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Main article: "List of countries by Human Development Index

The 2016 Human Development Report by the United Nations Development Programme was released on March 21, 2017, and calculates HDI values based on estimates for 2015. Below is the list of the "very high human development" countries:[6]

Rank Country Score
2016 estimates for 2015
[7]
Change in rank from previous year[8] 2016 estimates for 2015
[8]
Change from previous year
[8]
1 Steady  "Norway 0.949 Increase 0.001
2 Increase (1)  "Australia 0.939 Increase 0.002
2 Steady   "Switzerland 0.939 Increase 0.001
4 Steady  "Germany 0.926 Increase 0.002
5 Increase (1)  "Denmark 0.925 Increase 0.002
5 Decrease (1)  "Singapore 0.925 Increase 0.001
7 Decrease (1)  "Netherlands 0.924 Increase 0.001
8 Steady  "Ireland 0.923 Increase 0.003
9 Steady  "Iceland 0.921 Increase 0.002
10 Decrease (1)  "Canada 0.920 Increase 0.001
10 Increase (1)  "United States 0.920 Increase 0.002
12 Steady  "Hong Kong 0.917 Increase 0.001
13 Steady  "New Zealand 0.915 Increase 0.002
14 Increase (1)  "Sweden 0.913 Increase 0.004
15 Decrease (1)  "Liechtenstein 0.912 Increase 0.001
16 Steady  "United Kingdom 0.909 Increase 0.001
17 Steady  "Japan 0.903 Increase 0.001
18 Steady  "South Korea 0.901 Increase 0.002
19 Steady  "Israel 0.899 Increase 0.001
20 Steady  "Luxembourg 0.898 Increase 0.002
21 Increase (1)  "France 0.897 Increase 0.003
22 Decrease (1)  "Belgium 0.896 Increase 0.001
23 Steady  "Finland 0.895 Increase 0.002
24 Steady  "Austria 0.893 Increase 0.001
25 Steady  "Slovenia 0.890 Increase 0.002
26 Increase (1)  "Italy 0.887 Increase 0.006
27 Decrease (1)  "Spain 0.884 Increase 0.002
28 Steady  "Czech Republic 0.878 Increase 0.003
29 Steady  "Greece 0.866 Increase 0.001
30 Steady  "Brunei 0.865 Increase 0.001
30 Increase (1)  "Estonia 0.865 Increase 0.002
32 Steady  "Andorra 0.858 Increase 0.001
33 Increase (1)  "Cyprus 0.856 Increase 0.002
33 Increase (2)  "Malta 0.856 Increase 0.003
33 Steady  "Qatar 0.856 Increase 0.001
36 Steady  "Poland 0.855 Increase 0.003
37 Steady  "Lithuania 0.848 Increase 0.002
38 Steady  "Chile 0.847 Increase 0.002
38 Steady  "Saudi Arabia 0.847 Increase 0.002
40 Steady  "Slovakia 0.845 Increase 0.003
41 Steady  "Portugal 0.843 Increase 0.002
42 Steady  "United Arab Emirates 0.840 Increase 0.004
43 Steady  "Hungary 0.836 Increase 0.002
44 Steady  "Latvia 0.830 Increase 0.002
45 Steady  "Argentina 0.827 Increase 0.001
45 Increase (1)  "Croatia 0.827 Increase 0.004
47 Decrease (1)  "Bahrain 0.824 Increase 0.001
48 Increase (1)  "Montenegro 0.807 Increase 0.003
49 Decrease (1)  "Russia 0.804 Decrease 0.001
50 Increase (1)  "Romania 0.802 Increase 0.004
51 Decrease (1)  "Kuwait 0.800 Increase 0.001

Inequality-adjusted HDI[edit]

List of countries by inequality-adjusted HDI

The Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI)[6] is a "measure of the average level of human development of people in a society once inequality is taken into account."

The rankings are not relative to the HDI list above due to the exclusion of countries which are missing IHDI data (p. 206).

