See more Hunting articles on AOD.

Powered by
TTSReader
Share this page on
Article provided by Wikipedia


( => ( => ( => Hunting [pageid] => 38791 ) =>
""
""
George Stubbs Cheetah with Two Indian Attendants and a Stag
""
""
"Boar hunting, "Tacuinum Sanitatis (a medieval handbook on health and wellbeing; 14th century)
""
""
"Mughal "aristocrats hunting a "blackbuck alongside an "Asiatic cheetah
""
""
A 19th-century "Maratha hunting party from "India
""
""
"Velázquez's portrait of the "Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand, Governor General of the "Southern Netherlands, with his hunting dog and gun.
""
""
A family bird-hunting, by "Antonio Cabral Bejarano.

Hunting is the practice of killing or trapping animals, or pursuing or tracking them with the intent of doing so. Hunting "wildlife or "feral animals is most commonly done by humans for food, "recreation, to remove "predators that are dangerous to humans or domestic animals, or for trade. Lawful hunting is distinguished from "poaching, which is the illegal killing, trapping or capture of the hunted species. The species that are hunted are referred to as "game or "prey and are usually "mammals and "birds.

Hunting can also be a means of "pest control. Hunting advocates state that hunting can be a necessary component[1] of modern "wildlife management, for example, to help maintain a population of healthy animals within an environment's ecological "carrying capacity when natural checks such as predators are absent or very rare.[2] However, hunting has also heavily contributed to the endangerment, "extirpation and "extinction of many animals.[3]

The pursuit, capture and release, or capture for food of "fish is called "fishing, which is not commonly categorised as a form of hunting. It is also not considered hunting to pursue animals without intent to kill them, as in "wildlife photography, "birdwatching, or scientific research activities which involve tranquilizing or tagging of animals or birds. The practice of "foraging or "gathering materials from "plants and "mushrooms is also considered separate from hunting.

Skillful tracking and acquisition of an elusive target has caused the word hunt to be used in the "vernacular as a metaphor, as in "treasure hunting, "bargain hunting", and even "hunting down corruption and waste.

Contents

Etymology[edit]

The word "hunt" serves as both a "noun ("to be on a hunt") and a "verb. The noun has been dated to the early "12th century, "act of chasing game," from the verb hunt. "Old English had huntung, huntoþ. The meaning of "a body of persons associated for the purpose of hunting with a pack of hounds" is first recorded in the 1570s. Meaning "the act of searching for someone or something" is from about 1600.

The verb, Old English huntian "to chase game" ("transitive and "intransitive), perhaps developed from hunta "hunter," is related to hentan "to seize," from "Proto-Germanic huntojan (the source also of "Gothic hinþan "to seize, capture," "Old High German hunda "booty"), which is of uncertain origin. The general sense of "search diligently" (for anything) is first recorded c. 1200.[4]

History[edit]

Paleolithic[edit]

Hunting has a long history and may well pre-date the rise of the species "Homo sapiens (humans). While humans' earliest "hominid ancestors were probably "frugivores or "omnivores, there is evidence that earlier "Homo species,[5][6] and possibly also "australopithecine[7] species, utilised larger animals for "subsistence. Evidence from western Kenya suggests that hunting has been occurring for more than two million years.[8]

Furthermore, evidence exists that hunting may have been one of the multiple "environmental factors leading to the "Holocene extinction of "megafauna and their replacement by smaller "herbivores.[9] "North American megafauna extinction was coincidental with the "Younger Dryas impact event, possibly making hunting a less critical factor in prehistoric species loss than had been previously thought.[10] However, in other locations such as Australia, humans are thought to have played a very significant role in the extinction of the "Australian megafauna that was widespread prior to human occupation.[11][12]

