|Henry M. Jackson|
|28th Chair of the "Democratic National Committee|
July 17, 1960 – January 21, 1961
|Preceded by||"Paul M. Butler|
|Succeeded by||"John Moran Bailey|
|"United States Senator
January 3, 1953 – September 1, 1983
|Preceded by||"Harry P. Cain|
|Succeeded by||"Daniel J. Evans|
|Member of the "U.S. House of Representatives
from "Washington's "2nd district
January 3, 1941 – January 3, 1953
|Preceded by||"Monrad Wallgren|
|Succeeded by||"Jack Westland|
|Born||Henry Martin Jackson
May 31, 1912
"Everett, "Washington, U.S.
|Died||September 1, 1983
Everett, Washington, U.S.
|Spouse(s)||Helen Hardin (m. 1961)|
|Education||"Stanford University ("BA)
"University of Washington, Seattle ("JD)
Henry Martin "Scoop" Jackson (May 31, 1912 – September 1, 1983) was an American politician who served as a "U.S. Representative (1941–1953) and "U.S. Senator (1953–1983) from the state of "Washington. A "Cold War liberal and "anti-Communist "Democrat, Jackson supported higher military spending and a hard line against the "Soviet Union, while also supporting social welfare programs, "civil rights, and labor unions.
Born in "Everett, Washington to "Norwegian immigrants, Jackson practiced law in Everett after graduating from the "University of Washington School of Law. He won election to Congress in 1940 and joined the Senate in 1953 after defeating incumbent Republican Senator "Harry P. Cain. Jackson supported the major civil rights of the 1960s and authored the "National Environmental Policy Act, which helped establish the principle of publicly analyzing environmental impacts. He co-sponsored the "Jackson–Vanik amendment, which denied normal trade relations to countries with restrictive emigration policies.
Jackson served as Chairman of the "Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources from 1963 to 1981. He was twice an unsuccessful candidate for the "Democratic presidential nomination, in "1972 and "1976. While still serving in the Senate, Jackson died in 1983.
His political beliefs were characterized by support of civil rights, human rights, and "safeguarding the environment, but with an equally strong commitment to oppose "totalitarianism in general, and "communism in particular. The political philosophies and positions of Scoop Jackson have been cited as an influence on a number of key figures associated with "neoconservatism, including "Paul Wolfowitz and "Richard Perle, both of whom previously served as aides to the Senator. The "Henry Jackson Society is named in his honor.
He was born in the home of his parents, Marine (Anderson) and Peter Jackson, in "Everett, Washington. Both parents were immigrants from "Norway. Peter Jackson was born Peter Gresseth, and changed his name when he immigrated. He met Marine at the Lutheran church in Everett, where they were married in 1897. Henry was the fifth and youngest of the Jackson children. Jackson was nicknamed "Scoop" by his sister in his childhood after a comic strip character that he was said to have resembled.
In 1935, the year of his law school graduation, he was admitted to the bar and began to practice law in Everett. He found immediate success and was elected to become the prosecuting attorney for "Snohomish County from 1938 to 1940, where he made a name for himself prosecuting bootleggers and gamblers.
In 1961, Jackson, called by "Time the Senate's "most eligible bachelor," married Helen Hardin, a 28-year-old Senate receptionist, but Jackson did not move out of his childhood home, where he lived with his unmarried sisters, for several years. The Jacksons had two children, Anna Marie Laurence and Peter Jackson; Peter was most recently a speechwriter for Governor "Christine Gregoire.
Jackson successfully ran for "Congress as a "Democrat in 1940 and took his seat in the House of Representatives with the "77th Congress on January 3, 1941. From then on, Jackson did not lose any congressional election.
Jackson joined the Army when the United States entered "World War II but left when "Franklin D. Roosevelt ordered all representatives to return home or resign their seats. He visited the "Buchenwald concentration camp a few days after its liberation in 1945. He attended the International Maritime Conference in "Copenhagen, "Denmark, in 1945 with the American delegation, and he was elected president of the same conference in 1946, when it was held in "Seattle, Washington. From 1945 to 1947, Jackson was also the chairman of the "Committee on Indian Affairs.
In the 1952 election, Jackson relinquished his seat in the House for a run for one of Washington's Senate seats. Jackson soundly defeated Republican Senator "Harry P. Cain and remained a senator for over thirty years. He was Washington's first U.S. Senator to be born in the state. Jackson died in office in 1983 after winning re-election for the fifth time in 1982.
