Prize for their work on the "Paris Peace Accords which prompted the withdrawal of American forces from the "Vietnam war. (Le Duc Tho declined to accept the award on the grounds that such "bourgeois sentimentalities" were not for him" and that peace had not actually been achieved in Vietnam. Kissinger donated his prize money to charity, did not attend the award ceremony and would later offer to return his prize medal after the "fall of South Vietnam to North Vietnamese forces 18 months later.")
- In 1973, Kissinger received the U.S. Senator John Heinz Award for Greatest Public Service by an Elected or Appointed Official, an award given out annually by "Jefferson Awards.
- In 1976, Kissinger became the first honorary member of the "Harlem Globetrotters.
- On January 13, 1977, Kissinger received the "Presidential Medal of Freedom from President "Gerald Ford.
- In 1980, Kissinger won the "National Book Award in History[a] for the first volume of his "memoirs, The White House Years.
- In 1995, he was made an honorary "Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire.
- In 2000, Kissinger received the "Sylvanus Thayer Award at "United States Military Academy at West Point.
- In 2002, Kissinger became an honour member of the "International Olympic Committee.
- On March 1, 2012, Kissinger was awarded Israel's "President's Medal.
- In October 2013, Kissinger was awarded the "Henry A. Grunwald Award for Public Service by "Lighthouse International
- Kissinger was a member of the Founding Council of the "Rothermere American Institute, "University of Oxford.
- Kissinger is a member of the following groups:
- Kissinger is on the board of "Theranos, a health technology company
- He received the Theodore Roosevelt American Experience Award from the "Union League Club of New York in 2009.
Writings: major books
- 1979. The White House Years. "ISBN 0-316-49661-8 (National Book Award, History Hardcover)[a]
- 1982. Years of Upheaval. "ISBN 0-316-28591-9
- 1999. Years of Renewal. "ISBN 0-684-85571-2
- 1957. "A World Restored: Metternich, Castlereagh and the Problems of Peace, 1812–22. "ISBN 0-395-17229-2
- 1957. Nuclear Weapons and Foreign Policy. "ISBN 0-86531-745-3 (1984 edition)
- 1961. The Necessity for Choice: Prospects of American Foreign Policy. "ISBN 0-06-012410-5
- 1965. The Troubled Partnership: A Re-Appraisal of the Atlantic Alliance. "ISBN 0-07-034895-2
- 1969. "American Foreign Policy: Three Essays. "ISBN 0-297-17933-0
- 1981. For the Record: Selected Statements 1977–1980. "ISBN 0-316-49663-4
- 1985. Observations: Selected Speeches and Essays 1982–1984. "ISBN 0-316-49664-2
- 1994. "Diplomacy. "ISBN 0-671-65991-X
- 1999. Kissinger Transcripts: The Top Secret Talks With Beijing and Moscow (Henry Kissinger, William Burr). "ISBN 1-56584-480-7
- 2001. "Does America Need a Foreign Policy? Toward a Diplomacy for the 21st Century. "ISBN 0-684-85567-4
- 2002. Vietnam: A Personal History of America's Involvement in and Extrication from the Vietnam War. "ISBN 0-7432-1916-3
- 2003. Crisis: The Anatomy of Two Major Foreign Policy Crises: Based on the Record of Henry Kissinger's Hitherto Secret Telephone Conversations. "ISBN 0-7432-4910-0
- 2011. "On China (New York: Penguin Press, 2011). "ISBN 978-1-59420-271-1.
- 2014. World Order (New York: Penguin Press, September 9, 2014). "ISBN 978-1594206146.
- "Kissinger – Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved October 23, 2009.
- Feldman, Burton (2001). The Nobel Prize: A History Of Genius, Controversy, and Prestige. "Arcade Publishing. p. 16. "ISBN "978-1-55970-537-0.
- Bass, Gary (September 21, 2013). "Blood Meridian". "The Economist. Retrieved February 13, 2016.
- "The Best International Relations Schools in the World". "Foreign Policy. February 3, 2015. Retrieved August 8, 2015.
- Rohter, Larry (March 28, 2002). "As Door Opens for Legal Actions in Chilean Coup, Kissinger Is Numbered Among the Hunted". "The New York Times. "ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 14, 2015.
- "Protesters Heckle Kissinger, Denounce Him for 'War Crimes'". "The Times of Israel. January 30, 2015. Retrieved December 14, 2015.