  1.  "Norway 0.898
  2.  "Iceland 0.868
  3.  "Netherlands 0.861
  4.  "Australia 0.861
  5.  "Germany 0.859
  6.   "Switzerland 0.859
  7.  "Denmark 0.858
  8.  "Sweden 0.851
  9.  "Ireland 0.850
  10.  "Finland 0.843
  11.  "Canada 0.839
  12.  "Slovenia 0.838
  13.  "United Kingdom 0.836
  14.  "Czech Republic 0.830
  15.  "Luxembourg 0.827
  16.  "Belgium 0.821
  17.  "Austria 0.815
  18.  "France 0.813
  19.  "United States 0.796
  20.  "Slovakia 0.793
  21.  "Japan 0.791
  22.  "Spain 0.791
  23.  "Estonia 0.788
  24.  "Malta 0.786
  25.  "Italy 0.784
  26.  "Israel 0.778
  27.  "Poland 0.774
  28.  "Hungary 0.771
  29.  "Cyprus 0.762
  30.  "Lithuania 0.759
  31.  "Greece 0.758
  32.  "Portugal 0.755
  33.  "South Korea 0.753
  34.  "Croatia 0.752
  35.  "Latvia 0.742
  36.  "Montenegro 0.736
  37.  "Russia 0.725
  38.  "Romania 0.714
  39.  "Argentina 0.698
  40.  "Chile 0.692

Countries in the top quartile of HDI ("very high human development" group) with a missing IHDI: "New Zealand, "Singapore, "Hong Kong, "Liechtenstein, "Brunei, "Qatar, "Saudi Arabia, "Andorra, "United Arab Emirates, "Bahrain, and "Kuwait.

2015 Human Development Index[edit]

List of countries by Human Development Index

The 2015 Human Development Report by the United Nations Development Programme was released on December 14, 2015, and calculates HDI values based on estimates for 2014. Below is the list of the "very high human development" countries:[9][10][11]

Rank Country Score
2015 estimates for 2014
[7]
Change in rank from previous year[7] 2015 estimates for 2014
[7]
Change from previous year
[7]
1 Steady  "Norway 0.944 Increase 0.002
2 Steady  "Australia 0.935 Increase 0.002
3 Steady   "Switzerland 0.930 Increase 0.002
4 Steady  "Denmark 0.923 Steady
5 Steady  "Netherlands 0.922 Increase 0.002
6 Steady  "Germany 0.916 Increase 0.001
6 Increase (2)  "Ireland 0.916 Increase 0.004
8 Decrease (1)  "United States 0.915 Increase 0.002
9 Decrease (1)  "Canada 0.913 Increase 0.001
9 Increase (1)  "New Zealand 0.913 Increase 0.002
11 Decrease (2)  "Singapore 0.912 Increase 0.003
12 Steady  "Hong Kong 0.910 Increase 0.002
13 Steady  "Liechtenstein 0.908 Increase 0.001
14 Steady  "Sweden 0.907 Increase 0.002
14 Increase (1)  "United Kingdom 0.907 Increase 0.005
16 Steady  "Iceland 0.899 Steady
17 Steady  "South Korea 0.898 Increase 0.003
18 Steady  "Israel 0.894 Increase 0.001
18 Steady  "Macau 0.894 [12]
19 Steady  "Luxembourg 0.892 Increase 0.002
20 Decrease (1)  "Japan 0.891 Increase 0.001
21 Steady  "Belgium 0.890 Increase 0.002
22 Steady  "France 0.888 Increase 0.001
23 Steady  "Austria 0.885 Increase 0.001
24 Steady  "Finland 0.883 Increase 0.001
25 Steady  "Taiwan 0.882 [13]
26 Steady  "Slovenia 0.880 Increase 0.001
27 Steady  "Spain 0.876 Increase 0.002
28 Steady  "Italy 0.873 Steady
29 Steady  "Czech Republic 0.870 Increase 0.002
30 Steady  "Greece 0.865 Increase 0.002
31 Steady  "Estonia 0.861 Increase 0.002
32 Steady  "Brunei 0.856 Increase 0.004
33 Steady  "Cyprus 0.850 Steady
33 Increase (1)  "Qatar 0.850 Increase 0.001
34 Steady  "Andorra 0.845 Increase 0.001
35 Increase (1)  "Slovakia 0.844 Increase 0.005
36 Decrease (1)  "Poland 0.843 Increase 0.003
37 Steady  "Lithuania 0.839 Increase 0.002
37 Steady  "Malta 0.839 Increase 0.002
39 Steady  "Saudi Arabia 0.837 Increase 0.001
40 Steady  "Argentina 0.836 Increase 0.003
41 Decrease (1)  "United Arab Emirates 0.835 Increase 0.002
42 Steady  "Chile 0.832 Increase 0.002
43 Steady  "Portugal 0.830 Increase 0.002
44 Steady  "Hungary 0.828 Increase 0.003
45 Steady  "Bahrain 0.824 Increase 0.003
46 Increase (1)  "Latvia 0.819 Increase 0.003
47 Decrease (1)  "Croatia 0.818 Increase 0.001
48 Decrease (1)  "Kuwait 0.816 Steady
49 Steady  "Montenegro 0.802 Increase 0.001