Though Jackson opposed the excesses of "Joe McCarthy, who had traveled to Washington State to campaign against him, he also criticized "Dwight Eisenhower for not spending enough on national defense. Jackson called for more inter-continental ballistic missiles in the national arsenal, and his support for nuclear weapons resulted in a primary challenge from the left in 1958, when he handily defeated Seattle peace activist Alice Franklin Bryant before winning re-election with 67 percent of the vote, which he topped the next four times he ran for re-election.
During the 1960 Democratic presidential primary, Jackson was the first choice of fellow Senator "John F. Kennedy for a running mate, though JFK became convinced that a Southerner would better balance the ticket. "Lyndon Johnson was later selected.
In 1963, Jackson was made chairman of the "Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, which became the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources in 1977, a position he held until 1981. In the 1970s, Jackson joined with fellow senators "Ernest Hollings and "Edward Kennedy in a press conference to oppose President "Gerald Ford's request for Congress to end "Richard Nixon's price controls on domestic oil, which had provoked oil companies into withholding gasoline during the "1973 Oil Crisis.
Kaufman writes that after 1968, Jackson "emerged as an intellectual and political leader in the perennial struggle of U.S. foreign policy to reconcile ideals with self-interest."
Jackson authored the "National Environmental Policy Act, which has been called one of the most influential environmental laws in history. It helped to stimulate similar laws and the principle of publicly analyzed environmental impact in other states and in much of the world. Jackson was also a leader of the fight for statehood for "Alaska and Hawaii. In 1974, Jackson sponsored the "Jackson-Vanik amendment in the Senate (with "Charles Vanik sponsoring it in the House), which denied normal trade relations to certain countries with non-market economies that restricted the freedom of emigration. The amendment was intended to help refugees, particularly minorities, specifically Jews, to emigrate from the "Soviet Bloc. Jackson and his assistant, "Richard Perle, also lobbied personally for some people who were affected by this law such as "Anatoly (now Natan) Sharansky.
In March 1975, Jackson released a statement in which he expressed the view that it was paramount the Franklin Peroff case be found out to be either "an aberation or was symptomatic of much greater problem" within the Drug Enforcement Administration.
In June 1975, Jackson stated that if accounts about the conduct of former director of the Drug Enforcement Agency John R. Bartels Jr. were correct then his actions amounted to obstruction of justice and that evidence disclosed "in the last two days would indicate that there was a conscious, premeditated plan involving misconduct at the highest levels of the D.E.A."
In July 1977, the Senate approved a funding for the experimental nuclear reactor compromise proposal by Jackson and Idaho Senator "Frank Church. While the initial version by President Carter sought a decrease in funding from 150 million to 33 million, the Jackson and Church measure halved the funding to 75 million.
In 1979, after the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee voted in favor of the Alaska public lands legislation, President "Jimmy Carter issued a statement thanking Jackson and other members for supporting the legislation.
Jackson also led the opposition within the Democratic Party against the "SALT II treaty and was one of the leading proponents of increased foreign aid to Israel.
For decades, Democrats who support a strong international presence for the United States have been called "Scoop Jackson Democrats," and the term is still used to describe contemporary Democrats such as "Joe Lieberman and "R. James Woolsey, Jr.
Jackson served for all but the last three years of his Senate tenure with Democratic colleague "Warren G. Magnuson. As a result, he spent 28 years as the state's junior Senator, even though he had more seniority than all but a few of his colleagues. "Scoop" and "Maggie," as they affectionately called each other, gave Washington clout in national politics well beyond its population. They were one of the most effective delegations in the history of the Senate in terms of "bringing home the bacon" for their home state. Washington received nearly a sixth of public works appropriations but ranked only 23rd in population.
Jackson was known as a hawkish Democrat. He was often criticized for his support for the "Vietnam War and his close ties to the defense industries of his state. His proposal of "Fort Lawton as a site for an "anti-ballistic missile system was strongly opposed by local residents, and Jackson was forced to modify his position on the location of the site several times, but continued to support ABM development. American Indian rights activists who protested Jackson's plan to give Fort Lawton to Seattle, instead of returning it to local tribes, staged a "sit-in. In the eventual compromise, most of Fort Lawton became "Discovery Park, with 20 acres (8.1 ha) leased to "United Indians of All Tribes, who opened the "Daybreak Star Cultural Center there in 1977.
