Almost immediately after the "Federal City" was laid out north of the Potomac, some residents south of the Potomac in "Alexandria County, D.C., began petitioning to be returned to Virginia's jurisdiction. Over time, a larger movement grew to separate "Alexandria from the District for several reasons:
- Alexandria's economy had stagnated as competition with the port of "Georgetown, D.C., had begun to favor the north side of the Potomac, where most members of Congress and local federal officials resided.
- The Residence Act prohibited federal offices from locating in Virginia.
- Alexandria was a center for slave trading. There was increasing talk of "abolition of slavery in the national capital. Alexandria's economy would suffer if slavery were outlawed in the District of Columbia.
- There was an active abolition movement in Virginia, and the pro-slavery forces held a slim majority in the "Virginia General Assembly. (Eighteen years later, in the Civil War, the most anti-slavery counties would secede from Virginia to form "West Virginia.) If Alexandria and Alexandria County were retroceded to Virginia, they would provide two new pro-slavery representatives.
- The "Alexandria Canal, which connected the C&O Canal to Alexandria, needed repairs, which the federal government was reluctant to fund.
- Alexandria's residents had lost representation and the right to vote at any level of government.
After a referendum, Alexandria County's citizens petitioned Congress and Virginia to return the area to Virginia. By an act of Congress on July 9, 1846, and with the approval of the Virginia General Assembly, the area south of the "Potomac (39 square miles; 101 km²) was returned, or "retroceded," to Virginia effective in 1847.
The retroceded land was then known as "Alexandria County, Virginia, and now includes a portion of the "independent city of "Alexandria and all of "Arlington County, the successor to Alexandria County. A large portion of the retroceded land near the river was an estate of "George Washington Parke Custis, who had supported the retrocession and helped develop the charter in the Virginia General Assembly for the County of Alexandria, Virginia. The estate (Arlington Plantation) would be passed on to his daughter (the wife of "Robert E. Lee), and would eventually become "Arlington National Cemetery.
Civil War era
A portion of the "Washington Aqueduct opened in 1859, providing "drinking water to city residents and reducing their dependence on well water. The aqueduct, which was built by the "US Army Corps of Engineers, opened for full operation in 1864, using the Potomac River as its source.
Washington remained a small city of a few thousand residents, virtually deserted during the summertime, until the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861. President "Abraham Lincoln created the "Army of the Potomac to defend the federal capital, and thousands of soldiers came to the area. The significant expansion of the federal government to administer the war—and its legacies, such as veterans' pensions—led to notable growth in the city's population – from 75,000 in 1860 to 132,000 in 1870.
"Slavery was abolished throughout the District on April 16, 1862 – eight months before Lincoln issued the "Emancipation Proclamation—with the passage of the "Compensated Emancipation Act. The city became a popular place for freed slaves to congregate.
Throughout the war, the city was defended by a ring of military forts that mostly deterred the "Confederate army from attacking. One notable exception was the "Battle of Fort Stevens in July 1864 in which Union soldiers repelled troops under the command of Confederate General "Jubal A. Early. This battle was only the second time that a U.S. President came under enemy fire during wartime when Lincoln visited the fort to observe the fighting. (The first had been "James Madison during the War of 1812.) Meanwhile, over 20,000 sick and injured Union soldiers were treated in an array of permanent and temporary hospitals in the capital.
On April 14, 1865, just days after the end of the war, "Lincoln was shot in "Ford's Theatre by "John Wilkes Booth during the play Our American Cousin. The next morning, at 7:22 am, President Lincoln died in the house across the street, the first American president to be assassinated. Secretary of War "Edwin M. Stanton said, "Now he belongs to the ages."
Post-Civil War era
By 1870, the District's population had grown 75% from the previous census to nearly 132,000 residents. Despite the city's growth, Washington still had dirt roads and lacked basic sanitation. The situation was so bad that some members of Congress suggested moving the capital further west, but President "Ulysses S. Grant refused to consider such a proposal.
In response to the poor conditions in the capital, Congress passed the "Organic Act of 1871, which revoked the individual charters of the cities of Washington and Georgetown, and created a new territorial government for the whole District of Columbia. The act provided for a governor appointed by the President, a legislative assembly with an upper-house composed of eleven appointed council members and a 22-member house of delegates elected by residents of the District, as well as an appointed Board of Public Works charged with modernizing the city.
