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See also: "Ethnic groups in the United States, "History of Hispanic and Latino Americans, "Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, and "Hispanic/Latino naming dispute

Today, organizations in the "United States use the term as a broad catchall to refer to persons with a historical and cultural relationship with Spain, regardless of race and ethnicity.[4][5] The U.S. Census Bureau defines the "ethnonym "Hispanic or Latino to refer to "a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin regardless of race"[38] and states that Hispanics or Latinos can be of any race, any ancestry, any ethnicity.[39] Generically, this limits the definition of Hispanic or Latino to people from the Caribbean, Central and South America, or other Hispanic (Spanish or Portuguese) culture or origin, regardless of race. Latino can refer to males or females, while Latina refers to only females.

Because of the technical distinctions involved in defining "race" vs. "ethnicity," there is confusion among the general population about the designation of Hispanic identity. Currently, the United States Census Bureau defines six race categories:[40]

According to census reports, of the above races the largest number of Hispanic or Latinos are of the White race, the second largest number come from the Native American/American Indian race who are the indigenous people of the Americas. The inhabitants of Easter Island are Pacific Islanders and since the island belongs to Chile they are theoretically Hispanic or Latinos. Because Hispanic roots are considered aligned with a European ancestry (Spain/Portugal), Hispanic/Latino ancestry is defined solely as an ethnic designation (similar to being Norse or Germanic). Therefore, a person of Hispanic descent is typically defined using both race and ethnicity as an identifier—i.e., Black-Hispanic, White-Hispanic, Asian-Hispanic, Amerindian-Hispanic or "other race" Hispanic.

A 1997 notice by the U.S. "Office of Management and Budget defined Hispanic or Latino persons as being "persons who trace their origin or descent to Mexico, Puerto Rico, Cuba, Central and South America, and other Spanish cultures."[41] The "United States Census uses the "ethnonym "Hispanic or Latino to refer to "a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Hispanic culture or origin regardless of race."[38]

The "2010 Census asked if the person was "Spanish/Hispanic/Latino". The "United States Census uses the "ethnonym "Hispanic or Latino to refer to "a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin regardless of race."[38] The Census Bureau also explains that "[o]rigin can be viewed as the heritage, nationality group, lineage, or country of birth of the person or the person's ancestors before their arrival in the United States. People who identify their origin as Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish may be of any race."[42]

The "U.S. Department of Transportation defines Hispanic as, "persons of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican, Central or South American, or other Spanish or Portuguese culture or origin, regardless of race."[4] This definition has been adopted by the "Small Business Administration as well as by many federal, state, and municipal agencies for the purposes of awarding government contracts to minority owned businesses.[5] The "Congressional Hispanic Caucus and the "Congressional Hispanic Conference include representatives of Spanish and Portuguese, Puerto Rican and Mexican descent. The "Hispanic Society of America is dedicated to the study of the arts and cultures of "Spain, "Portugal, and "Latin America.[43] The Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities, proclaimed champions of Hispanic success in higher education, is committed to Hispanic educational success in the U.S., Puerto Rico, Ibero-America, Spain and Portugal.

The U.S. "Equal Employment Opportunity Commission encourages any individual who believes that he or she is Hispanic to self-identify as Hispanic.[44] The "United States Department of Labor - "Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs encourages the same self-identification. As a result, any individual who traces his or her origins to part of the "Spanish Empire or "Portuguese Empire may self-identify as Hispanic, because an employer may not override an individual's self-identification.[45]

The "1970 Census was the first time that a "Hispanic" identifier was used and data collected with the question. The definition of "Hispanic" has been modified in each successive census.[46]

In a recent study, most Spanish-speakers of Spanish or Hispanic American descent do not prefer the term "Hispanic" or "Latino" when it comes to describing their identity. Instead, they prefer to be identified by their country of origin. When asked if they have a preference for either being identified as "Hispanic" or "Latino," the Pew study finds that "half (51%) say they have no preference for either term."[47] A majority (51%) say they most often identify themselves by their family’s country of origin, while 24% say they prefer a pan-ethnic label such as Hispanic or Latino. Among those 24% who have a preference for a pan-ethnic label, "'Hispanic' is preferred over 'Latino' by more than a two-to-one margin—33% versus 14%." Twenty-one percent prefer to be referred to simply as "Americans."[48]


Hispanicization is the process by which a place or a person absorbs characteristics of Hispanic society and culture.[49][50][51] Modern hispanization of a place, namely in the United States, might be illustrated by Spanish-language media and businesses. Hispanization of a person might be illustrated by speaking Spanish, making and eating Hispanic American food, listening to Spanish language music or participating in Hispanic festivals and holidays - Hispanization of those outside the Hispanic community as opposed to "assimilation of Hispanics into theirs.

