The human body is the entire structure of a "human being. It is composed of many different types of "cells that together create "tissues and subsequently "organ systems. They ensure "homeostasis and the "viability of the human body.
The study of the human body involves "anatomy, "physiology, "histology and "embryology. The body "varies anatomically in known ways. Physiology focuses on the systems and organs of the human body and their functions. Many systems and mechanisms interact in order to maintain "homeostasis, with safe levels of substances such as sugar and oxygen in the blood.
The body is studied by "health professionals, physiologists, anatomists, and by artists to assist them in their work.
The adult male body is about 60% "water for a total water content of some 42 litres. This is made up of about 19 litres of extracellular fluid including about 3.2 litres of blood plasma and about 8.4 litres of "interstitial fluid, and about 23 litres of fluid inside cells. The content, acidity and composition of the water inside and outside cells is carefully maintained. The main electrolytes in body water outside cells are "sodium and "chloride, whereas within cells it is "potassium and other "phosphates.
The body contains trillions of "cells, the fundamental unit of life. At maturity, there are roughly 30–37 "trillion cells in the body, an estimate arrived at by totalling the cell numbers of all the "organs of the body and "cell types. The body is also host to about the same number of non-human cells as well as multicellular organisms which reside in the "gastrointestinal tract and on the skin. Not all parts of the body are made from cells. Cells sit in an "extracellular matrix that consists of proteins such as "collagen, surrounded by extracellular fluids. Of the 70 kg weight of an average human body, nearly 25 kg is non-human cells or non-cellular material such as bone and connective tissue.
Cells in the body function because of "DNA. DNA sits within the "nucleus of a cell. Here, parts of DNA are "copied and sent to the body of the cell via "RNA. The RNA is then used to "create "proteins which form the basis for cells, their activity, and their products. Proteins dictate cell function and gene expression, a cell is able to self-regulate by the amount of proteins produced. However, not all cells have DNA – some cells such as mature "red blood cells lose their nucleus as they mature.
The body consists of many different types of "tissue, defined as cells that act with a specialised function. The study of tissues is called "histology and often occurs with a "microscope. The body consists of four main types of tissues – lining cells ("epithelia), "connective tissue, "nervous tissue and "muscle tissue.
Cells that lie on surfaces exposed to the outside world or gastrointestinal tract ("epithelia) or internal cavities ("endothelium) come in numerous shapes and forms – from "single layers of flat cells, to cells with small beating hair-like "cilia in the lungs, to column-like cells that line the "stomach. Endothelial cells are cells that line internal cavities including blood vessels and glands. Lining cells regulate what can and can't pass through them, protect internal structures, and function as sensory surfaces.
"Organs, structured collections of "cells with a specific function, sit within the body. Examples include the "heart, "lungs and "liver. Many organs reside within "cavities within the body. These cavities include the "abdomen and "pleura.
The "circulatory system comprises the "heart and "blood vessels ("arteries, "veins and "capillaries). The heart propels the circulation of the blood, which serves as a "transportation system" to transfer "oxygen, fuel, nutrients, waste products, immune cells and signalling molecules (i.e., "hormones) from one part of the body to another. The blood consists of fluid that carries "cells in the circulation, including some that move from tissue to blood vessels and back, as well as the "spleen and "bone marrow.
The "digestive system consists of the mouth including the "tongue and "teeth, "esophagus, "stomach, ("gastrointestinal tract, "small and "large intestines, and "rectum), as well as the "liver, "pancreas, "gallbladder, and "salivary glands. It converts food into small, nutritional, non-toxic "molecules for distribution and absorption into the body.
The "endocrine system consists of the principal endocrine glands: the "pituitary, "thyroid, "adrenals, "pancreas, "parathyroids, and "gonads, but nearly all organs and tissues produce specific endocrine "hormones as well. The endocrine hormones serve as signals from one body system to another regarding an enormous array of conditions, and resulting in variety of changes of function.
The "immune system consists of the "white blood cells, the "thymus, "lymph nodes and "lymph channels, which are also part of the "lymphatic system. The immune system provides a mechanism for the body to distinguish its own cells and tissues from outside cells and substances and to neutralize or destroy the latter by using specialized proteins such as "antibodies, "cytokines, and "toll-like receptors, among many others.
The "integumentary system consists of the covering of the body (the skin), including hair and "nails as well as other functionally important structures such as the "sweat glands and "sebaceous glands. The skin provides containment, structure, and protection for other organs, and serves as a major sensory interface with the outside world.
The "lymphatic system extracts, transports and metabolizes lymph, the fluid found in between cells. The lymphatic system is similar to the circulatory system in terms of both its structure and its most basic function, to carry a body fluid.
The "musculoskeletal system consists of the "human skeleton (which includes "bones, "ligaments, "tendons, and "cartilage) and attached "muscles. It gives the body basic structure and the ability for movement. In addition to their structural role, the larger bones in the body contain "bone marrow, the site of production of blood cells. Also, all bones are major storage sites for "calcium and "phosphate. This system can be split up into the "muscular system and the "skeletal system.
The "nervous system consists of the "central nervous system (the brain and "spinal cord) and the "peripheral nervous system consists of the "nerves and "ganglia outside the brain and spinal cord. The brain is the organ of thought, emotion, memory, and "sensory processing, and serves many aspects of communication and controls various systems and functions. The "special senses consist of "vision, "hearing, "taste, and "smell. The "eyes, ears, "tongue, and nose gather information about the body's environment.
The "reproductive system consists of the "gonads and the internal and external "sex organs. The reproductive system produces "gametes in each sex, a mechanism for their combination, and in the female a nurturing environment for the first 9 months of development of the infant.
