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Further information: "Video relay service

Significant improvements in "video call quality of service for the "deaf occurred in the United States in 2003 when "Sorenson Media Inc. (formerly Sorenson Vision), a video compression software coding company, developed its VP-100 model stand-alone videophone specifically for the "deaf community. It was designed to output its video to the user's television in order to lower the cost of acquisition, and to offer remote control and a powerful "video compression codec for unequaled video quality and ease of use with a video relay service (VRS). Favourable reviews quickly led to its popular usage at educational facilities for the deaf, and from there to the greater deaf community.[67]

Coupled with similar high-quality videophones introduced by other electronics manufacturers, the "availability of high speed Internet, and "sponsored video relay services authorized by the U.S. "Federal Communications Commission in 2002, VRS services for the deaf underwent rapid growth in that country.[67]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Although the pseudonymous letter was accompanied by a technical description of how the telectroscope would work and was published in a reputable New York newspaper, researchers later noted that it was published close to "April Fools Day and believed the article was submitted as an elaborate hoax.[6]
  2. ^ One such demonstration that likely omitted any signal compression was performed in Mobile, Alabama on April 27, 1938. An Alabama news article reported that a "...technician of the American Television Institute, [promoted a videophone from a display booth for] the Roche Home Equipment Company... and through the medium of a scientific marvel... flashed a living picture over an ordinary telephone wire. Forming a practical insight into things that are to come, the television contrivance afforded a small, but clear, picture of speakers at each end of the wire."[26]
  3. ^ Several uses of the Picturephone were novel and ahead of their time. At Alcoa in Pittsburgh, their Picturephone system was integrated into the company's corporate "Information Technology system under its APRIS, or Alcoa Picturephone Remote Information System. APRIS let users retrieve information from Alcoa's databases, controlled by the buttons on their "touch-tone telephones, with the data being presented on their Picturephone's video display, long before computer monitors came into popular use.[41] AT&T's Bell Labs would also soon experiment with multiple users on the same videocall, creating one of the earliest forms of "videoconferencing.
  4. ^ The $500M figure is attributed only to the AT&T and Bell Labs' 15 year program covering its Picturephone Mod I and Mod II versions. Earlier videotelephony programs during the later half of the 1920s, the 1930s, late-1940s and the 1950s, plus the AT&T VideoPhone 2500 model program of the late-1980s led to a cumulative cost which approached, by some estimates, one billion dollars in total for all videotelephony development.