One reason that some people believe the assimilation of Hispanics in the U.S. is not comparable to that of other cultural groups is that "Hispanic and Latino Americans have been living in parts of North America for centuries, in many cases well before the English-speaking culture became dominant. For example, "California, "Texas, "Colorado, "New Mexico (1598), "Arizona, "Nevada, "Florida and "Puerto Rico have been home to Spanish-speaking peoples since the 16th century, long before the U.S. existed. (But it should be noted that the language of the Native Americans existed before this, until the invasion and forced assimilation by the Spanish.) These and other Spanish-speaking territories were part of the "Viceroyalty of New Spain, and later "Mexico (with the exception of Florida and Puerto Rico), before these regions joined or were taken over by the United States in 1848. Some cities in the U.S. were founded by Spanish settlers as early as the 16th century, prior to the creation of the "Thirteen Colonies. For example, San Miguel de Gualdape, "Pensacola and "St. Augustine, Florida were founded in 1526, 1559 and 1565 respectively. "Santa Fe, New Mexico was founded in 1604, and "Albuquerque was established in 1660. "El Paso was founded in 1659, "San Antonio in 1691, "Laredo, Texas in 1755, "San Diego in 1769, "San Francisco in 1776, "San Jose, California in 1777, "New Iberia, Louisiana in 1779, and "Los Angeles in 1781. Therefore, in many parts of the U.S., the Hispanic cultural legacy predates English/British influence. For this reason, many generations have largely maintained their cultural traditions and "Spanish language well before the United States was created. However, Spanish-speaking persons in many Hispanic areas in the U.S. amounted to only a few thousand people when they became part of the United States; a large majority of current Hispanic residents are descended from Hispanics who entered the United States in the mid-to-late 20th and early 21st centuries.

Language retention is a common index to assimilation; according to the 2000 census, about 75 percent of all Hispanics spoke Spanish in the home. Spanish language retention rates vary geographically; parts of Texas and New Mexico have language retention rates over 90 percent, whereas in parts of Colorado and California, retention rates are lower than 30 percent. The degree of retention of Spanish as the native language is based on recent arrival from countries where Spanish is spoken. As is true of other immigrants, those who were born in other countries still speak their native language. Later generations are increasingly less likely to speak the language spoken in the country of their ancestors, as is true of other immigrant groups.

Spanish-speaking countries and regions[edit]

"Spanish-speaking countries
""Spanish-Speaking World
  Spanish identified as sole official language
  Spanish identified as co-official language
Hispanophone, "Hispanic America, and "List of countries where Spanish is an official language

Today, Spanish is among the "most commonly spoken first languages of the world. During the period of the "Spanish Empire from 1492 and 1898, many people migrated from Spain to the conquered lands. The "Spaniards brought with them the Castilian language and culture, and in this "process that lasted several centuries, created a "global empire with a diverse population.

This diverse population was created due to the transatlantic slave trade and the forced labor of indigenous Americans. Furthermore, the Spanish implemented an "Encomienda" system which encouraged indigenous women to marry Spaniards, as their offspring would then be free of the oppressive encomienda regulations. In order to control the diversifying population, the leadership of the Spanish speaking colonies created a caste system based on the ethnicity of a child's parents.