Opponents derided him as "the Senator from "Boeing" and a "whore for Boeing" because of his consistent support for additional military spending on weapons systems and accusations of wrongful contributions from the company; in 1965, 80% of Boeing's contracts were military. Jackson and Magnuson's campaigning for an expensive government "supersonic transport plane project eventually failed.
After his death, critics pointed to Jackson's support for "Japanese American internment camps during "World War II as a reason to protest the placement of "his bust at the University of Washington. Jackson was both an enthusiastic defender of the evacuation and a staunch proponent of the campaign to keep the Japanese-Americans from returning to the Pacific Coast after the war.
Jackson not only was successful as a politician in Washington State but also found recognition on the national level, rising to the position of chairman of the "Democratic National Committee in 1960 after he was considered for the vice presidential ticket spot that eventually went to fellow Senator "Lyndon Johnson.
Jackson ran for president twice, and both campaigns were noted for the hostile reception they received from the left wing of the Democratic Party. Jackson's one-on-one campaigning skills, which were so successful in Washington State, did not translate as well on the national stage. Even his supporters admitted that he suffered from a certain lack of charisma.
Jackson was little known nationally when he first ran in "1972. "George McGovern, who eventually won the nomination, even accused Jackson of racism for his opposition to "busing despite Jackson's longstanding record on civil rights issues. Jackson's high point in the campaign was a distant third in the early Florida primary, but he failed to stand out of the pack of better-known rivals, and he made real news only later in the campaign, as part of the "Stop McGovern" coalition, which raised what would be known as the "Acid, Amnesty and Abortion" questions about McGovern. Jackson suspended active campaigning in May after a weak showing in the Ohio primary and finishing well behind McGovern, "Ed Muskie, George Wallace, and "Hubert Humphrey in early primaries.
Jackson re-emerged at the August Democratic convention after the runner-up, Humphrey, dropped out of the race. Jackson's name was placed in nomination by "Georgia Governor "Jimmy Carter, and he finished second in the delegate roll call, well behind nominee McGovern.
Jackson raised his national profile by speaking out on Soviet-U.S. relations and Middle East policy regularly, and he was considered a front-runner for the nomination when he announced the start of his campaign in February 1975. Jackson received substantial financial support from Jewish-Americans who admired his pro-"Israel views, but his support of the Vietnam War resulted in hostility from the left wing of the Democratic Party.
Jackson chose to run on social issues, emphasizing law and order and his opposition to busing. He was hoping for support from labor, but the possibility that "Hubert Humphrey might enter the race caused unions to offer only lukewarm support.
Jackson made the fateful decision not to compete in the early Iowa caucus and New Hampshire primary, which Jimmy Carter won after liberals split their votes among four other candidates. Though Jackson won the Massachusetts and New York primaries, he dropped out on May 1 after losing the critical "Pennsylvania primary to Carter by 12% and running out of money.
Jackson died suddenly at the age of 71 in Everett of an "aortic aneurysm, shortly after giving a news conference condemning the Soviet attack on "Korean Air Lines Flight 007. News reports showed video of Jackson in which he was seen reflexively massaging the left side of his chest while talking and speculated that it was his reaction to an early symptom of the fatal attack.
He was greatly mourned; Senator "Daniel Patrick Moynihan stated, "Henry Jackson is proof of the old belief in the Judaic tradition that at any moment in history goodness in the world is preserved by the deeds of "36 just men who do not know that this is the role the Lord has given them. Henry Jackson was one of those men." Jackson is buried in Evergreen Cemetery in Everett.
Scoop Jackson was convinced that there's no place for partisanship in foreign and defense policy. He used to say, 'In matters of national security, the best politics is no politics.' His sense of bipartisanship was not only natural and complete; it was courageous. He wanted to be President, but I think he must have known that his outspoken ideas on the security of the Nation would deprive him of the chance to be his party's nominee in 1972 and '76. Still, he would not cut his convictions to fit the prevailing style.
I'm deeply proud, as he would have been, to have Jackson Democrats serve in my administration. I'm proud that some of them have found a home here.