President Grant appointed "Alexander Robey Shepherd, an influential member of the Board of Public Works, to the post of governor in 1873. Shepherd authorized large-scale municipal projects, which greatly modernized Washington. However, the governor spent three times the money that had been budgeted for capital improvements and ultimately bankrupted the city. In 1874, Congress abolished the District's territorial government and replaced it with a three-member Board of Commissioners appointed by the President, of which one was a representative from the "United States Army Corps of Engineers. The three Commissioners would then elect one of themselves to be president of the commission.
An additional act of Congress in 1878 made the three-member Board of Commissioners the permanent government of the District of Columbia. The act also had the effect of eliminating any remaining local institutions such as the boards on schools, health, and police. The Commissioners would maintain this form of direct rule for nearly a century.
The first motorized "streetcars in the District began service in 1888 and spurred growth in areas beyond the City of Washington's original boundaries. In 1888, Congress required that all new developments within the District conform to the layout of the City of Washington. The City of Washington's northern border of Boundary Street was renamed "Florida Avenue in 1890, reflecting growth of suburban areas in the County of Washington. The city's streets were extended throughout the District starting in 1893. An additional law passed in 1895 mandated that Washington formally absorb Georgetown, which until then had maintained a nominal separate identity, and "renamed its streets. With a consolidated government and the transformation of suburban areas within the District into urban neighborhoods, the entire city eventually took on the name Washington, D.C.
In the early 1880s, the Washington City Canal was covered over. Originally an expansion of Tiber Creek, the canal connected the Capitol with the Potomac, running along the north side of the Mall where Constitution Avenue is today. However, as the nation transitioned over to railroads for its transport, the canal had become nothing more than a stagnant sewer, and so it was removed.
Some reminders of the canal still exist. South of the Capitol, a road named Canal Street connects "Independence Avenue, "SW, and E Street, "SE (although the northernmost section of the street was renamed Washington Avenue to commemorate the "state of Washington). A lock keeper's house built in 1835 at the eastern terminal of the C&O Canal (where the C&O emptied into Tiber Creek and the Potomac River) remains at the southwest corner of "Constitution Avenue, "NW, (formerly B Street, NW) and 17th Street, NW. The western end of the City Canal emptied into the Potomac and connected with the C&O Canal near the lock keeper's house.
One of the most important Washington architects of this period was the German immigrant "Adolf Cluss. From the 1860s to the 1890s, he constructed over 80 public and private buildings throughout the city, including the National Museum, the Agriculture Department, Sumner and Franklin schools.
The "Washington Monument, a tribute to George Washington and the world's tallest stone structure, was completed in 1884.
In 1901, the "Senate Park Improvement Commission of the District of Columbia (the "McMillan Commission"), which Congress had formed the previous year, formulated the "McMillan Plan, an "architectural plan for the redevelopment of the National Mall. The commission was inspired by L'Enfant's 1791 plan for the city, which had not been fully realized. The members of the commission also sought to emulate the grandeur of European capitals such as "Paris, "London, and "Rome. They were also strongly influenced by the "City Beautiful movement, a "Progressive ideology that intended to build civic virtue in the poor through important, monumental architecture. Several of the Commission members, including "Daniel Burnham and "Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. had in fact participated in the 1893 "World Columbian Exposition, which was widely popular and helped to spread interest in the City Beautiful movement.
The McMillan Plan in many respects was an early form of "urban renewal that removed many of the slums that surrounded the "Capitol, replacing them with new public monuments and government buildings. The Plan proposed a redesign of the National Mall and the construction of the future Burnham-designed "Union Station. "World War I interrupted the execution of the Plan, but construction of the "Lincoln Memorial in 1922 largely completed it.
Although the McMillan Plan resulted in the demolition of some slums in the "Federal Triangle area, substandard housing was a much larger problem in the city during the early 1900s, with large portions of the population living in so-called "alley dwellings." Progressive efforts eventually led to the creation of the "Alley Dwelling Authority in 1934. The agency, led by "John Ihlder, was an early example of a "public housing agency, and was responsible for demolishing slum housing and building new units that were affordable, modern, and sanitary.
During his first administration (which started in 1913), President "Woodrow Wilson introduced "segregation into several federal departments, for the first time since 1863. He supported some cabinet appointees in their request for segregation of employees and creation of separate lunchrooms and restrooms. He was highly criticized for this, especially as he had attracted numerous votes from blacks. The policy held for decades.
