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Heracles
Gatekeeper of Olympus
God of strength, heroes, sports, athletes, health, agriculture, fertility, trade, oracles and divine protector of mankind
""Hercules Farnese 3637104088 9c95d7fe3c b.jpg
One of the most famous depictions of Heracles, originally by "Lysippos (marble, Roman copy called Hercules Farnese, 216 CE)
Abode "Mount Olympus
Symbol "Club, "Nemean Lion, "bow and arrows
Personal Information
Born "Thebes, "Boeotia, "Greece
Died "Mount Oeta, "Phocis, "Greece
Consort "Hebe and various "others
Children "Alexiares and Anicetus, "Telephus, "Hyllus, "Tlepolemus
Parents "Zeus and "Alcmene
Siblings "Aeacus, "Angelos, "Aphrodite, "Apollo, "Ares, "Artemis, "Athena, "Eileithyia, "Enyo, "Eris, "Ersa, "Hebe, "Helen of Troy, "Hephaestus, "Hermes, "Minos, "Pandia, "Persephone, "Perseus, "Rhadamanthus, the "Graces, the "Horae, the "Litae, the "Muses, the "Moirai
Roman equivalent "Hercules

Heracles ("/ˈhɛrəklz/ "HERR-ə-kleez; "Ancient Greek: Ἡρακλῆς, Hēraklēs, from Hēra, ""Hera"), born Alcaeus[1] (Ἀλκαῖος, Alkaios) or Alcides[2] (Ἀλκείδης, Alkeidēs), was a "divine hero in "Greek mythology, the son of "Zeus and "Alcmene, foster son of "Amphitryon[3] and great-grandson and half-brother (as they are both sired by the god "Zeus) of "Perseus. He was the greatest of the Greek heroes, a paragon of masculinity, the ancestor of royal clans who claimed to be "Heracleidae (Ἡρακλεῖδαι), and a champion of the "Olympian order against "chthonic monsters. In "Rome and the "modern "West, he is known as "Hercules, with whom the later "Roman emperors, in particular "Commodus and "Maximian, often identified themselves. The Romans adopted the Greek version of his life and works essentially unchanged, but added anecdotal detail of their own, some of it linking the hero with the geography of the Central Mediterranean. Details of his "cult were adapted to Rome as well.

Origin[edit]

Many popular stories were told of his life, the most famous being "The Twelve Labours of Heracles; "Alexandrian poets of the "Hellenistic age drew his mythology into a high poetic and tragic atmosphere.[4] His figure, which initially drew on Near Eastern motifs such as the lion-fight, was widely known.

Heracles was the greatest of Hellenic "chthonic heroes, but unlike other Greek heroes, no tomb was identified as his. Heracles was both hero and god, as "Pindar says heroes theos; at the same festival sacrifice was made to him, first as a hero, with a chthonic "libation, and then as a god, upon an altar: thus he embodies the closest Greek approach to a ""demi-god".[4] The core of the story of Heracles has been identified by "Walter Burkert as originating in Neolithic hunter culture and traditions of "shamanistic crossings into the netherworld.[5]

Hero or god[edit]

Heracles' role as a culture hero, whose death could be a subject of mythic telling (see below), was accepted into the "Olympian Pantheon during Classical times. This created an awkwardness in the encounter with "Odysseus in the episode of "Odyssey XI, called the "Nekuia, where Odysseus encounters Heracles in "Hades:

And next I caught a glimpse of powerful Heracles—
His ghost I mean: the man himself delights
in the grand feasts of the deathless gods on high...
Around him cries of the dead rang out like cries of birds
scattering left and right in horror as on he came like night..."[6]

Ancient critics were aware of the problem of the aside that interrupts the vivid and complete description, in which Heracles recognizes Odysseus and hails him, and modern critics find very good reasons for denying that the verses beginning, in Fagles' translation His ghost I mean... were part of the original composition: "once people knew of Heracles' admission to Olympus, they would not tolerate his presence in the underworld", remarks "Friedrich Solmsen,[7] noting that the interpolated verses represent a compromise between conflicting representations of Heracles.

Christian chronology[edit]

In Christian circles a "Euhemerist reading of the widespread Heracles cult was attributed to a historical figure who had been offered cult status after his death. Thus "Eusebius, "Preparation of the Gospel (10.12), reported that "Clement could offer historical dates for Hercules as a king in Argos: "from the reign of Hercules in "Argos to the deification of Hercules himself and of "Asclepius there are comprised thirty-eight years, according to "Apollodorus the chronicler: and from that point to the deification of "Castor and Pollux fifty-three years: and somewhere about this time was the capture of "Troy."