- Nevius, James (February 13, 2016). "Does Hillary Clinton see that invoking Henry Kissinger harms her campaign?". The Guardian. Retrieved October 23, 2016. "[…] many consider Kissinger a war criminal, most famously Christopher Hitchens, who, in a lengthy two-part article for Harper’s in 2001 (later expanded into the book and documentary, The Trial of Henry Kissinger), laid out his case that Kissinger should be brought up on charges 'for war crimes, for crimes against humanity, and for offenses against common or customary or international law, including conspiracy to commit murder, kidnap, and torture'.
- "Isaacson, Walter (1992). Kissinger: A Biography. "Simon & Schuster. p. 20. "ISBN "978-0-671-66323-0.
- "Die Kissingers in Bad Kissingen" [The Kissinger in Bad Kissingen] (in German). Bayerischer Rundfunk. June 2, 2005. Archived from the original on October 18, 2007. Retrieved February 3, 2007.
- Hesse, Uli (February 17, 2012). "Go Furth and Conquer". "ESPN Soccernet. Retrieved May 3, 2012.
- "Bygone Days: Complex Jew. Inside Kissinger's soul". The Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on July 13, 2011. Retrieved September 4, 2008.
- Isaacson 1992, p. 37.
- Isaacson 1992, p. 38.
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- Isaacson 1992, p. 48.
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- "Henry Kissinger at Large, Part One". "PBS. January 29, 2004. Retrieved February 13, 2016.
- "PBK Famous Members". Depts.washington.edu. Retrieved 2017-03-17.
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- "Henry Kissinger – Biography". NobelPrize.org. Retrieved December 30, 2006.
- Kissinger, Henry (1957). Nuclear weapons and foreign policy. "Harper & Brothers. p. 455. "ISBN "0-393-00494-5.
- "Rothbard, Murray (May 1991). "Why the War? The Kuwait Connection". LewRockwell.com. Retrieved February 13, 2016.
- "History of the National Security Council, 1947–1997". White House. Retrieved December 30, 2006.
- "The Nobel Peace Prize 1973". "Nobel Foundation. Retrieved December 31, 2006.
- "The Nobel Peace Prize 1973 - Henry Kissinger, Le Duc Tho". NobelPrize.org. Retrieved March 15, 2015.
- Dube, Clayton. "Getting to Beijing: Henry Kissinger's Secret 1971 Trip". USC U.S.-China Institute. Retrieved July 21, 2011.
- Soley, Lawrence C. (1992). The News Shapers: The Sources who Explain the News. "Greenwood Publishing Group. p. ?.
- Kissinger, Henry A. (1979). White House Years. Boston: "Little, Brown and Company. pp. 231–32.
- Totten, Samuel; Parsons, William S.; Charny, Israel W. (2004). Century of Genocide: Critical Essays and Eyewitness Accounts. "Routledge. p. 349. "ISBN "978-0-415-94430-4. Retrieved October 16, 2009.
- Smyth, Marie; Robinson, Gillian (2001). Researching Violently Divided Societies: Ethical and Methodological Issues. "United Nations University Press. p. 93. "ISBN "978-92-808-1065-3. Retrieved October 16, 2009.
- Dmitry Mosyakov, "The Khmer Rouge and the Vietnamese Communists: A History of Their Relations as Told in the Soviet Archives", in Susan E. Cook, ed., Genocide in Cambodia and Rwanda (Yale Genocide Studies Program Monograph Series No. 1, 2004), p54ff. Available online at: www.yale.edu/gsp/publications/Mosyakov.doc "In April–May 1970, many North Vietnamese forces entered Cambodia in response to the call for help addressed to Vietnam not by Pol Pot, but by his deputy Nuon Chea. Nguyen Co Thach recalls: "Nuon Chea has asked for help and we have liberated five provinces of Cambodia in ten days."
- Marek Sliwinski, Le Génocide Khmer Rouge: Une Analyse Démographique (L’Harmattan, 1995), pp41-8.
- Kiernan, Ben (2004). How Pol Pot Came to Power: Colonialism, Nationalism, and Communism in Cambodia, 1930–1975. "Yale University Press. p. xxiii. "ISBN "978-0300102628. Retrieved February 12, 2016.
- Greenberg, Jon (September 11, 2014). "Kissinger: Drones have killed more civilians than the bombing of Cambodia in the Vietnam War". "Politifact.com. Retrieved February 13, 2016.