Inequality-adjusted HDI[edit]

List of countries by inequality-adjusted HDI

The Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI)[9] is a "measure of the average level of human development of people in a society once inequality is taken into account."

Note: The green arrows (Increase), red arrows (Decrease), and blue dashes (Steady) represent changes in rank. The rankings are not relative to the HDI list above due to the exclusion of countries which are missing IHDI data (p. 216).

  1.  "Norway 0.893 (Steady)
  2.  "Netherlands 0.861 (Increase 1)
  3.   "Switzerland 0.861 (Increase 1)
  4.  "Australia 0.858 (Decrease 2)
  5.  "Denmark 0.856 (Increase 3)
  6.  "Germany 0.853 (Decrease 1)
  7.  "Iceland 0.846 (Decrease 1)
  8.  "Sweden 0.846 (Decrease 1)
  9.  "Ireland 0.836 (Increase 1)
  10.  "Finland 0.834 (Increase 1)
  11.  "Canada 0.832 (Decrease 2)
  12.  "Slovenia 0.829 (Steady)
  13.  "United Kingdom 0.829 (Increase 3)
  14.  "Czech Republic 0.823 (Increase 1)
  15.  "Luxembourg 0.822 (Decrease 1)
  16.  "Belgium 0.820 (Increase 1)
  17.  "Austria 0.816 (Decrease 4)
  18.  "France 0.811 (Steady)
  19.  "Slovakia 0.791 (Increase 2)
  20.  "Estonia 0.782 (Increase 4)
  21.  "Japan 0.780 (Decrease 1)
  22.  "Israel 0.775 (Decrease 3)
  23.  "Spain 0.775 (Decrease 1)
  24.  "Italy 0.773 (Decrease 1)
  25.  "Hungary 0.769 (Increase 2)
  26.  "Malta 0.767 (Steady)
  27.  "Poland 0.760 (Increase 2)
  28.  "United States 0.760 (Steady)
  29.  "Cyprus 0.758 (Increase 1)
  30.  "Greece 0.758 (Decrease 5)
  31.  "Lithuania 0.754 (Steady)
  32.  "South Korea 0.751 (Increase 1)
  33.  "Portugal 0.744 (Decrease 1)
  34.  "Croatia 0.743 (Increase 1)
  35.  "Belarus 0.741
  36.  "Latvia 0.730

Countries in the top quartile of HDI ("very high human development" group) with a missing IHDI: "New Zealand, "Singapore, "Hong Kong, "Liechtenstein, "Brunei, "Qatar, "Saudi Arabia, "Andorra, "United Arab Emirates, "Bahrain, "Cuba, and "Kuwait.