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Temple to Heracles in "Agrigento

Readers with a literalist bent, following Clement's reasoning, have asserted from this remark that, since Heracles ruled over "Tiryns in Argos at the same time that "Eurystheus ruled over "Mycenae, and since at about this time "Linus was Heracles' teacher, one can conclude, based on "Jerome's date—in his "universal history, his Chronicon—given to Linus' notoriety in teaching Heracles in 1264 BCE, that Heracles' death and deification occurred 38 years later, in approximately 1226 BCE.

Cult[edit]

The ancient Greeks celebrated the festival of the "Heracleia, which commemorated the death of Heracles, on the second day of the month of "Metageitnion (which would fall in late July or early August). What is believed to be an "Egyptian Temple of Heracles in the "Bahariya Oasis dates to 21 BCE. A reassessment of "Ptolemy's descriptions of the island of "Malta attempted to link the site at "Ras ir-Raħeb with a temple to Heracles,[8] but the arguments are not conclusive.[9] Several ancient cities were named "Heraclea in his honor.

Character[edit]

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Greek mythology influenced the "Etruscans. This vase at "Caere shows "King Eurytus of Oechalia and Heracles in a symposium. Krater of corinthian columns called 'Krater of Eurytion', circa 600 B.C.

Extraordinary strength, "courage, ingenuity, and sexual prowess with both males and females were among the characteristics commonly attributed to him. Heracles used his wits on several occasions when his strength did not suffice, such as when laboring for the king "Augeas of "Elis, wrestling the giant "Antaeus, or tricking "Atlas into taking the sky back onto his shoulders. Together with "Hermes he was the patron and protector of "gymnasia and "palaestrae.[10] His iconographic attributes are the "lion skin and the "club. These qualities did not prevent him from being regarded as a playful figure who used games to relax from his labors and played a great deal with children.[11] By conquering dangerous archaic forces he is said to have "made the world safe for mankind" and to be its benefactor.[12] Heracles was an extremely passionate and emotional individual, capable of doing both great deeds for his friends (such as wrestling with "Thanatos on behalf of Prince "Admetus, who had regaled Heracles with his hospitality, or restoring his friend "Tyndareus to the throne of "Sparta after he was overthrown) and being a terrible enemy who would wreak horrible vengeance on those who crossed him, as Augeas, "Neleus and "Laomedon all found out to their cost.

Mythology[edit]

Birth and childhood[edit]

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Heracles strangling "snakes (detail from an Attic red-figured stamnos, c. 480–470 BCE)

A major factor in the well-known tragedies surrounding Heracles is the hatred that the "goddess "Hera, wife of "Zeus, had for him. A full account of Heracles must render it clear why Heracles was so tormented by Hera, when there were many illegitimate offspring sired by Zeus. Heracles was the son of the affair Zeus had with the mortal woman "Alcmene. Zeus made love to her after disguising himself as her husband, "Amphitryon, home early from war (Amphitryon did return later the same night, and Alcmene became pregnant with his son at the same time, a case of heteropaternal "superfecundation, where a woman carries twins sired by different fathers).[13] Thus, Heracles' very existence proved at least one of Zeus' many illicit affairs, and Hera often conspired against Zeus' mortal offspring as revenge for her husband's infidelities. His twin mortal brother, son of Amphitryon, was "Iphicles, father of Heracles' charioteer "Iolaus.

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The Origin of the Milky Way by "Jacopo Tintoretto

On the night the twins Heracles and Iphicles were to be born, Hera, knowing of her husband Zeus' adultery, persuaded Zeus to swear an oath that the child born that night to a member of the House of "Perseus would become High King. Hera did this knowing that while Heracles was to be born a descendant of Perseus, so too was "Eurystheus. Once the oath was sworn, Hera hurried to Alcmene's dwelling and slowed the birth of the twins Heracles and Iphicles by forcing "Ilithyia, goddess of childbirth, to sit crosslegged with her clothing tied in knots, thereby causing the twins to be trapped in the womb. Meanwhile, Hera caused Eurystheus to be born prematurely, making him High King in place of Heracles. She would have permanently delayed Heracles' birth had she not been fooled by "Galanthis, Alcmene's servant, who lied to Ilithyia, saying that "Alcmene had already delivered the baby. Upon hearing this, she jumped in surprise, loosing the knots and inadvertently allowing Alcmene to give birth to Heracles and Iphicles.