Culturally, Spaniards (those living in Spain) are typically European, but they also have small traces of many peoples from the rest of Europe, the Near East and the Mediterranean areas of northern Africa.[52][53]

Language and ethnicities in Spanish-speaking areas around the world[edit]

Continent/Region Country/Territory Languages Spoken[54] Ethnic Groups[55] Picture References
Europe Spain Spanish (official) 80%, "Catalan 11%, "Galician 7%, "Basque 2% (official regionally) (Spanish is spoken by 100% of the population)[56] 88.0% "Spanish, 12.0% others ("Romanian, "British, "Moroccan, "Hispanic American, "German) (2009)
(See: "Spanish people)
""Sta-eulalia.jpg [57][58]
Andorra "Catalan (official) 57.7%, Spanish 56.4%, French 14.5%, Portuguese 13.9% ""Andorralavella03.jpg [59]
North America "Mexico Spanish 92.7%, Spanish and other language 5.7%, native/indigenous only 0.8%, unspecified 0.8%; (Native/ Indigenous languages include "Mayan languages, "Mixtec, "Nahuatl, "Purépecha, "Zapotec, and other) (2005) "Mestizo (European, mainly Spanish and Native Mixed) 65%,[60] "Amerindian (or predominantly Amerindian) 17.5%, "White (full Spanish or other European) 16.5%,[61] other (including "Black minority) 1%[60]
(See: "Mexican people)
""Mexico Dic 06 045 1.jpg [61]
United States English 79.4%, Spanish 12.8%, other Indo-European 3.7%, Asian and Pacific Islander languages 3.0%, other 0.9% (2010 census) (Hawaiian is an official language in the state of Hawaii).

(Note: The U.S. is a predominantly English-speaking country. As is true of many immigrant families, the immigrants often speak Spanish and some English, while their children are fluent English speakers because they were born and educated in the U.S. Some retain their Spanish language as is true of other immigrant families. The recent influx of large numbers of immigrants from Spanish-speaking countries into the U.S. has meant that the number of Spanish-speaking U.S. residents has increased, but the children speaking English as is true of the historic U.S. immigrant experience, continues. Migration from Hispanic countries has increased the Spanish-speaking population in the United States. Of those who speak Spanish in the United States, three quarters speak English well or very well.

"White 79.96%, "Black 12.85%, "Asian 4.43%, "Amerindian and "Alaska Native 0.97%, "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific islanders 0.18%, two or more races 1.61% (July 2007 estimate)

(Note: a separate listing for "Hispanics is not included because the U.S. Census Bureau considers Hispanic to mean a person of Hispanic American descent (including persons of Cuban, Mexican, or Puerto Rican origin) and of Spanish descent living in the U.S. who may be of any race or ethnic group (white, black, Asian, etc.); about 15–16% of the total U.S. population is Hispanic, not including estimates about "alien residents).