""
""
"Inuit "walrus hunters

The closest surviving relatives of the human species are the two species of "Pan: the "common chimpanzee ("Pan troglodytes) and "bonobos ("Pan paniscus). Common chimpanzees have an "omnivorous "diet that includes troop "hunting behaviour based on beta males being led by an "alpha male. Bonobos have also been observed to occasionally engage in group hunting,[13] but eat a mostly "frugivorous diet.[14]

While it is undisputed that early humans were hunters, the importance of this for the emergence of the Homo genus from the earlier Australopithecines, including the production of "stone tools and eventually the "control of fire, are emphasised in the "hunting hypothesis and de-emphasised in scenarios that stress omnivory and "social interaction, including "mating behaviour, as essential in the emergence of human "behavioural modernity. With the establishment of "language, culture, and "religion, hunting became a "theme of "stories and "myths, as well as "rituals such as dance and "animal sacrifice.

Archaeological evidence found in present-day "Germany documents that wooden "spears have been used for hunting since at least 400,000 years ago,[15] and a 2012 study suggests that "Homo heidelbergensis may have developed the technology about 500,000 years ago.[16] Wood does not preserve well, however, and Craig Stanford, a primatologist and professor of anthropology at the "University of Southern California, has suggested that the discovery of spear use by chimpanzees probably means that early humans used wooden spears as well, perhaps, five million years ago.[17]

Hunting was a crucial component of "hunter-gatherer societies before the "domestication of livestock and the dawn of "agriculture, beginning about 11,000 years ago. By the "Mesolithic, "hunting strategies had diversified with the development of the "bow 18,000 years ago and the "domestication of the dog about 15,000 years ago. Evidence puts the earliest known mammoth hunting in Asia with "spears to approximately 16,200 years ago.[18]

""
""
"Moche deer hunting scene, "Larco Museum Collection, "Lima, Peru
""
""
Ancient Greek "black-figure pottery depicting the return of a hunter and his dog; made in "Athens between 550–530 BCE, found in "Rhodes
""
""
Artemis with a Hind, a "Roman copy of an "Ancient Greek sculpture, c. 325 BC, by "Leochares

Many species of animals have been hunted throughout history. It has been suggested that in North America and "Eurasia, "caribou and wild reindeer "may well be the species of single greatest importance in the entire anthropological literature on hunting"[19] (see also "Reindeer Age), although the varying importance of different species depended on the geographic location.

Hunter-gathering lifestyles remained prevalent in some parts of the "Americas, "Sub-Saharan Africa, and "Siberia, as well as all of Australia, until the European "Age of Discovery. They still persist in some "tribal societies, albeit in rapid decline. Peoples that preserved Paleolithic hunting-gathering until the recent past include some "indigenous peoples of the Amazonas ("Aché), some Central and Southern African ("San people), some peoples of "New Guinea ("Fayu), the "Mlabri of "Thailand and "Laos, the "Vedda people of "Sri Lanka, and a handful of "uncontacted peoples. In Africa, one of the last remaining hunter-gatherer tribes are the "Hadza of Tanzania.[20]

Criticism[edit]

Archaeologist "Louis Binford criticised the idea that early hominids and early humans were hunters. On the basis of the analysis of the skeletal remains of the consumed animals, he concluded that hominids and early humans were mostly "scavengers, not hunters,[21] and this idea is popular among some archaeologists and paleoanthropologists. Robert Blumenschine proposed the idea of confrontational scavenging,[22] which involves challenging and scaring off other "predators after they have made a kill, which he suggests could have been the leading method of obtaining "protein-rich meat by early humans.

Antiquity[edit]

""
""
Sharp "flint piece from Bjerlev Hede in central Jutland. Dated around 12,500 BC and considered the oldest hunting tool from Denmark

Even as "animal domestication became relatively widespread and after the development of agriculture, hunting was usually a significant contributor to the human food supply. The supplementary meat and materials from hunting included "protein, "bone for implements, "sinew for cordage, "fur, "feathers, "rawhide and leather used in clothing. Man's earliest hunting weapons would have included rocks, "spears, the "atlatl, and "bows and "arrows. Hunting is still vital in marginal climates, especially those unsuited for "pastoral uses or agriculture.["citation needed] For example, "Inuit people in the "Arctic trap and hunt animals for clothing and use the skins of "sea mammals to make "kayaks, clothing, and footwear.