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Heracles as a boy strangling a snake (marble, Roman artwork, 2nd century CE)

Fear of Hera's revenge led Alcmene to expose the infant Heracles, but he was taken up and brought to Hera by his half-sister "Athena, who played an important role as protectress of heroes. Hera did not recognize Heracles and nursed him out of pity. Heracles suckled so strongly that he caused Hera pain, and she pushed him away. Her milk sprayed across the heavens and there formed the Milky Way. But with divine milk, Heracles had acquired supernatural powers. Athena brought the infant back to his mother, and he was subsequently raised by his parents.

The child was originally given the name Alcides by his parents; it was only later that he became known as Heracles.[3] He was renamed Heracles in an unsuccessful attempt to mollify Hera. He and his twin were just eight months old when Hera sent two giant snakes into the children's chamber. Iphicles cried from fear, but his brother grabbed a snake in each hand and strangled them. He was found by his nurse playing with them on his cot as if they were toys. Astonished, Amphitryon sent for the seer "Tiresias, who prophesied an unusual future for the boy, saying he would vanquish numerous monsters.

Youth[edit]

After killing his music tutor "Linus with a "lyre, he was sent to tend cattle on a mountain by his foster father Amphitryon. Here, according to an allegorical "parable, "The Choice of Heracles", invented by the sophist "Prodicus (c. 400 BCE) and reported in "Xenophon's "Memorabilia 2.1.21–34, he was visited by two allegorical figures—Vice and Virtue—who offered him a choice between a pleasant and easy life or a severe but glorious life: he chose the latter. This was part of a pattern of "ethicizing" Heracles over the 5th century BCE.[14]

Later in "Thebes, Heracles married King "Creon's daughter, "Megara. In a fit of madness, induced by Hera, Heracles killed his children by Megara. After his madness had been cured with "hellebore by Antikyreus, the founder of "Antikyra,[15] he realized what he had done and fled to the "Oracle of Delphi. Unbeknownst to him, the Oracle was guided by Hera. He was directed to serve King "Eurystheus for ten years and perform any task Eurystheus required of him. Eurystheus decided to give Heracles ten labours, but after completing them, Heracles was cheated by Eurystheus when he added two more, resulting in the Twelve Labors of Heracles.

Labours of Heracles[edit]

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The fight of Heracles and the "Nemean lion is one of his most famous feats. (Side B from a black-figure Attic amphora, c. 540 BCE)
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His eleventh feat was to capture the apple of "Hesperides (Gilded bronze, Roman artwork, 2nd century CE)

Driven mad by Hera, Heracles slew his own children. To expiate the crime, Heracles was required to carry out ten labors set by his archenemy, "Eurystheus, who had become king in Heracles' place. If he succeeded, he would be purified of his sin and, as myth says, he would be granted immortality. Heracles accomplished these tasks, but Eurystheus did not accept the cleansing of the Augean stables because Heracles was going to accept pay for the labor. Neither did he accept the killing of the Lernaean Hydra as Heracles' nephew, "Iolaus, had helped him burn the stumps of the heads. Eurystheus set two more tasks (fetching the Golden Apples of Hesperides and capturing "Cerberus), which Heracles performed successfully, bringing the total number of tasks up to twelve.

Not all writers gave the labours in the same order. The "Bibliotheca (2.5.1–2.5.12) gives the following order:

  1. Slay the "Nemean Lion.
  2. Slay the nine-headed "Lernaean Hydra.
  3. Capture the "Golden Hind of Artemis.
  4. Capture the "Erymanthian Boar.
  5. Clean the "Augean stables in a single day.
  6. Slay the "Stymphalian Birds.
  7. Capture the "Cretan Bull.
  8. Steal the "Mares of Diomedes.
  9. Obtain the girdle of "Hippolyta, Queen of the "Amazons.
  10. Obtain the cattle of the monster "Geryon.
  11. Steal the apples of the "Hesperides (he had the help of Atlas to pick them after Hercules had slain "Ladon).
  12. Capture and bring back "Cerberus.

Further adventures[edit]

After completing these tasks, Heracles joined the "Argonauts in a search for the "Golden Fleece. He also fell in love with Princess "Iole of "Oechalia. "King Eurytus of Oechalia promised his daughter, "Iole, to whoever could beat his sons in an archery contest. Heracles won but Eurytus abandoned his promise. Heracles' advances were spurned by the king and his sons, except for one: Iole's brother "Iphitus. Heracles killed the king and his sons—excluding "Iphitus—and abducted Iole. Iphitus became Heracles' best friend. However, once again, Hera drove Heracles mad and he threw Iphitus over the city wall to his death. Once again, Heracles purified himself through three years of servitude—this time to Queen "Omphale of "Lydia.