2014 Human Development Index[edit]

The 2014 Human Development Report by the United Nations Development Programme was released on July 24, 2014, and calculates HDI values based on estimates for 2013. Below is the list of the "very high human development" countries:[14][10][11]

  • Increase = increase.
  • Steady = steady.
  • Decrease = decrease.
  • The number in brackets represents the number of ranks the country has climbed (up or down) relative to the ranking in the 2013 report.
Rank Country HDI
New 2014 estimates for 2013
[15]
Change in rank between 2014 report and 2013 report[15] New 2014 estimates for 2013
[15]
Change compared between 2014 report and 2013 report
[15]
1 Steady  "Norway 0.944 Decrease 0.011
2 Steady  "Australia 0.933 Increase 0.002
3 Steady   "Switzerland 0.917 Increase 0.001
4 Steady  "Netherlands 0.915 Steady
5 Steady  "United States 0.914 Increase 0.002
6 Steady  "Germany 0.911 Steady
7 Steady  "New Zealand 0.910 Increase 0.002
8 Steady  "Canada 0.902 Increase 0.001
9 Increase (3)  "Singapore 0.901 Increase 0.002
10 Steady  "Denmark 0.900 Steady
11 Decrease (3)  "Ireland 0.899 Decrease 0.017
12 Decrease (1)  "Sweden 0.898 Increase 0.001
13 Steady  "Iceland 0.895 Increase 0.002
14 Steady  "United Kingdom 0.892 Increase 0.002
14 Steady  "Macau 0.892 [12]
15 Steady  "Hong Kong 0.891 Increase 0.002
15 Increase (1)  "South Korea 0.891 Increase 0.003
17 Decrease (1)  "Japan 0.890 Increase 0.002
18 Decrease (2)  "Liechtenstein 0.889 Increase 0.001
19 Steady  "Israel 0.888 Increase 0.002
20 Steady  "France 0.884 Steady
21 Steady  "Taiwan 0.882 [13]
22 Steady  "Austria 0.881 Increase 0.001
22 Steady  "Belgium 0.881 Increase 0.001
22 Steady  "Luxembourg 0.881 Increase 0.001
23 Steady  "Finland 0.879 Steady
24 Steady  "Slovenia 0.874 Steady
25 Steady  "Italy 0.872 Steady
26 Steady  "Spain 0.869 Steady
27 Steady  "Czech Republic 0.861 Steady
28 Steady  "Greece 0.853 Decrease 0.001
29 Steady  "Brunei 0.852 Steady
30 Steady  "Qatar 0.851 Increase 0.001
31 Steady  "Cyprus 0.845 Decrease 0.003
32 Steady  "Estonia 0.840 Increase 0.001
33 Steady  "Saudi Arabia 0.836 Increase 0.003
34 Increase (1)  "Lithuania 0.834 Increase 0.003
34 Decrease (1)  "Poland 0.834 Increase 0.001
35 Steady  "Andorra 0.830 Steady
35 Increase (1)  "Slovakia 0.830 Increase 0.001
36 Steady  "Malta 0.829 Increase 0.002
37 Steady  "United Arab Emirates 0.827 Increase 0.002
38 Increase (1)  "Chile 0.822 Increase 0.003
38 Steady  "Portugal 0.822 Steady
39 Steady  "Hungary 0.818 Increase 0.001
40 Steady  "Bahrain 0.815 Increase 0.002
40 Steady  "Cuba 0.815 Increase 0.002
41 Decrease (2)  "Kuwait 0.814 Increase 0.001
42 Steady  "Croatia 0.812 Steady
43 Steady  "Latvia 0.810 Increase 0.002
44 Steady  "Argentina 0.808 Increase 0.002

Countries not included[edit]

Some countries were not included for various reasons, primarily due to the lack of necessary data. The following United Nations Member States were not included in the 2014 report:[14] "North Korea, "Marshall Islands, "Monaco, "Nauru, "San Marino, "Somalia, "South Sudan, "Sudan, and "Tuvalu.

Inequality-adjusted HDI[edit]

List of countries by inequality-adjusted HDI

The Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI)[14] is a "measure of the average level of human development of people in a society once inequality is taken into account."

Note: The green arrows (Increase), red arrows (Decrease), and blue dashes (Steady) represent changes in rank. The rankings are not relative to the HDI list above due to the exclusion of countries which are missing IHDI data (p. 168).