Jackson believed that evil should be confronted with power. His support for "civil rights and equality at home, married to his opposition to "détente, his support for human rights and democratic allies, and his firm belief that the United States could be a force for good in the world inspired a legion of loyal aides who went on to propound Jackson's philosophy as part of neoconservatism. In addition to Richard Perle, neoconservatives "Paul Wolfowitz, "Elliott Abrams, Charles Horner, and "Douglas Feith were former Democratic aides to Jackson who, disillusioned with the Carter administration, supported "Ronald Reagan and joined his administration in 1981, later becoming prominent foreign policy makers in the 21st-century "Bush administration. Neoconservative "Ben Wattenberg was a prominent political aide to Jackson's 1972 and 1976 presidential campaigns. Wolfowitz has called himself a "Scoop Jackson Republican" on multiple occasions. Many journalists and scholars across the political spectrum have noted links between Senator Jackson and modern neoconservatism.
Jackson's influence on foreign policy has been cited as foundational to the "George W. Bush administration's foreign policy, and the "Iraq War. Jackson biographer Robert Kaufman says "There is no question in my mind that the people who supported Iraq are supporting Henry Jackson's instincts."
"Peter Beinart, author of The Good Fight: Why Liberals — and Only Liberals — Can Win the War on Terror and Make America Great Again, argues that the Democratic Party should return to Jackson's values in its foreign policy, criticizing current-day neoconservatives for failing to adopt Jackson's domestic policy views along with his foreign policy views.
In 2005, the "Henry Jackson Society was formed at the "University of Cambridge, England. The non-partisan British group is dedicated to "pursuit of a robust foreign policy ... based on clear universal principles such as the global promotion of the rule of law, liberal democracy, civil rights, environmental responsibility and the market economy" as part of "Henry Jackson's legacy." The organisation is now based in London and hosts high-profile speaker events in the "House of Commons.
In 2005, twenty-two years after his death, US government officials, including three members of the "Central Intelligence Agency, seized and removed several of Senator Jackson's archived documents housed at the "University of Washington. Though a team of the university's staff in 1983 removed all information considered "classified at the time, the officials were verifying anything still considered classified, or reclassified since then, had been removed. The documents are pending declassification at the University as of March 2005.
|Year||Democrat||Votes||Pct||Republican||Votes||Pct||3rd party||Party||Votes||Pct||3rd party||Party||Votes||Pct|
|"1952||Henry M. Jackson||595,288||56.23%||"Harry P. Cain||460,884||43.53%||Thomas C. Rabbitt||"Progressive||1,912||0.18%||Henry Killman||"Socialist Labor||651||0.06%|
|"1958||Henry M. Jackson||597,040||67.32%||William B. Bantz||278,271||31.38%||Henry Killman||"Socialist Labor||7,592||0.86%||Archie G. Idso||"Constitution||2,257||0.26%|
|"1964||Henry M. Jackson||875,950||72.21%||Lloyd J. Andrews||337,138||27.79%|
|"1970||Henry M. Jackson||879,385||82.43%||Charles W. Elicker||170,790||16.01%||William Massey||"Socialist Workers||9,255||0.87%||Edison Fisk||Buffalo||7,377||0.69%|
|"1976||Henry M. Jackson||1,071,219||71.84%||George M. Brown||361,546||24.25%||Dave Smith||"American Independent||28,182||1.89%||Richard K. Kenney||"Libertarian||19,373||1.30%|
|"1982||Henry M. Jackson||943,665||68.96%||Douglas Jewett||332,273||24.28%||"King Lysen||"Independent||72,297||5.28%||Jesse Chiang||"Independent||20,251||1.48%|
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|"U.S. House of Representatives|
|Member of the "U.S. House of Representatives
from "Washington's 2nd congressional district
|Party political offices|
|"Democratic nominee for "U.S. Senator from "Washington
"1952, "1958, "1964, "1970, "1976, "1982
"Paul M. Butler
|Chair of the "Democratic National Committee
"John Moran Bailey
Title last held by"Howard Baker, "George H. W. Bush, "Peter Dominick, "Gerald Ford, "Robert Griffin, "Thomas Kuchel, "Mel Laird, "Bob Mathias, "George Murphy, "Dick Poff, "Chuck Percy, "Al Quie, "Charlotte Reid, "Hugh Scott, "Bill Steiger, "John Tower
|"Response to the State of the Union address
Served alongside: "Donald Fraser, "Mike Mansfield, "John McCormack, "Patsy Mink, "Ed Muskie, "Bill Proxmire
"Harry P. Cain
|"United States Senator (Class 1) from Washington
Served alongside: "Warren G. Magnuson, "Slade Gorton
"Clinton P. Anderson
|Chair of the "Senate Interior Committee
|New office||Chair of the "Senate Energy Committee
"James A. McClure