Omphale[edit]

"Omphale was a queen or princess of "Lydia. As penalty for a murder, imposed by "Xenoclea, the "Delphic Oracle, Heracles was to serve as her slave for a year. He was forced to do women's work and to wear women's clothes, while she wore the skin of the "Nemean Lion and carried his "olive-wood club. After some time, Omphale freed Heracles and married him. Some sources mention a son born to them who is variously named. It was at that time that the "cercopes, mischievous wood spirits, stole Heracles' weapons. He punished them by tying them to a stick with their faces pointing downward.

Hylas[edit]

While walking through the wilderness, Heracles was set upon by the "Dryopes. In "Apollonius of Rhodes' "Argonautica it is recalled that Heracles had mercilessly slain their king, "Theiodamas, over one of the latter's bulls, and made war upon the Dryopes "because they gave no heed to justice in their lives".[16] After the death of their king, the Dryopes gave in and offered him Prince "Hylas. He took the youth on as his weapons bearer and beloved. Years later, Heracles and Hylas joined the crew of the "Argo. As Argonauts, they only participated in part of the journey. In "Mysia, Hylas was kidnapped by the nymphs of a local spring. Heracles, heartbroken, searched for a long time but Hylas had fallen in love with the nymphs and never showed up again. In other versions, he simply drowned. Either way, the Argo set sail without them.

Rescue of Prometheus[edit]

"Hesiod's "Theogony and "Aeschylus' "Prometheus Unbound both tell that Heracles shot and killed the eagle that tortured "Prometheus (which was his punishment by Zeus for stealing fire from the gods and giving it to mortals). Heracles freed the "Titan from his chains and his torments. Prometheus then made predictions regarding further deeds of Heracles.

Heracles' constellation[edit]

On his way back to "Mycenae from "Iberia, having obtained the Cattle of "Geryon as his "tenth labour, Heracles came to "Liguria in North-Western "Italy where he engaged in battle with two giants, "Albion and "Bergion or Dercynus, sons of "Poseidon. The opponents were strong; Hercules was in a difficult position so he prayed to his father "Zeus for help. Under the aegis of Zeus, Heracles won the battle. It was this kneeling position of Heracles when he prayed to his father Zeus that gave the name "Engonasin ("Εγγόνασιν", derived from "εν γόνασιν"), meaning "on his knees" or "the Kneeler", to the constellation known as "Heracles' constellation. The story, among others, is described by "Dionysius of Halicarnassus.[17]

Heracles' sack of Troy[edit]

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A fresco from "Herculaneum depicting Heracles and "Achelous from "Greco-"Roman mythology, 1st century AD

Before "Homer's Trojan War, Heracles had made an expedition to Troy and sacked it. Previously, Poseidon had sent a sea monster to attack "Troy. The story is related in several digressions in the Iliad (7.451–453, 20.145–148, 21.442–457) and is found in pseudo-Apollodorus' "Bibliotheke (2.5.9). This expedition became the theme of the Eastern pediment of the "Temple of Aphaea. "Laomedon planned on sacrificing his daughter "Hesione to Poseidon in the hope of appeasing him. Heracles happened to arrive (along with "Telamon and "Oicles) and agreed to kill the monster if Laomedon would give him the horses received from Zeus as compensation for Zeus' kidnapping "Ganymede. Laomedon agreed. Heracles killed the monster, but Laomedon went back on his word. Accordingly, in a later expedition, Heracles and his followers attacked Troy and sacked it. Then they slew all Laomedon's sons present there save "Podarces, who was renamed Priam, who saved his own life by giving Heracles a golden veil Hesione had made. Telamon took Hesione as a war prize; they were married and had a son, "Teucer.

Other adventures[edit]

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Heracles killing the giant, "Antaeus

Death[edit]

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Death of Hercules (painting by "Francisco de Zurbarán, 1634, Museo del Prado)

This is described in "Sophocles's "Trachiniae and in "Ovid's "Metamorphoses Book IX. Having wrestled and defeated "Achelous, god of the Acheloos river, Heracles takes "Deianira as his wife. Travelling to "Tiryns, a "centaur, "Nessus, offers to help Deianira across a fast flowing river while Heracles swims it. However, Nessus is true to the archetype of the mischievous centaur and tries to steal Deianira away while Heracles is still in the water. Angry, Heracles shoots him with his arrows dipped in the poisonous blood of the "Lernaean Hydra. Thinking of revenge, Nessus gives Deianira his "blood-soaked tunic before he dies, telling her it will "excite the love of her husband".[18]

Several years later, "rumor tells Deianira that she has a rival for the love of Heracles. Deianira, remembering Nessus' words, gives Heracles the bloodstained shirt. Lichas, the herald, delivers the shirt to Heracles. However, it is still covered in the Hydra's blood from Heracles' arrows, and this poisons him, tearing his skin and exposing his bones. Before he dies, Heracles throws "Lichas into the sea, thinking he was the one who poisoned him (according to several versions, Lichas turns to stone, becoming a rock standing in the sea, named for him). Heracles then uproots several trees and builds a "funeral pyre on "Mount Oeta, which "Poeas, father of "Philoctetes, lights. As his body burns, only his immortal side is left. Through Zeus' "apotheosis, Heracles rises to Olympus as he dies.