One advantage of federal rule over the District of Columbia was that the public school teachers were considered federal workers. Although the schools were segregated, black and white teachers were paid on an equal scale. The system attracted highly qualified teachers, especially for the M Street School (later called "Dunbar High School), the academic high school for "African Americans.
In July 1919, whites, including uniformed sailors and soldiers, attacked blacks in Washington during "Red Summer, when violence broke out in cities across the country. The catalyst in Washington was the rumored arrest of a black man for rape; in four days of mob violence, white men randomly beat black people on the street, and pulled others off streetcars for attacks. When police refused to intervene, the black population fought back. Troops tried to restore order as the city closed saloons and theaters, but a summer rainstorm had a more dampening effect. A total of 15 people were killed: 10 whites, including two police officers; and five blacks. Fifty people were seriously wounded and another 100 less severely wounded. The "NAACP protested to President Wilson.
In 1922, Washington was hit by its deadliest natural disaster when the "Knickerbocker Storm dumped 18 inches (46 cm) of snow, causing the roof to collapse at the "Knickerbocker Theater, a "silent movie house. Ninety-eight people were killed, including a U.S. Congressman; 133 were injured.
On July 28, 1932, President "Herbert Hoover ordered the "United States Army to forcibly evict the ""Bonus Army" of "World War I veterans who gathered in Washington, D.C., to secure promised veterans' benefits early. U.S. troops dispersed the last of the "Bonus Army" the next day.
During the "Great Depression of the 1930s, the city's population grew rapidly with the creation of additional Federal agencies under the "New Deal programs of President "Franklin D. Roosevelt, during which most of the Federal Triangle buildings were constructed. World War II brought further population increases and a significant housing shortage, as existing residents were urged to rent rooms to the influx of Federal staffers who arrived from throughout the country. During the war, as many as 200,000 railroad passengers passed through Union Station in a single day. "The Pentagon was built in nearby Arlington to efficiently consolidate Federal defense offices under one roof. One of the largest office buildings in the world, it was built rapidly during the early years of the war, partially opening in 1942, and complete in 1943.
President "Harry Truman ended "de jure "racial discrimination in the Armed Forces and federal workplaces in 1948. Parks and recreation facilities in Washington remained "segregated until 1954. Public schools were desegregated soon after.
When the city's Board of Education began building the "John Phillip Sousa Junior High, a group of parents from the "Anacostia neighborhood petitioned to have the school admit black and white students. When it was constructed, the board declared that only whites could enroll. The parents sued in a case decided in the landmark Supreme Court ruling "Bolling v. Sharpe. Partly due to the District's unique status under the "Constitution, the court decided unanimously that all of D.C.'s public schools had to be integrated. In the wake of this and the landmark 1954 Supreme Court case "Brown v. Board of Education, the "Eisenhower administration decided to make D.C. schools the first to integrate, as an example to the rest of the nation.
In 1957, Washington became the first major city in the nation with a majority African-American population. Like many cities, it had received thousands of black people from "the South in the "Great Migration, starting during World War I and accelerating in the 1940s and 1950s. With the buildup of government and defense industries during World War II, many new residents found jobs. In the postwar years, whites who were better established economically began to move to newer housing in adjoining states in the suburbanization movement that occurred around most major cities. They were aided by the extensive highway construction undertaken by federal and state governments.
On August 28, 1963, Washington took center stage in the "Civil Rights Movement, with the "March on Washington and Dr. "Martin Luther King, Jr.'s famed ""I Have a Dream" speech at the "Lincoln Memorial. Following the assassination of King on April 4, 1968, in Memphis, Washington was devastated by the "riots that broke out in the "U Street neighborhood and spread to other black areas, including "Columbia Heights. The civil unrest drove many whites and middle-class blacks to move out of the city core. There had already been a steady movement of some residents to suburban locations in the search for newer housing and to avoid school integration. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, many businesses left the downtown and inner city areas, drawn to suburban malls and following residential development. Marks of riots scarred some neighborhoods into the late 1990s.
The District elects a delegate to the House of Representatives, who has the usual rights of membership, such as seniority and committee membership, except there is no formal vote. The "Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified on March 29, 1961, gives the people a voice in the electoral college of the size of the smallest state (three votes).