  1.  "Norway 0.891 (Steady)
  2.  "Australia 0.860 (Steady)
  3.  "Netherlands 0.854 (Increase 1)
  4.   "Switzerland 0.847 (Increase 3)
  5.  "Germany 0.846 (Steady)
  6.  "Iceland 0.843 (Increase 2)
  7.  "Sweden 0.840 (Decrease 4)
  8.  "Denmark 0.838 (Increase 1)
  9.  "Canada 0.833 (Increase 4)
  10.  "Ireland 0.832 (Decrease 4)
  11.  "Finland 0.830 (Steady)
  12.  "Slovenia 0.824 (Decrease 2)
  13.  "Austria 0.818 (Decrease 1)
  14.  "Luxembourg 0.814 (Increase 3)
  15.  "Czech Republic 0.813 (Decrease 1)
  16.  "United Kingdom 0.812 (Increase 3)
  17.  "Belgium 0.806 (Decrease 2)
  18.  "France 0.804 (Steady)
  19.  "Israel 0.793 (Increase 1)
  20.  "Japan 0.779 (New)
  21.  "Slovakia 0.778 (Increase 1)
  22.  "Spain 0.775 (Decrease 2)
  23.  "Italy 0.768 (Increase 1)
  24.  "Estonia 0.767 (Increase 1)
  25.  "Greece 0.762 (Increase 2)
  26.  "Malta 0.760 (Decrease 3)
  27.  "Hungary 0.757 (Decrease 1)
  28.  "United States 0.755 (Decrease 12)
  29.  "Poland 0.751 (Increase 1)
  30.  "Cyprus 0.752 (Decrease 1)
  31.  "Lithuania 0.746 (Increase 2)
  32.  "Portugal 0.739 (Steady)
  33.  "South Korea 0.736 (Decrease 5)
  34.  "Latvia 0.725 (Increase 1)
  35.  "Croatia 0.721 (Increase 4)
  36.  "Argentina 0.680 (Increase 7)
  37.  "Chile 0.661 (Increase 4)

Countries in the top quartile of HDI ("very high human development" group) with a missing IHDI: "New Zealand, "Singapore, "Hong Kong, "Liechtenstein, "Brunei, "Qatar, "Saudi Arabia, "Andorra, "United Arab Emirates, "Bahrain, "Cuba, and "Kuwait.

Past top countries[edit]

The list below displays the top-ranked country from each year of the Human Development Index. "Norway has been ranked the highest twelve times, "Canada eight times, followed by "Japan which has been ranked highest three times. "Iceland has been ranked highest twice.

In each original HDI[edit]

The year represents when the report was published. In parentheses is the year for which the index was calculated.

Geographical coverage[edit]

The HDI has extended its geographical coverage: David Hastings, of the "United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, published a report geographically extending the HDI to 230+ economies, whereas the UNDP HDI for 2009 enumerates 182 economies and coverage for the 2010 HDI dropped to 169 countries.[16][17]

Country/region specific HDI lists[edit]

Criticism[edit]

""

The Human Development Index has been criticized on a number of grounds including alleged ideological biases towards "egalitarianism and so-called ""Western "models of development", failure to include any "ecological considerations, lack of consideration of technological development or contributions to the human civilization, focusing exclusively on national performance and ranking, lack of attention to development from a global perspective, measurement error of the underlying statistics, and on the UNDP's changes in formula which can lead to severe misclassification in the categorisation of 'low', 'medium', 'high' or 'very high' human development countries.[18]

"Economists Hendrik Wolff, Howard Chong and "Maximilian Auffhammer discuss the HDI from the perspective of data error in the underlying health, education and income statistics used to construct the HDI. They identified three sources of data error which are due to (i) data updating, (ii) formula revisions and (iii) thresholds to classify a country's development status and conclude that 11%, 21% and 34% of all countries can be interpreted as currently misclassified in the development bins due to the three sources of data error, respectively. The authors suggest that the United Nations should discontinue the practice of classifying countries into development bins because - they claim - the cut-off values seem arbitrary, can provide incentives for strategic behavior in reporting official statistics, and have the potential to misguide politicians, investors, charity donors and the public who use the HDI at large.[18]

In 2010 the UNDP reacted to the criticism and updated the thresholds to classify nations as low, medium, and high human development countries. In a comment to "The Economist in early January 2011, the Human Development Report Office responded[19] to a January 6, 2011 article in the magazine[20] which discusses the Wolff et al. paper. The Human Development Report Office states that they undertook a systematic revision of the methods used for the calculation of the HDI and that the new methodology directly addresses the critique by Wolff et al. in that it generates a system for continuous updating of the human development categories whenever formula or data revisions take place.