""Alamo Mission, San Antonio.jpg [62][63]
"Central America "Belize Spanish 43%, "Belizean Creole 37%, "Mayan dialects 7.8%, English 5.6% (official), "German 3.2%, "Garifuna 2%, other 1.5% "Mestizo 34%, "Kriol 25%, "Maya peoples 10.6%, "Garifuna 6.1%, other 11% (2000 census)
(See:"Belizean people)
""Belmopan Parliament.jpg [64]
"Costa Rica Spanish (official) "White 81%, "Mestizo 13%, "Black 3%, "Amerindian 1%, Chinese 1% Other 1% ""National Theatre of Costa Rica.jpg [65]
"El Salvador Spanish (official) "Mestizo 86%, "White 12%, "Amerindian 1% ""Metropolitan Cathedral.jpg [66]
"Guatemala Spanish 59.4%, Amerindian languages 40.5% (23 officially recognized Amerindian languages, including "K'iche, "Kakchiquel, "Kekchi, "Mam, "Garifuna, and "Xinca). "Mestizo 41%, "K'iche 9.1%, "Kaqchikel 8.4%, "Mam 7.9%, "Q'eqchi 6.3%, other "Maya peoples 8.6%, indigenous non-Mayan 0.2%, other 0.1%, "White 18.5% (2001 census) ""Catedral Metropolitana, Guatemala City.jpg [67]
"Honduras Spanish (official), (various Amerindian languages, including "Garifuna, "Lenca, "Miskito, "Ch’orti’, and "Tol). "English(on the "Bay Islands) "Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and European) 90%, "Amerindian 7%, "Black 2%, "White 1% ""23 Teguc Hauptpl.JPG [68]
"Nicaragua Spanish 97.5% (official), "Miskito 1.7%, others 0.8% (1995 census) (English and indigenous languages on Atlantic coast). "Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and European) 69%, "White 17%, "Black 9%, "Amerindian 5% ""Town Square - Granada, Nicaragua.JPG [69]
"Panama Spanish (official), English 14% (bilingual: requires verification) "Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and European) 70%, "Black 14%, "White 10%, "Amerindian 6% ""Catedral panama viejo.jpg [70]
South America "Argentina Spanish (official), other European and Amerindian languages "European Argentine 86% (mostly from Spanish and Italian ancestries), "Mestizo, "Amerindian and other non-European or non-White groups (including "Arab, "East Asian, and "Black minorities) 14%
(See: "Argentinian people)
""Catedral de Salta (552008).jpg [71]
"Bolivia Spanish 60.7% (official), "Quechua 21.2% (official), "Aymara 14.6% (official), foreign languages 2.4%, other 1.2% (2001 census) "Quechua 30%, "Mestizo (mixed White and Amerindian ancestry) 30%, "Aymara 25%, "White 15%, "Black minority. ""Puerta de la Iglesia San Lorenzo Potosí Bolivia.jpg [72]
"Chile Spanish (official), "Mapudungun, other European languages "White 52.7%, "Mestizo 44.1%, "Amerindian 3.2%
(See: "Chilean people)
""Catedral de Santiago.JPG [73]
"Colombia Spanish (official), 68 ethnic languages and dialects. "English also official in the "San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina Islands. "Mestizo 49%, "White 37%, "Black 10.6% (includes Mulatto and "Zambo), "Amerindian 3.4%, "Roma 0.01%, among other ethnic groups.
(See: "Colombian people)
""52 - Ipiales - Décembre 2008.jpg [74][75]
"Ecuador Spanish (official), Amerindian languages (especially "Quechua) "Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and White) 65%, "Amerindian 25%, "White 7%, "Black 3% ""Quito pl de la Independencia 2006 01.jpg [76]
"Paraguay Spanish (official), "Guaraní (official) "Mestizo (mixed European and Amerindian) 74.5%, White 20%, Mulato 3.5%, Amerindian 1.5% ""Paraguay church.jpg [77]
"Peru Spanish (official), "Quechua (official), "Aymara, and a large number of minor "Amazonian languages "Mestizo 38%, "Quechua 29.7%, "Aymara 4.7%, "Amazonian 1.8%, "White 15.5%, "Black 5%, "East Asian 3.3%. ""Cathédrale de Lima - Septembre 2007.jpg [78]
"Uruguay Spanish (official) White (mostly from Spanish and Italian ancestries) 88%, "Mestizo 8%, "Black 4%, "Amerindian (less than 0.5%) ""Ciudad Vieja de Montevideo.jpg [79]
"Venezuela Spanish (official), numerous indigenous dialects "Mestizos (mixed Amerindian, White and African) 49,9%, "White 42,2%, "Black 3,5% and "Amerindians 2,7%
(See: "Venezuelan people)
""Casa natal del Libertador.JPG [80]
"Caribbean Islands "Cuba Spanish (official) "White 69.1% (mostly Spanish and Portuguese, or other European and British Ancestry), "Mulattoes 20.7%, "Black 10.2% (2002 census)
(See: "Cubans)
""Street 3 La Habana Vieja.JPG [81]
"Dominican Republic Spanish (official) "Mestizo 44%, "Mulatto 30%, "White 16%, "African 10%
Santo Domingo
"Puerto Rico
(Territory of the U.S. with Commonwealth status)
Spanish, English "White (mostly of Spanish ancestry) 76.2%, "Black 6.9%, Asian 0.3%, "Amerindian 0.2%, mixed 4.4%, other 12% (2007) ""Historic house in Cabo Rojo, PR.jpg [83]
Africa "Equatorial Guinea Spanish 67.6% (official), other 32.4% (includes the other 2 official languages - "French and "Portuguese, "Fang, "Bube, "Annobonese, "Igbo, "Krio, "Pichinglis, and English) (1994 census)
Note: Equatorial Guinea was the only Spanish colony in Sub-Saharan Africa.
"Fang 85.7%, "Bubi 6.5%, Mdowe 3.6%, "Annobon 1.6%, Bujeba 1.1%, other 1.4% (1994 census) ""Kathedrale Santa Isabel.jpg [84]
"Polynesia "Easter Island
Territory of "Chile
Spanish (official), "Rapanui "Rapanui ""AhuTongariki.JPG [85]
The CIA World Factbook is in the public domain. Accordingly, it may be copied freely without permission of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).[86]