- Karen Coates and Jerry Redfern (September 18, 2014). Henry Kissinger is not telling the truth about his past. Again. "The Washington Post. Retrieved October 16, 2016.
- Chandler, David 2000, Brother Number One: A Political Biography of Pol Pot, Revised Edition, Chiang Mai, Thailand: Silkworm Books, pp. 96–7.
- Owen, Taylor; Kiernan, Ben. "Making More Enemies than We Kill? Calculating U.S. Bomb Tonnages Dropped on Laos and Cambodia, and Weighing Their Implications". The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus. 13 (16). Retrieved October 16, 2016.
- "Abrams, Irwin (2001). The Nobel Peace Prize and the Laureates: An Illustrated Biographical History, 1901–2001. Science History Pubns. p. 219. "ISBN "978-0-88135-388-4.
- Le Duc Tho to Henry Kissinger, October 27, 1973.
- "The Nobel Peace Prize 1973: Presentation Speech by Mrs. Aase Lionaes, Chairman of the Nobel Committee of the Norwegian Storting". "Nobel Foundation. December 10, 1973. Retrieved April 28, 2007.
In his letter of November 2 to the Nobel Committee Henry Kissinger expresses his deep sense of this obligation. In the letter he writes among other things: 'I am deeply moved by the award of the Nobel Peace Prize, which I regard as the highest honor one could hope to achieve in the pursuit of peace on this earth. When I consider the list of those who have been so honored before me, I can only accept this award with humility.' ... This year Henry Kissinger was appointed Secretary-of-State in the United States. In his letter to the Committee he writes as follows: 'I greatly regret that because of the press of business in a world beset by recurrent crisis I shall be unable to come to Oslo on December 10 for the award ceremony. I have accordingly designated Ambassador Byrne to represent me on that occasion.'
- "Lundestad, Geir (March 15, 2001). "The Nobel Peace Prize 1901–2000". "Nobel Foundation. Retrieved December 31, 2006.
- Dommen, Arthur (2002). The Indochinese Experience of the French and the Americans: Nationalism and Communism in Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam. Indiana University Press. p. 878. "ISBN "9780253109255.
- Takeyh, Ray (2016-06-13). "The Perils of Secret Diplomacy". "The Weekly Standard. Retrieved 2016-06-28.
- "The Tilt: The U.S. and the South Asian Crisis of 1971". National Security Archive. December 16, 2002. Retrieved December 30, 2006.
- Bass, Gary (September 29, 2013). "Nixon and Kissinger's Forgotten Shame". The New York Times. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
- Dymond, Jonny (December 11, 2011). "The Blood Telegram". BBC Radio. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
- "Selective Genocide" (PDF). Retrieved March 12, 2015.
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- Bass, Gary (April 23, 2014). "The act of defiance that infuriated Henry Kissinger". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved April 23, 2014.
- Keefer, Edward C.; Smith, Louis J. (2005). "150. Conversation Among President Nixon, the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger), and the President's Chief of Staff (Haldeman), Washington, November 5, 1971, 8:15–9:00 am". Foreign Relations, 1969–1976. U.S. Department of State. E–7 (19). Retrieved December 30, 2006.
- "Kissinger regrets India comments". BBC. July 1, 2005. Retrieved December 15, 2006.
- "Chait, Jonathan (December 10, 2010) Nixon Disallowed Jewish Advisors From Discussing Israel Policy, "The New Republic
- Nagourney, Adam (December 10, 2010). "In Tapes, Nixon Rails About Jews and Blacks". The New York Times.
- Kissinger, Henry. "Putting The Nixon Tape In Context". The Washington Post. December 26, 2010.
- "Book says Kissinger delayed telling Nixon about Yom Kippur War". Haaretz. Reuters. April 3, 2007. Retrieved November 9, 2012.
- Laor, Yitzhak (November 2, 2013). "Kissinger wants Israel to know: The U.S. saved you during the 1973 war". "Haaretz. Retrieved February 15, 2014.
- Siniver, Asaf (2008). Nixon, Kissinger, and U.S. Foreign Policy Making; The Machinery of Crisis. New York: Cambridge. p. 188. "ISBN "978-0-521-89762-4.