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  2. ^ George du Maurier (1878) Punch magazine, December 9th, 1878.
  3. ^ Burns 1998, Distant vision (c 1880–1920), p. 78-84.
  4. ^ Seeing By Electricity, The Telegraphic Journal and Electrical Review, May 1, 1880, Vol. VIII, No. 174, p. 149.
  5. ^ Louis Figuier, L'année scientifique et industrielle ou Exposé annuel des travaux scientifiques, des inventions et des principales applications de la science à l'industrie et aux arts, qui ont attiré l'attention publique en France et à l'étranger. Vingt et unième année (1877), Librairie Hachette, Paris, 1878. Reproduced on L'histoire de la télévision. Retrieved 26 May 2008.
  6. ^ a b "The Electroscope", "The New York Sun, March 29, 1877. Reproduced on L'histoire de la télévision. (French)
  7. ^ a b Carson, D.N. "The Evolution of Picturephone Service", Bell Laboratories RECORD, Bell Laboratories, October 1968, pp. 282–291.
  8. ^ a b c Burns 1998. p. 217.
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  10. ^ Electrician and Mechanic. Seeing By Electricity, Electrician and Mechanic, August 1906, pp. 54-56. Retrieved from the website, December 17, 2011.
  11. ^ Lange, André. Histoire de la television: Les Contributions Indirectes d'Alexandre Graham Bell Au Developpement Des Rescherches Sur La Vision a Distance (French), website, March 2, 2003. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
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  13. ^ "Bell, Alexander Graham. Editorial and Articles on the Possibility of Seeing By Electricity, Beinn Bhreagh Recorder, 1910, March 22, 1910.
  14. ^ a b Andberg, Sami (2008) Video Conferencing in Distance Education, Department of Computer Science, "University of Helsinki, December 5, 2008. Retrieved July 29, 2010.
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  17. ^ Video definition, Online Etymology Dictionary
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  19. ^ 2-Way Television in Phoning Tested, "The New York Times, April 10th, 1930, pg.25 (subscription).
  20. ^ a b Washington Hails The Test: Operator There Puts Through the Calls as Scientists Watch, "The New York Times, April 8, 1927, pg.20 (subscription)
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  26. ^ Beverly, O.T. "Technician transmits moving pictures over phone wire showing promise of TV (Yesterday's News)". Mobile Press Register. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  27. ^ A Missing Link in the History of the Videophone, blog website, June 21, 2011.
  28. ^ a b c d e f "Zworykin, Vladimir Kosma; Ramberg, E.G.; Flory, L.E. Television in Science and Industry, New York: "John Wiley & Sons, 1958, pp. 12–13, 254–255. This work in turn cites:
    • Electronics magazine. "Picture-Phone TV Gets a Boost", "Electronics, Vol. 29, p. 28, September 1956;
    • Goebel, G. "Das Fernsehen in Deutschland bis zum Jahre 1945", Archiv für das Postund Fernmeldewesen (Television in Germany up to the year 1945), Vol. 5, pp. 259–393, 1953;
    • "Ives, H.E.. "Two-Way Television", "Bell Laboratories, Bell Laboratories RECORD, Vol. 8, pp. 399–404, 1930.
  29. ^ a b c d Nature. Public Television In Germany, Nature (journal), March 7, 1936, Vol.137, pp.391, D.O.I.:10.1038/137391A0.
  30. ^ a b c Boothroyd, David. BT History: Connecting With The Past: Video Telephony["permanent dead link], "New Electronics, website, February 26, 2013, pp. 14-16.
  31. ^ a b L.S. The World's First Videophone Service: Telepresence 1936 Style, "The Economist, October 20, 2010.
  32. ^ (2012) IEEE Global History Network: Harold S. Osborne Biography, IEEE Global History Network website, 2009–2012. Retrieved January 13, 2013.
  33. ^ Burns 1998. Pg. 528
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  35. ^ Kasher, Steven. The Art of Hitler, "MIT Press, October, Vol. 59 (Winter, 1992), p. 59.
  36. ^ Burns 1998, Pg. 530.
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  38. ^ Mulbach 1995.
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  40. ^ Mulbach 1995. Pg. 294.
  41. ^ a b c d e AT&T. Debut Of The Videophone Archived May 17, 2013, at the "Wayback Machine., AT&T Techchannel website, June 29, 2012. Retrieved from on January 3, 2013.
  42. ^ Novak, Matt. Future Calling: Videophones in the World of The Jetsons, "Smithsonian magazine blog website, January 28, 2013. Retrieved December 18, 2013.
  43. ^ Hall, Arthur D. "Developing Picturephone Service", Bell Telephone Magazine, Spring 1964, pp. 14–21.
  44. ^ a b c d e Bell Laboratories RECORD (1969) A collection of several articles on the AT&T Picturephone (then about to be released) Bell Laboratories, pp. 134-153 & 160-187, Volume 47, No. 5, May/June 1969.
  45. ^ Expo Lounge website, retrieved 2009-03-22.
  46. ^ Technology-Supported Human-World Interaction website, February 14, 2008.
  47. ^ How to use your Picturephone
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  49. ^ a b c Silberg, Lurie. "Here's Looking At You! AT&T, Sharp Sign 3-Year Contract To Jointly Develop Videophone Technology", HFN The Weekly Newspaper For The Home Furnishing Network, February 6, 1995, Vol. 69.6, p. 76. Gale Document No.: GALE|A16415691.
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  59. ^ a b c Desperately Seeking Saburi: Finding the Camera Phone Creator, website, November 18, 2005.
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  62. ^ Nuttall, Nick. "Well, Hello, How Nice To See You; Videophones." London, England: ‘’"The Times’’, March 26, 1993: 31. Retrieved December 22, 2013.
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  65. ^ a b Fitzgerald, Thomas J. For the Deaf, Communication Without the Wait["permanent dead link], "The New York Times, December 18, 2003.


  • Norby, K. "A Window To The Future: The Videophone Experience In Norway", Kjeller, Norway: Norwegian Telecom Research Department, 1991, pp. 66-77.

Further reading[edit]

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