Areas with Hispanic cultural influence[edit]

Continent/Region Country/Territory Languages Spoken [54] Ethnic Groups [55] References
Africa "Western Sahara "Arabic is the official language of Western Sahara, while Spanish is still widely spoken. The major ethnic group of the Western Sahara are the "Sahrawis, a nomadic or Bedouin group speaking Arabic. ["citation needed]
Asia "Philippines "Chavacano, a "Spanish-based creole language is spoken in the Philippines by 600,000 people.[87] "Philippine Spanish is natively spoken by 5,000 people but second- and third-language speakers range from 500,000 to 2,500,000.[88][89][90] "Hispanic influences have impacted several native languages, such as "Tagalog, "Cebuano and "Ilocano. Many aspects of Filipino culture including cuisine, traditional dances, music, festivals, religion, architecture, traditional costumes and crafts exhibit Hispanic origin and influences.[87] "Spanish Filipino. Various ethnolinguistic groups particularly with some Hispanic heritage that forms up the "Filipino people ("Chavacanos, "Cebuanos, "Hiligaynons, "Warays, "Tagalogs, "Ilocanos, "Kapampangan, "Bicolanos and others) [87]
"Micronesia "Guam Former Spanish territories in Asia-Pacific no longer recognize Spanish as an official language. The predominant languages used in Guam are English, Chamorro and Filipino. Also, in Guam – a U.S. territory – and the Northern Mariana Islands, a commonwealth in political union with the U.S., a "Malayo-Polynesian language called "Chamorro is spoken, with numerous loanwords with Spanish etymological origins. However it is not a Spanish creole language.[91] Asians, "Chamorro, "Filipinos, and others [91]
"FSM Micronesia Micronesia's official language is English, although native languages, such as "Chuukese, "Kosraean, "Pohnpeian, "Yapese, "Ulithian, "Woleaian, "Nukuoro and "Kapingamarangi are also prominent.[92] Asians, Micronesians, and others [92]
"Northern Mariana Islands In the Northern Mariana Islands, a commonwealth in political union with the U.S., a "Malayo-Polynesian language called "Chamorro is spoken, with numerous loanwords with Spanish etymological origins. However it is not a Spanish creole language. The top four languages used in the Northern Mariana Islands are Filipino, Chinese, Chamorro and English.[93] Asians, Chamorro, and others [93]
"Palau In Palau, Spanish is no longer used; instead, the people use their native languages, such as "Palauan, "Angaur, "Sonsorolese and "Tobian.[94] Asians, "Palauan, and others [94]
The CIA World Factbook is in the public domain. Accordingly, it may be copied freely without permission of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).[86]


The "Miguel de Cervantes Prize is awarded to Hispanic writers, whereas the "Latin Grammy Award recognizes Hispanic and Portuguese musicians, and the Platino Awards as given to outstanding Hispanic films.


Music of Spain, "Hispanic music, and "Latin music (genre)

Folk and popular dance and music also varies greatly among Hispanics. For instance, the music from Spain is a lot different from the "Hispanic American, although there is a high grade of exchange between both continents. In addition, due to the high national development of the diverse "nationalities and regions of Spain, there is a lot of music in the "different languages of the Peninsula ("Catalan, "Galician and "Basque, mainly). See, for instance, "Music of Catalonia or "Rock català, "Music of Galicia, Cantabria and Asturias, and "Basque music. "Flamenco is also a very popular music style in Spain, especially in "Andalusia. Spanish ballads "romances" can be traced in Mexico as "corridos" or in Argentina as "milongas", same structure but different scenarios.

On the other side of the ocean, Hispanic America is also home to a wide variety of music, even though "Latin" music is often erroneously thought of, as a single genre. Hispanic Caribbean music tends to favor complex polyrhythms of African origin. "Mexican music shows combined influences of mostly Spanish and Native American origin, while traditional Northern Mexican music — "norteño and "banda — is more influenced by country-and-western music and the "polka, brought by "Central European settlers to "Mexico. The music of Hispanic Americans — such as "tejano music — has influences in "rock, "jazz, "R&B, "pop, and "country music as well as traditional Mexican music such as "Mariachi. Meanwhile, native "Andean sounds and melodies are the backbone of Peruvian and Bolivian music, but also play a significant role in the popular music of most South American countries and are heavily incorporated into the folk music of Ecuador and Chile and the tunes of Colombia, and again in Chile where they play a fundamental role in the form of the greatly followed "nueva canción. In U.S. communities of immigrants from these countries it is common to hear these styles. "Latin pop, "Rock en Español, "Latin hip-hop, "Salsa, "Merengue, colombian cumbia and "Reggaeton styles tend to appeal to the broader Hispanic population, and varieties of Cuban music are popular with many Hispanics of all backgrounds.