- Article republished on the front page of the Greek newspaper "To Vima, issue of Fr. August 2, 1974, article "The Americans knew there was plan to overthrow Makarios" [Οἱ Ἀμερικανοί ἐγνώριζον ὅτι ἑτοιμάζετο ἀνατροπή τοῦ Μακαρίου στήν Κύπρο] (photo-reprint in the book series "To Vima- 90 years", Lambrakis Press 2012, volume XI "1972-1981")
- Front page of the Greek newspaper "To Vima, issue of Sa. August 17, 1974, articles "Τhe Cyprus crisis is Kissinger's Watergate" [Τό Κυπριακό εἶναι το Γουώτεργκέητ τοῦ κ. Κίσσινγκερ] and "Anti-American youth demonstration in Thessaloniki and Heraklion" [Ἀντιαμερικανική διαδήλωσις νέων εἰς τήν Θεσσαλονίκην και εἰς τό Ἡράκλειον] (photo-reprint in the book series "To Vima- 90 years", as above).
- ""To Vima" (August 17, 1974) original text passages on the demonstrations: Θεσσαλονίκη 16 Αὐγούστου. Σιωπηρά ἀντιαμερικανική διαδήλωση ἐπραγματοποίησαν σήμερα Κύπριοι φοιτηταί τοῦ Πανεπιστημόυ Θεσσαλονίκης [...]περίπου 150 διελήθησαν ἀργότερον ἡσύχως.[...] Ἡράκλειον 16 Αὐγούστου. Οἱ διαδηλωταί φέροντες ἑληνικάς σημαίας καί εἰκόνας τοῦ Καραμανλῆ καί τοῦ Μακαρίου περιήρχοντο μέχρις ἀργά τό βράδυ [...] κραυγάζοντες συνθήματα ὅπως "Δολοφόνε Κίσσινγκερ", "Ἔξω οἱ Ἀμερικανοί", " Ὄχι διχοτόμηση", "Ζήτω ὁ Καρμανλῆς", "Ἑνωμένοι Ἕλληνες", "Συμπαράσταση Λαέ", "Ὄχι ἡ Κύπρος Βιετνάμ". [...] ὑπολογίζονται δε εἰς 5.000"
- Mallinson, William M. (2011). Cyprus: A Historical Overview (PDF). Republic of Cyprus. Retrieved February 13, 2016.
- "Church Report". U.S. Department of State. December 18, 1975. Retrieved November 20, 2006.
- Alleged Assassination Plots Involving Foreign Leaders (1975), "Church Committee, pages 246–247 and 250–254.
- "Kornbluh, Peter (2003). "The Pinochet File: A Declassified Dossier on Atrocity and Accountability. New York: "The New Press. "ISBN "1-56584-936-1.
- Kinzer, Stephen (2006). Overthrow: America's Century of Regime Change from Hawaii to Iraq. New York: Times Books. "ISBN "978-0-8050-8240-1.
- Pike, John. "Allende's Leftist Regime". Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved November 20, 2006.
- Peter Kornbluh, CIA Acknowledges Ties to Pinochet’s Repression Report to Congress Reveals U.S. Accountability in Chile, Chile Documentation Project, National Security Archive, September 19, 2000. Retrieved November 26, 2006.
- Binder, David (September 22, 1976). "Opponent of Chilean Junta Slain in Washington by Bomb in His Auto". The New York Times. Retrieved April 10, 2010.
- "Cable Ties Kissinger to Chile Scandal". "Associated Press on "Boston.com. April 10, 2010. Retrieved August 14, 2014.
As secretary of state, Henry Kissinger cancelled a U.S. warning against carrying out international political assassinations that was to have gone to Chile and two neighboring nations just days before a former ambassador was killed by Chilean agents on Washington's Embassy Row in 1976, a newly released State Department cable shows.
- Yost, Pete (April 10, 2010). "Cable ties Kissinger to Chile controversy". "Boston Globe.
- "Pinochet directly ordered killing on US soil of Chilean diplomat, papers reveal". "The Guardian. October 8, 2015. Retrieved February 13, 2016.
- "Greg Grandin. Kissinger's Shadow: The Long Reach of America's Most Controversial Statesman Metropolitan Books, 2015. p. 151. "ISBN 1627794492
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- "John Dinges. The Condor Years: How Pinochet And His Allies Brought Terrorism To Three Continents. "The New Press, 2005. p. 157. "ISBN 1565849779
- "Greg Grandin. Kissinger's Shadow: The Long Reach of America's Most Controversial Statesman Metropolitan Books, 2015. p. 249. "ISBN 1627794492
- Horton, Scott (July 6, 2010). "The Case Against Kissinger Deepens, Continued". "Harper's Magazine. Retrieved February 12, 2016.