In 1973, Congress passed the "District of Columbia Home Rule Act, ceding some of its power over the city to a new, directly elected "city council and mayor. "Walter Washington became the first elected mayor of Washington, D.C.
The first 4.6 miles (7.4 km) of the "Washington Metro "subway system opened on March 27, 1976, following years of acrimonious battles with Congress over funding and highway construction, including a rejected proposal to build a north-central freeway. The "Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority had been created in 1973 through a merger of several local bus companies. Several new Metro stations such as "Friendship Heights, "Van Ness, "Gallery Place, "Columbia Heights, "U Street, and "Navy Yard – Ballpark eventually became catalysts for commercial development. The "Kennedy Center opened, as well as several new museums and historic monuments on and around the National Mall.
In 1978, Congress sent the "District of Columbia Voting Rights Amendment to the states for ratification. This amendment would have granted the District representation in the House, Senate, and Electoral College as if it were a state. The proposed amendment had a seven-year limit for ratification, and only sixteen states ratified it in this period.
The city's local government, particularly during the mayoralty of "Marion Barry, was criticized for mismanagement and waste. Barry defeated incumbent mayor "Walter Washington in the 1978 Democratic Party primary. Barry was then elected mayor, serving three successive four-year terms. During his administration in 1989, "The Washington Monthly magazine claimed that the District had "the worst city government in America". After being imprisoned for six months on misdemeanor drug charges in 1990, Barry did not run for reelection. In 1991, "Sharon Pratt Kelly became the first black woman to lead a major U.S. city.
Barry was elected again in 1994 and by the next year the city had become nearly insolvent. In 1995, Congress created the "District of Columbia Financial Control Board to oversee all municipal spending and rehabilitate the city government. Mayor "Anthony Williams won election in 1998. His administration oversaw a period of greater prosperity, "urban renewal, and budget surpluses. The District regained control over its finances in 2001 and the oversight board's operations were suspended in September of that year.
Williams did not seek reelection in 2006. Council member "Adrian Fenty defeated Council Chairwoman "Linda Cropp in that year's Democratic primary race to succeed Williams as mayor and started his term in 2007. Shortly upon taking office, Fenty won approval from the city council to directly manage and overhaul the city's under-performing public school system. However, Fenty lost a Democratic Party primary to former Council Chair "Vincent Gray in August 2010. Mayor Gray won the general election and assumed office in January 2011 with a pledge to bring economic opportunities to more of the city's residents and under-served areas.
On September 16, 2013, the "Washington Navy Yard shooting occurred when lone gunman Aaron Alexis fatally shot twelve people and injured three others in a "mass shooting at the headquarters of the "Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA) inside the "Washington Navy Yard in the "Southeast quadrant of the city. The attack, which took place in the Navy Yard's Building 197, began around 8:20 a.m. EDT and ended when Alexis was killed by police around 9:20 a.m. EDT. It was the second-deadliest mass murder on a U.S. military base, behind only the "Fort Hood shooting in November 2009.
Terrorism and security
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The Washington area was a main target of the "September 11, 2001 attacks. "American Airlines Flight 77 was "hijacked by five "Islamic terrorists and flew into "the Pentagon in "Arlington County, Virginia, just across the Potomac River from Washington, killing 125 people inside the building, as well as 64 on board the airliner, including the five terrorists. "United Airlines Flight 93, which was also hijacked and which went down in an open field near "Shanksville, Pennsylvania, supposedly intended to target either the "White House or the "U.S. Capitol.
Since September 11, 2001, a number of high-profile incidents and security scares have occurred in Washington. In October 2001, "anthrax attacks, involving "anthrax-contaminated mail sent to numerous members of Congress, infected 31 staff members, and killed two "U.S. Postal Service employees who handled the contaminated mail at the "Brentwood sorting facility. An FBI and DOJ investigation determined the likely culprit of the anthrax attacks to be "Bruce Edwards Ivins, a scientist, but he committed suicide in July 2008 before formal charges were filed.
During three weeks of October 2002, fear spread among residents of the Washington area, during the "Beltway Sniper attacks. Ten apparently random victims were killed, with three others wounded, before "John Allen Muhammad and "Lee Boyd Malvo were arrested on October 24, 2002.