No one but Heracles' friend "Philoctetes ("Poeas in some versions) would light his funeral pyre (in an alternate version, it is "Iolaus who lights the pyre). For this action, Philoctetes or Poeas received Heracles' bow and arrows, which were later needed by the Greeks to defeat Troy in the Trojan War.

Philoctetes confronted "Paris and shot a poisoned arrow at him. The Hydra poison subsequently led to the death of Paris. The Trojan War, however, continued until the "Trojan Horse was used to defeat "Troy.

According to Herodotus, Heracles lived 900 years before Herodotus' own time (c. 1300 BCE).[19]

Lovers[edit]

Women[edit]

Marriages[edit]

During the course of his life, Heracles married four times.

Affairs[edit]

An episode of his female affairs that stands out was his stay at the palace of "Thespius, king of "Thespiae, who wished him to kill the Lion of Cithaeron. As a reward, the king offered him the chance to perform "sexual intercourse with all fifty of his daughters in one night. Heracles complied and they all became pregnant and all bore sons. This is sometimes referred to as his Thirteenth Labour. Many of the kings of ancient Greece traced their lines to one or another of these, notably the kings of "Sparta and "Macedon.

Yet another episode of his female affairs that stands out was when he carried away the oxen of "Geryon, he also visited the country of the "Scythians. Once there, while asleep, his horses suddenly disappeared. When he woke and wandered about in search of them, he came into the country of Hylaea. He then found the "dracaena of "Scythia (sometimes identified as "Echidna) in a cave. When he asked whether she knew anything about his horses, she answered, that they were in her own possession, but that she would not give them up, unless he would consent to stay with her for a time. Heracles accepted the request, and became by her the father of "Agathyrsus, "Gelonus, and "Scythes. The last of them became king of the Scythians, according to his father's arrangement, because he was the only one among the three brothers that was able to manage the bow which Heracles had left behind and to use his father's girdle.[20]

Men[edit]

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Heracles and "Iolaus (Fountain mosaic from the "Anzio Nymphaeum)

As a symbol of masculinity and warriorship, Heracles also had a number of male lovers. "Plutarch, in his Eroticos, maintains that Heracles' male lovers were beyond counting. Of these, the one most closely linked to Heracles is the "Theban "Iolaus. According to a myth thought to be of ancient origins, Iolaus was Heracles' charioteer and squire. Heracles in the end helped Iolaus find a wife. Plutarch reports that down to his own time, male couples would go to Iolaus's tomb in Thebes to swear an oath of loyalty to the hero and to each other.[21][22]

One of Heracles' male lovers, and one represented in ancient as well as modern art, is "Hylas. Though it is of more recent vintage (dated to the 3rd century) than that with Iolaus, it had themes of mentoring in the ways of a warrior and help finding a wife in the end. However it should be noted that there is nothing whatever in Apollonius's account that suggests that Hylas was a sexual lover as opposed to a companion and servant.[23]

Another reputed male lover of Heracles is Elacatas, who was honored in "Sparta with a sanctuary and yearly games, Elacatea. The myth of their love is an ancient one.[24]

"Abdera's eponymous hero, "Abderus, was another of Heracles' lovers. He was said to have been entrusted with—and slain by—the carnivorous mares of Thracian "Diomedes. Heracles founded the city of Abdera in "Thrace in his memory, where he was honored with athletic games.[25]

Another myth is that of "Iphitus.[26]

Another story is the one of his love for "Nireus, who was "the most beautiful man who came beneath Ilion" ("Iliad, 673). But Ptolemy adds that certain authors made Nireus out to be a son of Heracles.[27]

"Pausanias makes mention of "Sostratus, a youth of Dyme, "Achaea, as a lover of Heracles. Sostratus was said to have died young and to have been buried by Heracles outside the city. The tomb was still there in historical times, and the inhabitants of Dyme honored Sostratus as a "hero.[28] The youth seems to have also been referred to as "Polystratus.