""
""
An example of a "Goguryeo tomb mural of hunting

On ancient "reliefs, especially from "Mesopotamia, kings are often depicted as hunters of "big game such as lions and are often portrayed hunting from a "war chariot. The cultural and "psychological importance of hunting in ancient societies is represented by deities such as "the horned god "Cernunnos and "lunar goddesses of "classical antiquity, the Greek "Artemis or Roman "Diana. "Taboos are often related to hunting, and mythological association of prey species with a "divinity could be reflected in hunting restrictions such as a "reserve surrounding a temple. "Euripides' tale of Artemis and "Actaeon, for example, may be seen as a caution against disrespect of prey or impudent boasting.

With the domestication of the dog, "birds of prey, and the "ferret, various forms of animal-aided hunting developed, including "venery ("scent hound hunting, such as "fox hunting), "coursing ("sight hound hunting), "falconry, and "ferreting. While these are all associated with "medieval hunting, over time, various "dog breeds were selected for very precise tasks during the hunt, reflected in such names as "pointer and "setter.

Pastoral and agricultural societies[edit]

""
""
Ladies hunting in the 15th century
""
""
"Tapestry with a hunting scene showing the coat of arms of Dymitr Chalecki, 16th century
""
""
"Albert Gleizes, 1911, "La Chasse (The Hunt), oil on canvas depicting a scene in the "Cubist style of hunting by horseback in France

Even as agriculture and "animal husbandry became more prevalent, hunting often remained as a part of human culture where the environment and social conditions allowed. "Hunter-gatherer societies persisted, even when increasingly confined to marginal areas. And within agricultural systems, hunting served to kill animals that prey upon "domestic and wild animals or to attempt to "extirpate animals seen by humans as competition for resources such as water or forage.

When hunting moved from a subsistence activity to a social one, two trends emerged:

  1. the development of the role of the specialist hunter, with special training and equipment
  2. the co-option of hunting as a "sport" for those of an upper social class

The meaning of the word game in "Middle English evolved to include an animal which is hunted. As "game became more of a luxury than a necessity, the stylised pursuit of it also became a luxury. Dangerous hunting, such as for lions or "wild boars, often done on "horseback or from a "chariot, had a function similar to "tournaments and manly sports. Hunting ranked as an honourable, somewhat competitive pastime to help the "aristocracy practice skills of war in times of peace.[23]

In most parts of "medieval Europe, the upper class obtained the sole rights to hunt in certain areas of a feudal territory. Game in these areas was used as a source of food and furs, often provided via professional huntsmen, but it was also expected to provide a form of recreation for the aristocracy. The importance of this proprietary view of game can be seen in the "Robin Hood legends, in which one of the primary charges against the outlaws is that they "hunt the King's deer". In contrast, settlers in Anglophone colonies gloried democratically in hunting for all.[24]

In Medieval Europe, hunting was considered by "Johannes Scotus Eriugena to be part of the set of "seven mechanical arts.[25]

Use of dogs[edit]

Although various other animals have been used to aid the hunter, such as ferrets, the dog has assumed many very important uses to the hunter. The domestication of the dog has led to a "symbiotic relationship in which the dog's independence from humans is deferred. Though dogs can survive independently of humans, and in many cases do, as with feral dogs, where hunger is not a primary factor, the species tends to defer to human control in exchange for habitation, food and support.