- Davis, Jeff (2008). Justice Across Borders: The Struggle for Human Rights in U.S. Courts. Cambridge University Press. p. 99. "ISBN "978-1139472456.
- "CIA Admits Involvement in Chile". "ABC News.
- "Dinges, John (2005). The Condor Years: How Pinochet And His Allies Brought Terrorism To Three Continents. "The New Press. p. 20. "ISBN "1565849779.
- Osorio, Carlos; Costar, Kathleen, eds. (August 27, 2004). "Kissinger to the Argentine Generals in 1976: 'If There Are Things That Have To Be Done, You Should Do Them Quickly'". "National Security Archive. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
- "Campbell, Duncan (December 5, 2003). "Kissinger Approved Argentinian 'Dirty War'". "The Guardian. Retrieved February 13, 2016.
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- Smith, Ian Douglas (2001). Bitter Harvest: The Great Betrayal and the Dreadful Aftermath. London: "Blake Publishing. "ISBN "1-903402-05-0. "OCLC 1676807.
- Burr, William; Evans, Michael L., eds. (December 6, 2001). "Ford, Kissinger and the Indonesian Invasion, 1975-76". "National Security Archive. Retrieved February 13, 2016.
Ford and Kissinger Gave Green Light to Indonesia's Invasion of East Timor, 1975: New Documents Detail Conversations with Suharto
- Agence France Press, "US Endorsed Indonesia's East Timor Invasion: Secret Documents", December 6, 2001
- Kiernan, Ben (2007). Genocide and resistance in Southeast Asia : documentation, denial & justice in Cambodia & East Timor (2nd pr. ed.). New Brunswick, NJ [u.a.]: Transaction Publ. p. 281. "ISBN "978-1412806695.
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- "Council of the Americas Member". Council of the Americas. Archived from the original on May 16, 2011. Retrieved May 3, 2011.
- "INVESTIGATING SEPT. 11". Pbs.org. October 24, 2012. Retrieved February 15, 2014.
- "Kissinger resigns as head of 9/11 commission". CNN Inside Politics. CNN. December 13, 2002. Retrieved August 7, 2006.
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- "Charlie Rose – A panel on the crisis in Bosnia". charlierose.com. November 28, 1994. Retrieved October 16, 2009.
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- "Bob Woodward: Bush Misleads On Iraq". CBS News. October 1, 2006. Archived from the original on December 3, 2006. Retrieved December 29, 2006.
- Woodward, Bob (October 1, 2006). "Secret Reports Dispute White House Optimism". The Washington Post. pp. A01. Retrieved December 29, 2006.
- Kissinger, Henry A. (August 12, 2005). "Lessons for an Exit Strategy". The Washington Post. pp. A19. Retrieved December 29, 2006.
- Marr, Andrew (November 19, 2006). "US Policy on Iraq". "Sunday AM. BBC. Retrieved December 29, 2006.
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- Juan Williams (August 12, 2008). "Pioneers of U.S.-China Relations Attend Olympics". NPR. Retrieved May 28, 2012.
Among the political luminaries attending the Beijing Olympics are Henry Kissinger and former President George H.W. Bush.
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- "Kissinger backs direct U.S. negotiations with Iran". The Tehran Times. September 27, 2008. Retrieved September 27, 2008. (Transcript of a "Bloomberg reportinterview.)
- Henry A. Kissinger (March 5, 2014). "Henry Kissinger: To settle the Ukraine crisis, start at the end". The Washington Post.
- Charlie Rose, PBS, September 2014.
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- Buncombe, Andrew (27 December 2016). "Henry Kissinger has 'advised Donald Trump to accept' Crimea as part of Russia". The Independent. New York. Retrieved 28 December 2016.
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- "Fareed Zakaria GPS: Islamic Infighting, Iran versus Saudi Arabia; Inside the Oil Kingdom; Kim Jong-Un's Quest for the H-Bomb; Interview with Niall Ferguson; Interview with Gary Kasparov.". CNN. January 10, 2016. Retrieved February 13, 2016.
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The three-day 26th Bilderberg Meeting concluded at a secluded cluster of shingled buildings in what was once a farmer's field. Zbigniew Brzezinski, President Carter's national security adviser, Swedish Prime Minister Thorbjorrn Falldin, former secretary of state Henry Kissinger and NATO Commander Alexander M. Haig Jr. were among 104 North American and European leaders at the conference.