There is also a series of lovers who are either later inventions or purely literary conceits. Among these are "Admetus, who assisted in the hunt for the "Calydonian Boar,[29] "Adonis,[30] "Corythus,[30] and "Nestor who was said to have been loved for his wisdom. His role as lover was perhaps to explain why he was the only son of "Neleus to be spared by the hero.[31]

A "scholiast on "Argonautica lists the following male lovers of Heracles: "Hylas, "Philoctetes, Diomus, Perithoas, and Phrix, after whom a city in "Libya was named".[32] Diomus is also mentioned by Stephanus of Byzantium as the eponym of the "deme Diomeia of the Attic "phyle Aegeis: Heracles is said to have fallen in love with Diomus when he was received as guest by Diomus' father Collytus.[33] Perithoas and Phrix are otherwise unknown, and so is the version that suggests a sexual relationship between Heracles and Philoctetes.

Children[edit]

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Heracles and his child "Telephus. (Marble, Roman copy of the 1st or 2nd century CE)

All of Heracles' marriages and almost all of his heterosexual affairs resulted in births of a number of sons and at least four daughters. One of the most prominent is "Hyllus, the son of Heracles and "Deianeira or "Melite. The term Heracleidae, although it could refer to all of Heracles' children and further descendants, is most commonly used to indicate the descendants of Hyllus, in the context of their lasting struggle for return to Peloponnesus, out of where Hyllus and his brothers—the children of Heracles by Deianeira—were thought to have been expelled by Eurystheus.

The children of Heracles by Megara are collectively well known because of their ill fate, but there is some disagreement among sources as to their number and individual names. Apollodorus lists three, Therimachus, Creontiades and Deicoon;[34] to these Hyginus[35] adds Ophitus and, probably by mistake, Archelaus, who is otherwise known to have belonged to the Heracleidae, but to have lived several generations later. A scholiast on "Pindar' s odes provides a list of seven completely different names: Anicetus, Chersibius, Mecistophonus, Menebrontes, Patrocles, Polydorus, Toxocleitus.[36]

Other well-known children of Heracles include "Telephus, king of "Mysia (by "Auge), and "Tlepolemus, one of the Greek commanders in the "Trojan War (by Astyoche).

There is also, in some versions, reference to an episode where Heracles met and impregnated a half-serpentine woman, known as "Echidna; her children, known as the Dracontidae, were the ancestors of the House of Cadmus.

According to "Herodotus, a line of 22 "Kings of Lydia descended from Hercules and Omphale. The line was called Tylonids after his Lydian name.

The divine sons of Heracles and "Hebe are "Alexiares and Anicetus.

Consorts and children[edit]

  1. Megara
    1. Therimachus
    2. Creontiades
    3. Ophitus
    4. Deicoon
  2. Omphale
    1. "Agelaus
    2. Tyrsenus
  3. Deianira
    1. Hyllus
    2. "Ctesippus
    3. Glenus
    4. Oneites
    5. "Macaria
  4. Hebe
    1. "Alexiares
    2. "Anicetus
  5. Astydameia, daughter of Ormenius
    1. Ctesippus
  6. Astyoche, daughter of "Phylas
    1. "Tlepolemus
  7. "Auge
    1. "Telephus
  8. Autonoe, daughter of Piraeus / Iphinoe, daughter of Antaeus
    1. Palaemon
  9. Baletia, daughter of Baletus
    1. Brettus[37]
  10. Barge
    1. Bargasus[38]
  11. "Bolbe
    1. "Olynthus
  12. "Celtine
    1. Celtus
  13. "Chalciope
    1. "Thessalus
  14. Chania, nymph
    1. Gelon[39]
  15. The "Scythian "dracaena or "Echidna
    1. Agathyrsus
    2. Gelonus
    3. Skythes
  16. "Epicaste
    1. Thestalus
  17. Lavinia, daughter of "Evander[40]
    1. Pallas
  18. Malis, a slave of Omphale
    1. Acelus[41]
  19. "Meda
    1. "Antiochus
  20. "Melite (heroine)
  21. "Melite (naiad)
    1. Hyllus (possibly)
  22. "Myrto
    1. "Eucleia
  23. Palantho of "Hyperborea[42]
    1. Latinus[40]
  24. Parthenope, daughter of "Stymphalus
    1. Everes
  25. "Phialo
    1. Aechmagoras
  26. "Psophis
    1. "Echephron
    2. "Promachus
  27. "Pyrene
    1. none known
  28. Rhea, Italian priestess
    1. "Aventinus[43]
  29. "Thebe (daughter of Adramys)
  30. "Tinge, wife of Antaeus
    1. "Sophax[44]
  31. 50 daughters of Thespius
    1. 50 sons, see "Thespius#Daughters and grandchildren
  32. Unnamed "Celtic woman
    1. Galates[45]
  33. Unnamed slave of Omphale
    1. Alcaeus / "Cleodaeus
  34. Unnamed daughter of Syleus (Xenodoce?)[46]
  35. Unknown consorts
    1. Agylleus[47]
    2. Amathous[48]
    3. Azon[49]
    4. "Chromis[50]
    5. Cyrnus[51]
    6. "Dexamenus[52]
    7. Leucites[53]
    8. "Manto
    9. "Pandaie
    10. "Phaestus or Rhopalus[54]

Hercules around the world[edit]

Rome[edit]

In Rome, Heracles was honored as Hercules, and had a number of distinctively Roman myths and practices associated with him under that name.