""
""
Hunting Companions, "Dutch 19th-century painting featuring two dogs, a "shotgun and a game bag

Dogs today are used to find, chase, retrieve, and sometimes to kill the game. "Hunting dogs allow humans to pursue and kill prey that would otherwise be very difficult or dangerous to hunt. Different breeds of dogs are used for different types of hunting. Waterfowl are commonly hunted using retrieving dogs such as the "Labrador Retriever, the "Golden Retriever, the "Chesapeake Bay Retriever, the "Brittany Spaniel, and other similar breeds. "Game birds are flushed out using flushing "spaniels such as the "English Springer Spaniel, the various "Cocker Spaniels and similar breeds.

The hunting of wild mammals in England and Wales with dogs was banned under the "Hunting Act 2004. The wild mammals include fox, hare, deer and mink. Hunting with dogs is permissible, however, where it has been carried out in accordance with one of the exceptions in the Act.[26]

Religion[edit]

Many prehistoric deities are depicted as predators or prey of humans, often in a "zoomorphic form, perhaps alluding to the importance of hunting for most Palaeolithic cultures.

In many pagan religions, specific rituals are conducted before or after a hunt; the rituals done may vary according to the species hunted or the season the hunt is taking place.["citation needed] Often a hunting ground, or the hunt for one or more species, was reserved or prohibited in the context of a temple cult.["citation needed]

Indian and Eastern religions[edit]

""
""
"Weeks Edwin's painting Departure for the Hunt
""
""
A tiger hunt at Jhajjar, Rohtak District, Panjab

"Hindu scriptures describe hunting as an acceptable occupation, as well as a sport of the kingly. Even figures considered divine are described to have engaged in hunting. One of the names of the god "Shiva is Mrigavyadha, which translates as "the deer hunter" (mriga means deer; vyadha means hunter). The word Mriga, in many Indian languages including Malayalam, not only stands for deer, but for all animals and animal instincts (Mriga Thrishna). Shiva, as Mrigavyadha, is the one who destroys the animal instincts in human beings. In the epic "Ramayana, "Dasharatha, the father of "Rama, is said to have the ability to hunt in the dark. During one of his hunting expeditions, he accidentally killed "Shravana, mistaking him for game. During Rama's exile in the forest, "Ravana kidnapped his wife, "Sita, from their hut, while "Rama was asked by Sita to capture a golden deer, and his brother "Lakshman went after him. According to the "Mahabharat, "Pandu, the father of the "Pandavas, accidentally killed the sage Kindama and his wife with an arrow, mistaking them for a deer. "Krishna is said to have died after being accidentally wounded by an arrow of a hunter.

"Jainism teaches followers to have tremendous respect for all of life. Prohibitions for hunting and meat eating are the fundamental conditions for being a "Jain.

"Buddhism's first "precept is the respect for all sentient life. The general approach by all Buddhists is to avoid killing any living animals. "Buddha explained the issue by saying "all fear death; comparing others with oneself, one should neither kill nor cause to kill."

Christianity, Judaism, and Islam[edit]

From early Christian times, hunting has been forbidden to Roman Catholic Church "clerics. Thus the Corpus Juris Canonici (C. ii, X, De cleric. venat.) says, "We forbid to all servants of God hunting and expeditions through the woods with hounds; and we also forbid them to keep hawks or falcons." The "Fourth Council of the Lateran, held under "Pope Innocent III, decreed (canon xv): "We interdict hunting or hawking to all clerics." The decree of the "Council of Trent is worded more mildly: "Let clerics abstain from illicit hunting and hawking" (Sess. XXIV, De reform., c. xii), which seems to imply that not all hunting is illicit, and canonists generally make a distinction declaring noisy (clamorosa) hunting unlawful, but not quiet (quieta) hunting.

""
""
"Nobleman in hunting costume with his servant following the scent of a "stag, 14th century

Ferraris (s.v. "Clericus", art. 6) gives it as the general sense of canonists that hunting is allowed to clerics if it be indulged in rarely and for sufficient cause, as necessity, utility or "honest" recreation, and with that moderation which is becoming to the "ecclesiastical state. Ziegler, however (De episc., l. IV, c. xix), thinks that the interpretation of the canonists is not in accordance with the letter or spirit of the laws of the church.