The "urinary system consists of the "kidneys, "ureters, "bladder, and "urethra. It removes toxic materials from the blood to produce urine, which carries a variety of waste molecules and excess "ions and water out of the body.
Human "anatomy is the study of the shape and form of the human body. The human body has four "limbs (two arms and two legs), a head and a "neck which connect to the "torso. The body's shape is determined by a strong "skeleton made of "bone and "cartilage, surrounded by fat, muscle, connective tissue, organs, and other structures. The "spine at the back of the skeleton contains the flexible "vertebral column which surrounds the "spinal cord, which is a collection of nerve fibres connecting the brain to the rest of the body. "Nerves connect the spinal cord and brain to the rest of the body. All major bones, muscles, and nerves in the body are named, with the exception of "anatomical variations such as "sesamoid bones and "accessory muscles.
Blood vessels carry blood throughout the body, which moves because of the beating of the "heart. Venules and "veins collect blood low in oxygen from tissues throughout the body. These collect in progressively larger veins until they reach the body's two largest veins, the "superior and "inferior vena cava, which drain blood into the right side of the heart. From here, the blood is pumped into the "lungs where it receives oxygen and drains back into the left side of the heart. From here, it is pumped into the body's largest "artery, the "aorta, and then progressively smaller arteries and arterioles until it reaches tissue. Here blood passes from small arteries into "capillaries, then small veins and the process begins again. Blood carries "oxygen, waste products, and "hormones from one place in the body to another. Blood is filtered at the "kidneys and "liver.
The body consists of a number of different cavities, separated areas which house different organ systems. The brain and "central nervous system reside in an area protected from the rest of the body by the "blood brain barrier. The lungs sit in the "pleural cavity. The "intestines, "liver, and "spleen sit in the "abdominal cavity
Human "physiology is the study of how the human body functions. This includes the mechanical, physical, "bioelectrical, and "biochemical functions of humans in good health, from "organs to the "cells of which they are composed. The human body consists of many interacting systems of "organs. These interact to maintain "homeostasis, keeping the body in a stable state with safe levels of substances such as sugar and oxygen in the blood.
Each system contributes to homeostasis, of itself, other systems, and the entire body. Some combined systems are referred to by joint names. For example, the nervous system and the endocrine system operate together as the "neuroendocrine system. The nervous system receives information from the body, and transmits this to the brain via "nerve impulses and "neurotransmitters. At the same time, the "endocrine system releases hormones, such as to help regulate "blood pressure and volume. Together, these systems regulate the internal environment of the body, maintaining blood flow, posture, energy supply, temperature, and acid balance ("pH).
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Health is a difficult state to define, but relates to the self-defined perception of an individual and includes physical, mental, social and cultural factors.["citation needed] The absence or deficit of health is illness which includes disease and injury. Diseases cause "symptoms felt, seen or perceived by a person, and signs which may be visible on a "medical examination. Illnesses may be from birth (congenital) or arise later in life (acquired). Acquired diseases may be "contagious, caused or provoked by lifestyle factors such as smoking, "alcohol use and "diet, arise as the result of injury or "trauma, or have a number of different mechanisms or provoking factors. As "life expectancy increases, many forms of cancer are becoming more common. "Cancer refers to the uncontrolled proliferation of one or more cell types and occurs more commonly in some tissue types than others. Some forms of cancer have strong or known "risk factors, whereas others may arise spontaneously. Depending on the type of cancer, risk factors can include exposure to carcinogens and radiation, excessive alcohol or tobacco intake, age, and hormone imbalances in the body.
"Health professionals learn about the human body from illustrations, models, and demonstrations. Medical and dental students in addition gain practical experience, for example by "dissection of cadavers. Human anatomy, "physiology, and "biochemistry are basic medical sciences, generally taught to medical students in their first year at medical school.
Anatomy has served the visual arts since Ancient Greek times, when the 5th century BC sculptor "Polykleitos wrote his Canon on the "ideal proportions of the male nude. In the "Italian Renaissance, artists from "Piero della Francesca (c. 1415–1492) onwards, including "Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) and his collaborator "Luca Pacioli (c. 1447–1517), learnt and wrote about the rules of art, including "visual perspective and the proportions of the human body.
In "Ancient Greece, the "Hippocratic Corpus described the anatomy of the skeleton and muscles. The 2nd century physician "Galen of Pergamum compiled classical knowledge of anatomy into a text that was used throughout the Middle Ages. In the "Renaissance, "Andreas Vesalius (1514–1564) pioneered the modern study of human anatomy by dissection, writing the influential book "De humani corporis fabrica. Anatomy advanced further with the invention of the "microscope and the study of the cellular structure of tissues and organs. Modern anatomy uses techniques such as "magnetic resonance imaging, "computed tomography, "fluoroscopy and "ultrasound imaging to study the body in unprecedented detail.
The study of human physiology began with "Hippocrates in Ancient Greece, around 420 BC, and with "Aristotle (384–322 BC) who applied critical thinking and emphasis on the relationship between structure and function. "Galen (c. 126–199) was the first to use experiments to probe the body's functions. The term physiology was introduced by the French physician "Jean Fernel (1497–1558). In the 17th century, "William Harvey (1578–1657) described the "circulatory system, pioneering the combination of close observation with careful experiment. In the 19th century, physiological knowledge began to accumulate at a rapid rate with the "cell theory of "Matthias Schleiden and "Theodor Schwann in 1838, that organisms are made up of cells. "Claude Bernard (1813–1878) created the concept of the "milieu interieur (internal environment), which "Walter Cannon (1871–1945) later said was regulated to a steady state in "homeostasis. In the 20th century, the physiologists "Knut Schmidt-Nielsen and "George Bartholomew extended their studies to "comparative physiology and "ecophysiology. Most recently, "evolutionary physiology has become a distinct subdiscipline.
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