In 2003 and 2004, a serial arsonist set over 40 fires, mainly in the District and the close-in Maryland suburbs, with one fire killing an elderly woman. A local man was arrested in the serial arson case in April 2005 and pleaded guilty.
The toxin "ricin was found in the mailroom of the White House in November 2003 and in the mailroom of U.S. Senate Majority Leader "Bill Frist in February 2004.
After the September 11 attacks, security was increased in Washington. Screening devices for biological agents, "metal detectors, and vehicle barriers became more commonplace at office buildings as well as government buildings. After the "2004 Madrid train bombings, local authorities decided to test explosives detectors on the vulnerable "Washington Metro subway system.
When U.S. forces in "Pakistan raided a house suspected of being a terrorist hideout, they found information several years old about planned attacks on Washington, D.C., New York City, and "Newark, New Jersey. It was directed to intelligence officials. On August 1, 2004, the "Secretary of Homeland Security put the city on Orange (High) Alert. A few days later, security checkpoints appeared in and around the Capitol Hill and Foggy Bottom neighborhoods, and fences were erected on monuments once freely accessible, such as the "Capitol. Tours of the White House were limited to those arranged by members of Congress. Screening devices for biological agents, "metal detectors, and vehicle barriers became more common at office buildings as well as government buildings and in transportation facilities. This ultra-tight security was referred to as "Fortress Washington"; many people objected to "walling off Washington" based on information several years old. The vehicle inspections set up around the U.S. Capitol were removed in November 2004.
On November 8, 2016, Washington voters were asked to advise the Council to approve or reject a proposal, which included advising the council to petition Congress to admit the District as the "51st State and to approve a constitution and boundaries for the new state. The voters of the District of Columbia voted overwhelmingly to advise the Council to approve the proposal, with 86% of voters voting to advise approving the proposal. Challenges, including Republican opposition in Congress and constitutional issues, continue to cause problems for the movement.
New migration patterns have appeared. Washington has a steadily declining black population, due to many African Americans' "leaving the city for suburbs. At the same time, the city's "Caucasian and "Hispanic populations have steadily increased. Since 2000 there has been a 7.3% decrease in the African-American population, and a 17.8% increase in the European-American population. In addition, many African Americans are going to "the South in a "New Great Migration, because of family ties, increased opportunities and lower cost of living. They still are a majority in the city, comprising 51 percent of the population.
- "Historical outline of the District of Columbia
- "List of incidents of political violence in Washington, D.C.
- "List of protest marches on Washington, D.C.
- "Reportedly haunted locations in Washington, D.C.
- "Timeline of Washington, D.C.
Notes and references
- Wolgemuth, Kathleen L. (April 1959). "Woodrow Wilson and Federal Segregation". The Journal of Negro History. 44 (2): 158–173. "doi:10.2307/2716036. "JSTOR 2716036.
- MacCord, Howard A. (1957). "Archeology of the Anacostia Valley of Washington, D.C. and Maryland". Journal of Washington Academy of Sciences. 47 (12).
- (1) McAtee, Waldo Lee (1918). Historical Sketch. Bulletin of the Biological Society of Washington. No. 1: A Sketch of the Natural History of the District of Columbia together with an indexed edition of the U.S. Geological survey's 1917 map of Washington and vicinity. Washington, D.C.: H.L. & J.B. McQueen. p. 5. "OCLC 965771. At "Google Books.
(2) "Nacotchtank: Encounters With The English". Museum of Learning. Discovery Media, Running Cloud10 V2.1 - licensed to MuseumStuff.com. Archived from the original on February 15, 2016. Retrieved February 15, 2016.
- Humphrey, Robert L., Mary Elizabeth Chambers (1977). Ancient Washington: American Indian Cultures of the Potomac Valley. George Washington University. p. 23.
- McAtee, Waldo Lee (1918). Historical Sketch. Bulletin of the Biological Society of Washington. No. 1: A Sketch of the Natural History of the District of Columbia together with an indexed edition of the U.S. Geological survey's 1917 map of Washington and vicinity. Washington, D.C.: H.L. & J.B. McQueen. p. 7. "OCLC 965771. At "Google Books
- Delany, Kevin (1971). A Walk Through Georgetown. Kevin Delany Publications.
- Downing, Margaret Brent (1918). "The Earliest Proprietors of Capitol Hill". Records of the Columbia Historical Society. 21.