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ "Human Development Report 2010". UNDP. 4 November 2010. 
  2. ^ "Technical notes" (PDF). UNDP. 2013. 
  3. ^ Mean years of schooling (of adults) (years) is a calculation of the average number of years of education received by people ages 25 and older in their lifetime based on education attainment levels of the population converted into years of schooling based on theoretical duration of each level of education attended. Source: "Barro, R. J.; Lee, J.-W. (2010). "A New Data Set of Educational Attainment in the World, 1950–2010". NBER Working Paper No. 15902. 
  4. ^ (ESYI is a calculation of the number of years a child is expected to attend school, or university, including the years spent on repetition. It is the sum of the age-specific enrollment ratios for primary, secondary, post-secondary non-tertiary and tertiary education and is calculated assuming the prevailing patterns of age-specific enrollment rates were to stay the same throughout the child's life. Expected years of schooling is capped at 18 years. (Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2010). Correspondence on education indicators. March. Montreal.)
  5. ^ Definition, Calculator, etc. at UNDP site Archived December 20, 2007, at the "Wayback Machine.
  6. ^ a b http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/2016_human_development_report.pdf
  7. ^ a b c d e "Human Development Report 2016 – "Human Development for everyone"" (PDF). "HDRO (Human Development Report Office) "United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 21 March 2017.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "UNDP2015" defined multiple times with different content (see the "help page).
  8. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference UNDP2016 was invoked but never defined (see the "help page).
  9. ^ a b http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr_2015_statistical_annex.pdf
  10. ^ a b The UN does not calculate the HDI of Macau. The government of Macau calculates its own HDI.Macau in Figures, 2015
  11. ^ a b Taiwan's government calculated its HDI to be 0.882, based on 2010 new methodology of UNDP. "2011中華民國人類發展指數 (HDI)" (PDF) (in Chinese). Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, Executive Yuan, R.O.C. 2011. Retrieved 2011-11-21. 
  12. ^ a b The UN does not calculate the HDI of Macau. The government of Macau calculates its own HDI. Macau in Figures, 2016
  13. ^ a b The UN "does not recognize the "Republic of China ("Taiwan) as a "sovereign state. The HDI report does not include Taiwan as part of the People's Republic of China when calculating China's figures. Taiwan's government calculated its HDI to be 0.882, based on 2010 new methodology of UNDP. "2011中華民國人類發展指數 (HDI)" (PDF) (in Chinese). Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, Executive Yuan, R.O.C. 2011. Retrieved 2011-11-21. 
  14. ^ a b c http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr14-report-en-1.pdf
  15. ^ a b c d "Human Development Report 2014 – "Sustaining Human Progress: Reducing Vulnerabilities and Building Resilience"". "HDRO (Human Development Report Office) "United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 25 July 2014. 
  16. ^ Hastings, David A. (2009). "Filling Gaps in the Human Development Index". United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Working Paper WP/09/02. 
  17. ^ Hastings, David A. (2011). "A "Classic" Human Development Index with 232 Countries". HumanSecurityIndex.org.  Information Note linked to data
  18. ^ a b Wolff, Hendrik; Chong, Howard; Auffhammer, Maximilian (2011). "Classification, Detection and Consequences of Data Error: Evidence from the Human Development Index". Economic Journal. 121 (553): 843–870. "doi:10.1111/j.1468-0297.2010.02408.x. 
  19. ^ "UNDP Human Development Report Office's comments". The Economist. January 2011. ["dead link]
  20. ^ "The Economist (pages 60–61 in the issue of Jan 8, 2011)". January 6, 2011. 

External links[edit]

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