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- 1973. Graubard, Stephen Richards, Kissinger: Portrait of a Mind. "ISBN 0-393-05481-0
- 1974. Kalb, Marvin L. and Kalb, Bernard, Kissinger, "ISBN 0-316-48221-8
- 1974. Schlafly, Phyllis, Kissinger on the Couch. Arlington House Publishers. "ISBN 0-87000-216-3
- 1983. Hersh, Seymour, The Price of Power: Kissinger in the Nixon White House, Summit Books. "ISBN 0-671-50688-9. (Awards: National Book Critics Circle, General Non-Fiction Award. Best Book of the Year: New York Times Book Review; Newsweek; San Francisco Chronicle)
- 2004. Hanhimäki, Jussi. The Flawed Architect: Henry Kissinger and American Foreign Policy. "ISBN 0-19-517221-3
- 2007. Kurz, Evi. Die Kissinger-Saga. "ISBN 978-3-940405-70-8
- 2009. Kurz, Evi. The Kissinger-Saga – Walter and Henry Kissinger. Two Brothers from Fuerth, Germany. London. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. "ISBN 978-0-297-85675-7.
- Ferguson, Niall (2015). Kissinger, 1923-1968: The Idealist. New York: Penguin Books. "ISBN "9781594206535.
- "Avner, Yehuda, The Prime Ministers: An Intimate Narrative of Israeli Leadership, 2010. "ISBN 978-1-59264-278-6
- Bass, Gary,The Blood Telegram: Nixon, Kissinger, and a Forgotten Genocide, 2013. "ISBN 0307700208
- "Benedetti, Amedeo, Lezioni di politica di Henry Kissinger. Linguaggio, pensiero ed aforismi del più abile politico di fine Novecento, Genova, Erga, 2005, "ISBN 88-8163-391-4
- Berman, Larry, No peace, no honor. Nixon, Kissinger, and Betrayal in Vietnam, New York, NY u.a.: "Free Press, 2001. "ISBN 0-684-84968-2.
- Dallek, Robert, Nixon and Kissinger: Partners in Power. HarperCollins, 2007. "ISBN 0-06-072230-4
- Graebner, Norman A. "Henry Kissinger and American Foreign Policy: A Contemporary Appraisal." Conspectus of History 1.2 (1975).
- "Grandin, Greg, Kissinger's Shadow: The Long Reach of America's Most Controversial Statesman. Metropolitan Books, 2015. "ISBN 978-1627794497
- Groth, Alexander J, Henry Kissinger and the Limits of Realpolitik, in: Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs V:I (2011)
- Hanhimäki, Jussi M., 'Dr. Kissinger' or 'Mr. Henry'? Kissingerology, Thirty Years and Counting', in: Diplomatic History, Vol. 27, Issue 5, pp. 637–76.
- "Hitchens, Christopher, "The Trial of Henry Kissinger, 2002. "ISBN 1-85984-631-9
- Klitzing, Holger, The Nemesis of Stability. Henry A. Kissinger's Ambivalent Relationship with Germany. Trier: WVT 2007, "ISBN 3-88476-942-1
- Shannon E. Mohan. "Memorandum for Mr. Bundy": Henry Kissinger as Consultant to the Kennedy National Security Council," Historian, 71,2 (2009), 234–257.
- Morris, Roger, Uncertain Greatness: Henry Kissinger and American Foreign Policy. Harper and Row, "ISBN 0-06-013097-0
- Qureshi, Lubna Z. Nixon, Kissinger, and Allende: U.S. Involvement in the 1973 Coup in Chile. "Lexington Books, 2009. "ISBN 0739126563
- Schmidt, Helmut, On Men and Power: A Political Memoir.1990. "ISBN 0-224-02715-8
- Schulzinger, Robert D. Henry Kissinger. Doctor of Diplomacy. New York: Columbia University Press, 1989. "ISBN 0-231-06952-9
- Shawcross, William, Sideshow: Kissinger, Nixon, and the Destruction of Cambodia (Revised edition October 2002) "ISBN 0-8154-1224-X.
- Suri, Jeremi, Henry Kissinger and the American Century (Harvard, Belknap Press, 2007), "ISBN 978-0-674-02579-0.
- Thornton, Richard C., The Nixon-Kissinger Years: Reshaping of America's Foreign Policy. 1989. "ISBN 0-88702-051-8
- Tucker, Nancy Bernkopf, Taiwan Expendable? Nixon and Kissinger Go to China, 2005. "ISBN 978-0-231-13565-8
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