- Harrison Williams, Legends of Loudoun, pp. 20-21.
- Humphrey, Robert L., Mary Elizabeth Chambers (1977). Ancient Washington: American Indian Cultures of the Potomac Valley. George Washington University. p. 27.
- Ecker, Grace Dunlop (1933). A Portrait of Old Georgetown. Garrett & Massie, Inc. pp. 1–6.
- Lesko, Kathleen M.; Valerie Babb; Carroll R. Gibbs (1991). Black Georgetown Remembered : A History of Its Black Community From The Founding Of "The Town of George". Georgetown University Press. p. 1.
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- Crew, Harvey W.; William Bensing Webb; John Wooldridge (1892). III. Washington Becomes the Capital. Centennial History of the City of Washington, D. C. "Dayton, Ohio: United Brethren Publishing House. p. 66. At "Google Books.
- Wikisource: Constitution of the United States of America
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- Crew, Harvey W.; William Bensing Webb; John Wooldridge (1892). Washington Becomes the Capital. Centennial History of the City of Washington, D. C. "Dayton, Ohio: United Brethren Publishing House. pp. 67–80. At "Google Books.
- Morison, Samuel Eliot (1972). "Washington's First Administration: 1789–1793". The Oxford History of the American People, Vol. 2. Meridian.
- Hazleton, George C., Jr. (1914). The National Capital. The National Capitol: its architecture, art, and history. New York: J.F. Taylor & Company. p. 2. "OCLC 1848763., In "Google Books.
- An ACT for establishing the Temporary and Permanent Seat of the Government of the United States. Library of Congress. Retrieved 2008-12-12.
- Steward, John (1898). "Early Maps and Surveyors of the City of Washington, D.C.". Records of the Columbia Historical Society. 2: 49. "OCLC 40326234. In "Google Books.
- Hazleton, George C., Jr. (1914). The National Capital. The National Capitol: its architecture, art, and history. New York: J.F. Taylor & Company. p. 4. "OCLC 1848763., In "Google Books.
- Statutes at Large, 1st Congress, Session III, Chapter 18, pp. 214–215, March 3, 1791.
- Steward, John (1898). "Early Maps and Surveyors of the City of Washington, D.C.". Records of the Columbia Historical Society. 2: 53. "OCLC 40326234. At "Google Books.
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- Washington, George. John C. Fitzpatrick, ed. Proclamation: Georgetown, March 30, 1791. The Writings of George Washington from the Original Manuscript Sources: 1745-1799. 31: January 22, 1790—March 9, 1792. Washington: "United States Government Printing Office (August, 1939). Retrieved 2016-10-07 – via "Google Books.
Now therefore for the purposes of amending and completing the location of the whole of the said territory of the ten miles square in conformity with the said amendatory act of Congress, I do hereby declare and make known that the whole of said territory shall be located and included within the four lines following, that is to say: Beginning at Jones's point, the upper cape of Hunting Creek in Virginia, and at an angle in the outset of 45 degrees west of the north: ...
- (1) Mathews, Catharine Van Cortlandt (1908). Chapter IV: The City of Washington in the Territory of Columbia: 1791–1793. Andrew Ellicott: His Life and Letters. New York: Grafton Press. pp. 81–86. "OCLC 1599880. At "Google Books.
(2) "Bedini, Silvio A. (1970). "Benjamin Banneker and the Survey of the District of Columbia, 1791" (PDF). Records of the "Columbia Historical Society. 47. Archived from the original (pdf) on January 14, 2013. Retrieved January 13, 2013. at boundarystones.org
(3) Bedini, Silvio A. (Spring–Summer 1991). "The Survey of the Federal Territory: Andrew Ellicott and Benjamin Banneker". Washington History. Washington, D.C.: "Historical Society of Washington, D.C. 3 (1). "JSTOR 40072968.
- National Capital Planning Commission (1976). Boundary markers of the Nation's Capital: a proposal for their preservation & protection : a National Capital Planning Commission Bicentennial report. Washington, D.C.: National Capital Planning Commission; For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, "United States Government Printing Office. "OCLC 3772302. Retrieved 2016-02-22. At "HathiTrust Digital Library.
- The Junior League of Washington (1977). Thomas Froncek, ed. The City of Washington: An Illustrated History. Knopf.