Hispanic literature
"Miguel de Cervantes Prize, most prestigious literary award in the Spanish language

Spanish-language literature and folklore is very rich and is influenced by a variety of countries. There are thousands of writers from many places, and dating from the Middle Ages to the present. Some of the most recognized writers are "Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (Spain), "Lope de Vega (Spain), "Calderón de la Barca (Spain), "Jose Rizal (Philippines), "Carlos Fuentes (Mexico), "Octavio Paz (Mexico), "Miguel Ángel Asturias (Guatemala), "George Santayana (US), "José Martí (Cuba), "Sabine Ulibarri (US), "Federico García Lorca (Spain), "Miguel de Unamuno (Spain), "Gabriel García Márquez (Colombia), "Rafael Pombo (Colombia), "Horacio Quiroga (Uruguay), "Rómulo Gallegos (Venezuela), "Luis Rodriguez Varela (Philippines), "Rubén Darío (Nicaragua), "Mario Vargas Llosa (Peru), "Giannina Braschi (Puerto Rico), "Cristina Peri Rossi (Uruguay), "Luisa Valenzuela (Argentina), Roberto Quesada (Honduras), "Julio Cortázar (Argentina), "Pablo Neruda (Chile), "Gabriela Mistral (Chile), "Jorge Luis Borges (Argentina), "Pedro Henríquez Ureña (Dominican Republic), "Ernesto Sabato (Argentina), "Juan Tomás Ávila Laurel (Equatorial Guinea), "Ciro Alegría (Peru), "Joaquin Garcia Monge (Costa Rica), and "Jesus Balmori (Philippines).


In the majority of the Hispanic countries, "association football is the most popular sport. The men's national teams of Argentine, Uruguay and Spain have won the "FIFA World Cup a total five times. The Spanish "La Liga is one of the most popular in the world, known for "FC Barcelona and "Real Madrid. Meanwhile, the "Argentine Primera División and "Mexican Primera División are two of the strongest leagues in the Americas.

However, "baseball is the most popular sport in some Central American and Caribbean countries (especially Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico and Venezuela), as well as in the diaspora in the United States. Notable Hispanic teams in early baseball are the "All Cubans, "Cuban Stars and "New York Cubans. The "Hispanic Heritage Baseball Museum recognizes Hispanic baseball personalities. Nearly 30 percent (22 percent foreign-born Latinos) of "MLB players today have Hispanic heritage.

Several Hispanic sportspeople have been successful worldwide, such as "Diego Maradona, "Alfredo di Stefano, "Lionel Messi, "Diego Forlán (association football), "Juan Manuel Fangio, "Juan Pablo Montoya, "Eliseo Salazar, "Fernando Alonso, "Marc Gené, "Carlos Sainz (auto racing), "Ángel Nieto, "Dani Pedrosa, "Jorge Lorenzo, "Marc Márquez, "Marc Coma, "Nani Roma (motorcycle racing), "Emanuel Ginóbili, "Pau Gasol, "Marc Gasol (basketball), "Julio César Chávez, "Saúl Álvarez, "Carlos Monzón (boxing), "Miguel Indurain, "Alberto Contador, "Santiago Botero, "Rigoberto Urán, "Nairo Quintana (cycling), "Roberto de Vicenzo, "Ángel Cabrera, "Sergio García, "Severiano Ballesteros, "José María Olazábal (golf), "Luciana Aymar (field hockey), "Rafael Nadal, "Marcelo Ríos, "Guillermo Vilas, "Gabriela Sabatini, "Juan Martín del Potro (tennis).

Notable Hispanic sports television networks are "ESPN Latin America, "Fox Sports Latin America and "TyC Sports.


