Newer upscale neighborhoods can feature fiber optic cables running directly into the homes. This enables service providers to offer internet services with much higher bandwidth and/or lower latency characteristics associated with end-to-end optical signaling.
The following standards allow devices to communicate over coaxial cables, which are frequently installed to support multiple television sets throughout homes.
- The "Multimedia over Coax Alliance (MoCA) standard can achieve up to 270 Mbit/s
- "HomePNA support up to 320 Mbit/s
The "ITU-T "G.hn and "IEEE "Powerline standard, which provide high-speed (up to 1 Gbit/s) local area networking over existing home wiring, are examples of home networking technology designed specifically for IPTV delivery. Recently, the IEEE passed proposal "P1901 which grounded a standard within the Market for wireline products produced and sold by companies that are part of the "HomePlug Alliance. The IEEE is continuously working to push for P1901 to be completely recognized worldwide as the sole standard for all future products that are produced for Home Networking.
Endpoint devices and services
Traditionally, data-centric equipment such as computers and media players have been the primary tenants of a home network. However, due to the lowering cost of computing and the ubiquity of smartphone usage, many traditionally non-networked home equipment categories now include new variants capable of control or remote monitoring through an app on a smartphone. Newer startups and established home equipment manufacturers alike have begun to offer these products as part of a "Smart" or "Intelligent" or "Connected Home" portfolio. The control and/or monitoring interfaces for these products can be accessed through proprietary smartphone applications specific to that product line.
- "Personal computers such as "desktops, "laptops, "netbooks, and "tablets
- A "network attached storage (NAS) device can be easily accessed via the "CIFS or "NFS protocols for general storage or for backup purposes.
- A "print server can be used to share any directly connected printers with other computers on the network.
- "IP phones or "smartphones (when connected via "Wi-Fi) utilizing "VoIP technologies
- Television: Some new "TVs and "DVRs include integrated WiFi connectivity which allows the user to access services such as "Netflix and "YouTube
- Home audio: "Digital audio players, and "stereo systems with network connectivity can allow a user to easily access their music library, often using "Bonjour to discover and interface with an instance of "iTunes running on a remote PC.
- Gaming: "video game consoles rely on connectivity to the home network to enable a significant portion of their overall features, such as the multiplayer in games, social network integration, ability to purchase or demo new games, and receive software updates. Recent consoles have begun more aggressively pursuing the role of the sole entertainment and media hub of the home.
- "DLNA is a common protocol used for interoperability between networked media-centric devices in the home
Some older entertainment devices may not feature the appropriate network interfaces required for home network connectivity. In some situations, USB "dongles and PCI "Network Interface Cards are available as accessories that enable this functionality.
- "Connected" light bulbs such as "Lifx, Phillips Hue, Samsung Smart Bulb, GE Link
- ZigBee Light Link is the open standards protocol used by current major "Connected" light bulb vendors
Home security and access control
Environmental monitoring and conditioning
Small standalone embedded home network devices typically require remote configuration from a PC on the same network. For example, broadband modems are often configured through a "web browser running on a PC in the same network. These devices usually use a minimal Linux distribution with a lightweight HTTP server running in the background to allow the user to conveniently modify system variables from a "GUI rendered in their browser. These pages use "HTML forms extensively and make attempts to offer styled, visually appealing views that are also descriptive and easy to use.
Apple ecosystem devices
Apple devices aim to make networking as hidden and automatic as possible, utilizing a zero-configuration networking protocol called Bonjour embedded within their otherwise proprietary line of software and hardware products.
Microsoft ecosystem devices
Microsoft offers simple access control features built into their Windows operating system. Homegroup is a feature that allows "shared disk access, shared printer access and shared scanner access among all computers and users (typically family members) in a home, in a similar fashion as in a small office "workgroup, e.g., by means of distributed peer-to-peer networking (without a central server). Additionally, a "home server may be added for increased functionality. The Windows HomeGroup feature was introduced with Microsoft "Windows 7 in order to simplify file sharing in residences. All users (typically all family members), except guest accounts, may access any shared library on any computer that is connected to the home group. Passwords are not required from the family members during logon. Instead, secure file sharing is possible by means of a temporary password that is used when adding a computer to the HomeGroup.
Home network security issues
This subject is not specific to home networks. New threats and related countering advice pop up continuously, here is an attempt to a list of issues:
- Attention to Access control: which home network user properly authenticated, f.ex. using a good password, owns, may read, may write etc.. the different resources.
- Attention to Encryption: which information is exchanged/stored in plaintext, which is encrypted into gibberish, and decrypted only for those with the necessary privileges.
- Good password/passphrase management: How difficult is it for others to guess or crack by brute force, and impersonate members of the household to gain access to data; What is to be done if a password is forgotten?
- Good backup practice: How to ensure the survival of important data in case a storage unit fails, or gets corrupted, or can no longer be decrypted, or if we suddenly need a several months older version of a file?
- Attention to default settings: Which default settings of systems in the home network should not be left unchanged and therefore potentially known to others?