Nevertheless, although a distinction between lawful and unlawful hunting is undoubtedly permissible, it is certain that a bishop can absolutely prohibit all hunting to the clerics of his diocese, as was done by "synods at "Milan, "Avignon, "Liège, "Cologne, and elsewhere. "Benedict XIV (De synodo diœces., l. II, c. x) declared that such synodal decrees are not too severe, as an absolute prohibition of hunting is more conformable to the "ecclesiastical law. In practice, therefore, the synodal statutes of various localities must be consulted to discover whether they allow quiet hunting or prohibit it altogether.

It is important to note that most Christian, do not observe "kosher "dietary laws hence most Christian have no religious restrictions on eating the animals hunted. This is in accord with what is found in the "Acts of the Apostles 15:28–29, and 1 Timothy 4:4.

In Jewish law hunting is not forbidden although there is an aversion to it. The great 18th-century authority "Rabbi Yechezkel Landau after a study concluded although "hunting would not be considered cruelty to animals insofar as the animal is generally killed quickly and not tortured... There is an unseemly element in it, namely cruelty." The other issue is that hunting can be dangerous and Judaism places an extreme emphasis on the value of human life.[27][28]

Islamic "Sharia Law permits hunting of lawful animals and birds if they cannot be easily caught and slaughtered.[29]

National traditions[edit]

New Zealand[edit]

New Zealand has a strong hunting culture. The islands making up New Zealand originally had no land mammals apart from "bats. However, once Europeans arrived, game animals were introduced by "acclimatisation societies to provide New Zealanders with sport and a hunting resource. "Deer, "pigs, "goats, "rabbits, "hare, "tahr and "chamois all adapted well to the New Zealand terrain, and with no natural predators, their population exploded. Government agencies view the animals as pests due to their effects on the "natural environment and on agricultural production, but hunters view them as a resource.

Shikar (Indian subcontinent)[edit]

""
""
A Shikar party in "Mandalay, Burma, soon after the conclusion of the "Third Anglo-Burmese War in 1886, when Burma was annexed to "British India

During the "feudal and "colonial times in "British India, hunting was regarded as a regal sport in the numerous "princely states, as many "maharajas and "nawabs, as well as British officers, maintained a whole corps of shikaris (big-game hunters), who were native professional hunters. They would be headed by a master of the hunt, who might be styled mir-shikar. Often, they recruited the normally low-ranking local tribes because of their "traditional knowledge of the environment and hunting techniques. Big game, such as "Bengal tigers, might be hunted from the back of an elephant.

Regional "social norms are generally antagonistic to hunting, while a few "sects, such as the "Bishnoi, lay special emphasis on the conservation of particular species, such as the "antelope. India's "Wildlife Protection Act of 1972 bans the killing of all wild animals. However, the Chief Wildlife Warden may, if satisfied that any wild animal from a specified list has become dangerous to human life, or is so disabled or diseased as to be beyond recovery, permit any person to hunt such an animal. In this case, the body of any wild animal killed or wounded becomes government property.[30]

Safari[edit]

A safari, from a "Swahili word meaning "a long journey", especially in Africa, is defined as an overland journey.

""
""
Explorer and big game hunter "Samuel Baker chased by an elephant

Safari as a distinctive way of hunting was popularised by the US author "Ernest Hemingway and President "Theodore Roosevelt. A safari may consist of a several-days – or even weeks-long journey, with camping in "the bush or "jungle, while pursuing "big game. Nowadays, it is often used to describe tours through African "national parks to watch or hunt wildlife.

Hunters are usually tourists, accompanied by "licensed and highly "regulated professional hunters, local guides, "skinners, and "porters in more difficult terrains. A special safari type is the solo-safari, where all the license acquiring, stalking, preparation, and outfitting is done by the hunter himself.