- Coordinates of the south cornerstone of the original District of Columbia: Boundary Stones of the District of Columbia in website of boundary stones.org. Retrieved 2008-08-18. from
- Coordinates of the west cornerstone of the original District of Columbia: Boundary Stones of the District of Columbia in website of boundary stones.org Retrieved 2008-09-18. from
- Coordinates of the north cornerstone of the original District of Columbia: Boundary Stones of the District of Columbia in website of boundary stones.org. Retrieved 2008-08-18. from
- Coordinates of the east cornerstone of the original District of Columbia: Boundary Stones of the District of Columbia in website of boundary stones.org. Retrieved 2008-08-18. from
- Partridge, William T. (1930). L'Enfant's Methods And Features of His Plan For The Federal City. Reports and plans, Washington region: supplementary technical data to accompany annual report: "National Capital Planning Commission. Washington, D.C.: "Government Printing Office. p. 33. "OCLC 15250016. Retrieved 2016-12-04. At "HathiTrust Digital Library.
- (1) "Pierre Charles L'Enfant's 1791 "Plan of the city intended for the permanent seat of the government ...."". "Library of Congress. Retrieved 2008-08-13. Note: The plan that this web page describes identifies the plan's author as "Peter Charles L'Enfant". The web page nevertheless identifies the author as "Pierre-Charles L'Enfant." L'Enfant identified himself as "Peter Charles L'Enfant" during most of his life, while residing in the United States. He wrote this name on his Plan of the city intended for the permanent seat of the government of t(he) United States .... (Washington, D.C.) and on other legal documents. However, during the early 1900s, a French ambassador to the U.S., "Jean Jules Jusserand, popularized the use of L'Enfant's birth name, "Pierre Charles L'Enfant". (Reference: Bowling, Kenneth R (2002). Peter Charles L'Enfant: vision, honor, and male friendship in the early American Republic. George Washington University, Washington, D.C. "ISBN 978-0-9727611-0-9). The "National Park Service has identified L'Enfant as "Major Peter Charles L'Enfant" and as "Major Pierre (Peter) Charles L'Enfant" in its histories of the "Washington Monument on its website. The "United States Code states in "40 U.S.C. § 3309: "(a) In General.—The purposes of this chapter shall be carried out in the District of Columbia as nearly as may be practicable in harmony with the plan of Peter Charles L'Enfant."
(2) L'Enfant, Peter Charles (1791). "Plan of the city intended for the permanent seat of the government of t(he) United States : projected agreeable to the direction of the President of the United States, in pursuance of an act of Congress passed the sixteenth day of July, MDCCXC, "establishing the permanent seat on the bank of the Potowmac": (Washington, D.C.)". Photocopy of annotated facsimile created by U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Washington, D.C. (1887). "Library of Congress. Retrieved 2016-01-26.
- "P. C. L'Enfant (August 19, 1791) Letter to The President of the United States". Records of the Columbia Historical Society. 2: 34–48. 1898. In "Google Books.
- Steward, John (1898). "Early Maps and Surveyors of the City of Washington, D.C.". Records of the Columbia Historical Society. 2: 49–55. "OCLC 40326234. In "Google Books.
- (1)Federal Writers' Project (1937). Washington, City and Capital: Federal Writers' Project. Works Progress Administration / United States "Government Printing Office. p. 210.
(2) "High resolution image of central portion of The L'Enfant Plan for Washington, with transcribed excerpts of key to map". "Library of Congress. Retrieved 2009-10-23.
(3) "Enlarged image of central portion of The L'Enfant Plan for Washington" (PDF). "National Park Service. Retrieved 2009-10-23.
(4) Passanneau, Joseph R. (2004). Washington Through Two Centuries: A History in Maps and Images. New York: The Monacelli Press, Inc. pp. 14–16, 24–27. "ISBN "1-58093-091-3. "OCLC 53443052.
(5) Faethz, E.F.M.; Pratt, F.W. (1874). "Sketch of Washington in embryo, viz: Previous to its survey by Major L'Enfant: Compiled from the rare historical researches of Dr. Joseph M. Toner ... combined with the skill of S.R. Seibert C.E.". Map in the collection of the "Library of Congress. "Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2012-04-03.
(6) "Freedom Plaza in downtown D.C. contains an inlay of the central portion of L'Enfant's plan at coordinates
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