Egypt[edit]

"Herodotus connected Heracles to the "Egyptian god "Shu. Also he was associated with "Khonsu, another Egyptian god who was in some ways similar to Shu. As Khonsu, Heracles was worshipped at the now sunken city of "Heracleion, where a large temple was constructed.

Most often the Egyptians identified Heracles with "Heryshaf, transcribed in "Greek as Arsaphes or Harsaphes (Ἁρσαφής). He was an ancient "ram-"god whose cult was centered in "Herakleopolis Magna.

Other cultures[edit]

""
""
Hellenistic-era depiction of the "Zoroastrian divinity "Bahram as Hercules carved in 153 BCE at "Kermanshah, "Iran.
""
""
The protector "Vajrapani of the "Buddha is another incarnation of Heracles ("Gandhara, 1st century CE)
""
""
"Mathura statue of "Herakles strangling the "Nemean lion.[55] Also: [1]. Today in the "Kolkota "Indian Museum.

Via the "Greco-Buddhist culture, Heraclean symbolism was transmitted to the Far East. An example remains to this day in the "Nio guardian deities in front of Japanese Buddhist temples.

"Herodotus also connected Heracles to "Phoenician god "Melqart.

"Sallust mentions in his work on the "Jugurthine War that the Africans believe Heracles to have died in "Spain where, his multicultural army being left without a leader, the "Medes, "Persians, and "Armenians who were once under his command split off and populated the Mediterranean coast of Africa.[56]

Temples dedicated to Heracles abounded all along the Mediterranean coastal countries. For example, the temple of Heracles Monoikos (i.e. the lone dweller), built far from any nearby town upon a promontory in what is now the "Côte d'Azur, gave its name to the area's more recent name, "Monaco.

The gateway to the Mediterranean Sea from the Atlantic Ocean, where the southernmost tip of Spain and the northernmost of Morocco face each other is, classically speaking, referred to as the "Pillars of Hercules/Heracles, owing to the story that he set up two massive spires of stone to stabilise the area and ensure the safety of ships sailing between the two landmasses.

Uses of Heracles as a name[edit]

In various languages, variants of Hercules' name are used as a male given name, such as "Hercule in French, "Hércules in Spanish, Iraklis ("Greek: Ηρακλής) in Modern Greek and Irakliy in Russian.

Also, there are many teams around the world which have this name or have Heracles as their symbol. The most popular in "Greece is "G.S. Iraklis Thessaloniki.

Ancestry[edit]

Source:[57]



 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
"Zeus
 
"Danaë
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
"Perseus
 
"Andromeda
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Perses
 
 
Alcaeus
 
Hipponome
 
 
 
 
 
"Electryon
 
Anaxo
 
Sthenelus
 
Menippe
 
Mestor
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Anaxo
 
 
"Amphitryon
 
"Alcmene
 
"Zeus
 
 
 
Licymnius
 
 
"Eurystheus
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
"Iphicles
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
"Megara
 
Heracles
 
"Deianira
 
"Hebe
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
"Iolaus
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Three Children
 
 
"Hyllus
 
"Macaria
 
Others

Sources[edit]

See also[edit]

Other figures in Greek mythology punished by the gods include:

Figures resembling Heracles in other mythological traditions:

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Schmitz, Leonhard (1867). "Alceides". In "William Smith. "Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. 1. Boston: "Little, Brown and Company. p. 98. Archived from the original on 2008-05-27. 
  2. ^ "Bibliotheca ii. 4. § 12
  3. ^ a b By his adoptive descent through Amphitryon, Heracles receives the epithet Alcides, as "of the line of "Alcaeus", father of Amphitryon. Amphitryon's own, mortal son was "Iphicles
  4. ^ a b Burkert 1985, pp. 208–9
  5. ^ Burkert 1985, pp. 208–212.
  6. ^ "Robert Fagles' translation, 1996:269.
  7. ^ Solmsen, Friedrich (1981). "The Sacrifice of Agamemnon's Daughter in Hesiod's' Ehoeae". "The American Journal of Philology. 102 (4): 353–358 [p. 355]. "JSTOR 294322. 
  8. ^ "Ptol. iv. 3. § 37
  9. ^ Ventura, F. (1988). "Ptolemy's Maltese Co-ordinates". Hyphen. V (6): 253–269. 
  10. ^ "Pausanias, Guide to Greece, 4.32.1
  11. ^ Aelian, Varia Historia, 12.15
  12. ^ Aelian, Varia Historia, 5.3
  13. ^ Compare the two pairs of twins born to "Leda and the "double" parentage of "Theseus.
  14. ^ Andrew Ford, Aristotle as Poet, Oxford, 2011, p. 208 n. 5, citing, in addition to Prodicus/Xenophon, "Antisthenes, "Herodorus (esp. "FGrHist 31 F 14), and (in the 4th century) "Plato's use of "Heracles as a figure for Socrates' life (and death?): Apology 22a, cf. Theaetetus 175a, Lysis 205c."
  15. ^ Pausanias Χ 3.1, 36.5. "Ptolemaeus, "Geogr. Hyph. ΙΙ 184. 12. Stephanus of Byzantium, s.v. «Ἀντίκυρα»
  16. ^ Richard Hunter, translator, Jason and the Golden Fleece (Oxford:Clarendon Press), 1993, p 31f.
  17. ^ "Dionysius of Halicarnassus, i. 41
  18. ^ Ovid, Metamorphoses, IX l.132–3
  19. ^ "Herodotus, "Histories II.145
  20. ^ "Herodotus, "Histories IV. 8–10.
  21. ^ Plutarch, Erotikos, 761d.The tomb of Iolaus is also mentioned by Pindar.
  22. ^ Pindar, Olympian Odes, 9.98–99.
  23. ^ "Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica, 1.1177–1357; "Theocritus, Idyll 13.
  24. ^ Sosibius, in "Hesychius of Alexandria's Lexicon
  25. ^ "Bibliotheca 2.5.8; "Ptolemaeus Chennus, 147b, in "Photius' Bibliotheca
  26. ^ Ptolemaeus Chennus, in Photius' Bibliotheca
  27. ^ Ptolemaeus Chennus, 147b.
  28. ^ "Pausanias, Description of Greece, 7. 17. 8
  29. ^ "Plutarch, Erotikos, 761e.
  30. ^ a b Ptolemaeus Chennus
  31. ^ Ptolemaeus Chennus, 147e; "Philostratus, Heroicus 696, per Sergent, 1986, p. 163.
  32. ^ "Scholia on "Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica, 1. 1207
  33. ^ "Stephanus of Byzantium s. v. Diomeia
  34. ^ Apollodorus, Bibliotheca, 2. 4. 11 = 2. 7. 8
  35. ^ Fabulae 162
  36. ^ Scholia on Pindar, Isthmian Ode 3 (4), 104
  37. ^ "Stephanus of Byzantium s. v. Brettos
  38. ^ "Stephanus of Byzantium s. v. Bargasa
  39. ^ "Servius on "Virgil's Georgics 2. 115
  40. ^ a b "Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities, 1. 43. 1
  41. ^ Stephanus of Byzantium s. v. Akelēs
  42. ^ "Solinus, De mirabilia mundi, 1. 15
  43. ^ "Virgil, "Aeneid, 7. 655 ff
  44. ^ "Plutarch, Life of "Sertorius, 9. 4
  45. ^ "Diodorus Siculus, Library of History, 5. 24. 2
  46. ^ So "Conon, Narrationes, 17. In Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 2. 6. 3 a daughter of Syleus, Xenodoce, is killed by Heracles
  47. ^ "Statius, Thebaid, 6. 837, 10. 249
  48. ^ "Stephanus of Byzantium s. v. Amathous
  49. ^ "Stephanus of Byzantium s. v. Gaza
  50. ^ "Statius, Thebaid, 6. 346
  51. ^ "Servius on "Virgil's Eclogue 9. 30
  52. ^ "Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities, 1. 50. 4
  53. ^ "Hyginus, Fabulae, 162
  54. ^ In Stephanus of Byzantium s. v. Phaistos, Rhopalus is the son of Heracles and Phaestus his own son; in "Pausanias, Description of Greece, 2. 6. 7, vice versa (Phaestus son, Rhopalus grandson)
  55. ^ The Art and Architecture of the Indian Subcontinent, James C. Harle, Yale University Press, 1994 p.67
  56. ^ Sallust (1963). The Jugurthine War/The Conspiracy of Catiline. Translated by S.A. Handford. Penguin Books. p. 54. 
  57. ^ Morford, M. P. O.; Lenardon R. J. (2007). Classical Mythology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 865.

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

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