- Attention to remote access: Which restrictions should we impose to the mechanisms for accessing the home network from Internet, thereby limiting number of people who can try to break in.
- Timely SW updates: Since almost all SW sources regularly publish updates to their SW, what should we do to minimize the periods where we are using a version that is not the latest; i.e. potentially containing known vulnerabilities.
- Avoiding the use of technologies and devices with known security vulnerabilities, or from suppliers not worthy of trust, not likely to publish updates, thereby avoiding risk when a new release addressing possible vulnerabilities is not published or published but is not yet upgraded in the home network.
- Proper logout and attention to other browser remembered info: passwords, automatically filled in form-field values, cut-paste-buffer content, undo-redo type of info, cookie content, etc.. that might contain security sensitive info and the browser may be tricked by a web site being visited to reveal them.
- Use of Firewalls and Security Software so that many security measures may be carried out automatically and in real time.
- Use of two factor authentication so that even if passwords are guessed or revealed, impersonating members of the household to gain access to their files is not possible.
- Monitoring suspicious activity so that network activity not consistent with our use pattern may reveal security breaches.
- Practicing safe surfing in order to avoid infection: being skeptical about clicking links, opening files that may be masquerading as harmless, visiting sites that may not be professionally managed or may be malicious, allowing scripts or apps to run locally, connecting USB disks to own PC, social engineering attempts, etc..
..and some debatable security by obscurity measures:
- Positioning the Router or Access Point Strategically, so neighbors and people in streets nearby can not access home network wirelessly.
- Turning Off the Network During Extended Periods of Non-Use to reduce time for exposure to hackers attempts.
- Disabling SSID Broadcast, so our network does not show in the list of networks accessible on a passerby's device.
- Assigning Static IP Addresses to Devices so the Internet equivalent of cold calling to a computer may not be feasible due to lack of an easily guessed "door/telephone number".
- Enabling MAC Address Filtering so that the specific network access card may not be addressed directly and possibly accessed maliciously.
Common infrastructure issues
Wireless signal loss
The wireless signal strength of the standard residential wireless router may not be powerful enough to cover the entire house or may not be able to get through to all floors of multiple floor residences. In such situations, the installation of one or more "wireless repeaters may be necessary.
WiFi often extends beyond the boundaries of a home and can create coverage where it is least wanted, offering a channel through which non-residents could compromise a system and retrieve personal data. To prevent this it is usually sufficient to enforce the use of authentication, encryption, or "VPN that requires a password for network connectivity.
However new Wi-Fi standards working at 60 GHz, such as "802.11ad, enable confidence that the LAN will not trespass physical barriers, as at such frequencies a simple wall would attenuate the signal considerably.
Electrical grid noise
For home networks relying on powerline communication technology, how to deal with electrical noise injected into the system from standard household appliances remains the largest challenge. Whenever any appliance is turned on or turned off it creates noise that could possibly disrupt data transfer through the wiring. IEEE products that are certified to be HomePlug 1.0 compliant have been engineered to no longer interfere with, or receive interference from other devices plugged into the same home's electrical grid.
The convenience, availability, and reliability of externally managed "cloud computing resources continues to become an appealing choice for many home-dwellers without interest or experience in IT. For these individuals, the subscription fees and/or privacy risks associated with such services are often perceived as lower cost than having to configure and maintain similar facilities within a home network.
There are increased offerings of service providers' "triple play solutions which are usually bundled with Modem/Router/WiFi combination devices that require nothing but the setting of a password to complete configuration. In such situations the home-dweller no longer requires the purchase of an additional routing device to distribute internet access throughout the home—It also obviates the need for the home-dweller having even the most basic understanding of networking technology.
- “Discover and Learn,” WiFi Alliance, http://www.wi-fi.org/discover_and_learn.php (accessed June 30, 2010).
- Berger, Lars T.; Schwager, Andreas; Pagani, Pascal; Van Rensburg; Piet Janse (February 2014). "Introduction to the Power Line Communication Channel and Noise Characterisation". In Berger, Lars T.; Schwager, Andreas; Pagani, Pascal; Schneider, Daniel M. MIMO Power Line Communications: Narrow and Broadband Standards, EMC, and Advanced Processing. Devices, Circuits, and Systems. CRC Press. pp. 3–38. "ISBN "9781466557529.
- Faure, Jean-Philippe. “IEEE P1901 Draft Standard for Broadband over Power Line Networks: Medium Access Control and Physical Layer Specifications,” IEEE Standards Association, http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/1901/ (accessed June 22, 2010).
- Greg Holden, Lawrence C. Miller, Home Networking Do-It-Yourself for Dummies, John Wiley and Sons, 2011.
- Wangerien, Brian. "The Challenges of Wi-Fi." Communications News. Encyclopædia Britannica. Web http://www.britannica.com/bps/additionalcontent/18/21597846/The-challenges-of-WiFi.
- “Frequently Asked Questions,” HomePlug Powerline Alliance, http://www.homeplug.org/about/faqs/ (accessed June 22, 2010).
Dojo is Standing for Smart Homes Cybersecurity