With regard to religious affiliation among Spanish-speakers, "Christianity — specifically "Roman Catholicism — is usually the first religious tradition that comes to mind["citation needed]. The Spaniards and the Portuguese took the Roman Catholic faith to Ibero-America and the Philippines, and Roman Catholicism remains the predominant religion amongst most Hispanics. A small but growing number of Hispanics belong to a "Protestant denomination.

There are also Spanish-speaking "Jews, most of whom are the descendants of "Ashkenazi Jews who migrated from Europe (German Jews, Russian Jews, Polish Jews, etc.) to Hispanic America, particularly "Argentina, "Uruguay, "Peru and "Cuba (Argentina is host to the third largest Jewish population in the Western Hemisphere, after the United States and Canada)[95][96] in the 19th century and following World War II. Many Spanish-speaking Jews also originate from the small communities of reconverted descendants of "anusim — those whose Spanish "Sephardi Jewish ancestors long ago hid their Jewish ancestry and beliefs in fear of persecution by the "Spanish Inquisition in the "Iberian Peninsula and Ibero-America. The Spanish Inquisition led to a large number of forced conversions of Spanish Jews.

Genetic studies on the (male) "Y-chromosome conducted by the "University of Leeds in 2008 appear to support the idea that the number of forced conversions have been previously underestimated significantly. They found that twenty percent of Spanish males have Y-chromosomes associated with Sephardic Jewish ancestry.[97] This may imply that there were more forced conversions than was previously thought.

There are also thought to be many Catholic-professing descendants of "marranos and Spanish-speaking "crypto-Jews in the "Southwestern United States and scattered through Hispanic America. Additionally, there are Sephardic Jews who are descendants of those Jews who fled Spain to Turkey, "Syria, and North Africa, some of whom have now migrated to Hispanic America, holding on to some Spanish/Sephardic customs, such as the "Ladino language, which mixes Spanish, Hebrew, Arabic and others, though written with Hebrew and Latin characters.[98] Though, it should be noted, that "Ladinos were also African slaves captive in Spain held prior to the colonial period in the Americas. (See also "History of the Jews in Hispanic America and "List of Hispanic American Jews.)

Among the Spanish-speaking Catholics, most communities celebrate their homeland's "patron saint, dedicating a day for this purpose with festivals and religious services. Some Spanish-speakers syncretize Roman Catholicism and African or Native American rituals and beliefs. Such is the case of "Santería, popular with "Afro-Cubans, which combines old African beliefs in the form of Roman Catholic saints and rituals. Other syncretistic beliefs include "Spiritism and "Curanderismo.

While a tiny minority, there are some Muslims in Latin America, in the US, and in the Philippines. Those in the Philippines live predominantly in the "Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao province.

In the United States, some 65% of Hispanics and Latinos report themselves Catholic and 21% Protestant, with 13% having no affiliation.[99] A minority among the Roman Catholics, about one in five, are "charismatics. Among the Protestant, 85% are ""Born-again Christians" and belong to "Evangelical or "Pentecostal churches. Among the smallest groups, less than 4%, are Jewish.

Cultural heritage according to UNESCO[edit]

The Hispanic world, according to the United Nations World Heritage Committee, has contributed substantially more than any other ethnicity to the cultural heritage of the world. A World Heritage Cultural Site is a place such as a building, city, complex, or monument that is listed by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as being of special cultural significance. Of a total of 802 Cultural World Heritage Sites recognized by the United Nations as of July 2015, 114 are located in Hispanic countries. Spain alone has 39 cultural sites, only second in the world to Italy.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Significado / definição de Hispânico". Dicionário Priberam da Língua Portuguesa (in Portuguese). Priberam Informática, S.A. Retrieved 19 January 2016. 
  2. ^ "hispà-ana" (in Catalan). Institut d'Estudis Catalans. Retrieved 19 January 2016. 
  3. ^ "hispànic-a" (in Catalan). Institut d'Estudis Catalans. Retrieved 19 January 2016. 
  4. ^ a b c "Archived: 49 CFR Part 26". U.S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved 19 January 2016. 'Hispanic Americans,' which includes persons of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race... 
  5. ^ a b c "SOP 80 05 3A: Overview of the 8(A) Business Development Program" (PDF). U.S. Small Business Administration. 11 April 2008. Retrieved 19 January 2016. SBA has defined 'Hispanic American' as an individual whose ancestry and culture are rooted in South America, Central America, Mexico, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, or Spain. 
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