United Kingdom[edit]

Unarmed "fox hunting on horseback with hounds is the type of hunting most closely associated with the United Kingdom; in fact, "hunting" without qualification implies fox hunting. What in other countries is called "hunting" is called "shooting" (birds) or "stalking" (deer) in Britain. Originally a form of "vermin control to protect livestock, fox hunting became a popular social activity for newly wealthy upper classes in "Victorian times and a traditional rural activity for riders and foot followers alike. Similar to fox hunting in many ways is the chasing of "hares with "hounds. Pairs of "Sight hounds (or long-dogs), such as "greyhounds, may be used to pursue a hare in "coursing, where the greyhounds are marked as to their skill in coursing the hare (but are not intended to actually catch it), or the hare may be pursued with "scent hounds such as "beagles or harriers. Other sorts of "foxhounds may also be used for hunting "stags (deer) or "mink. "Deer stalking with rifles is carried out on foot without hounds, using stealth.

These forms of hunting have been controversial in the UK. "Animal welfare supporters believe that hunting causes unnecessary suffering to foxes, horses, and hounds. Proponents argue that it is culturally and perhaps economically important. Using dogs to chase wild mammals was "made illegal in February 2005 by the "Hunting Act 2004; there were a number of exemptions (under which the activity may not be illegal) in the act for hunting with hounds, but no exemptions at all for hare-coursing.

Shooting traditions[edit]

Game birds, especially "pheasants, are shot with shotguns for sport in the UK; the "British Association for Shooting and Conservation says that over a million people per year participate in shooting, including game shooting, "clay pigeon shooting, and "target shooting.[31]

""
""
a young male hunter with a spike (two point white-tailed deer)

Shooting as practised in Britain, as opposed to traditional hunting, requires little questing for game—around thirty-five million birds are released onto shooting estates every year, some having been "factory farmed. Shoots can be elaborate affairs with guns placed in assigned positions and assistants to help load "shotguns. When in position, "beaters" move through the areas of cover, swinging sticks or flags to drive the game out. Such events are often called "drives". The open season for "grouse in the UK begins on 12 August, the so-called "Glorious Twelfth. The definition of game in the United Kingdom is governed by the "Game Act 1831.

A similar tradition exists in Spain

United States[edit]

""
An archer with a compound hunting bow
""
Carrying a bear trophy head at the "Kodiak Archipelago

North American hunting pre-dates the United States by thousands of years and was an important part of many "pre-Columbian Native American cultures. Native Americans retain some hunting rights and are exempt from some laws as part of Indian treaties and otherwise under "federal law—examples include "eagle feather laws and exemptions in the "Marine Mammal Protection Act. This is considered particularly important in "Alaskan native communities.

Hunting is primarily regulated by "state law; additional regulations are imposed through "United States environmental law in the case of "migratory birds and "endangered species. Regulations vary widely from state to state and govern the areas, time periods, techniques and methods by which specific game animals may be hunted. Some states make a distinction between "protected species and unprotected species (often "vermin or "varmints for which there are no hunting regulations). Hunters of protected species require a "hunting license in all states, for which completion of a hunting safety course is sometimes a prerequisite.

Typically, game animals are divided into several categories for regulatory purposes. Typical categories, along with example species, are as follows:

Hunting big game typically requires a "tag" for each animal harvested. Tags must be purchased in addition to the hunting license, and the number of tags issued to an individual is typically limited. In cases where there are more prospective hunters than the quota for that species, tags are usually assigned by lottery. Tags may be further restricted to a specific area, or wildlife management unit. "Hunting migratory waterfowl requires a duck stamp from the "Fish and Wildlife Service in addition to the appropriate state hunting license.

""
""
Hunting camp with "dressed deer at Schoodic Lake, "Maine, in 1905

Harvest of animals other than big game is typically restricted by a bag limit and a possession limit. A bag limit is the maximum number of a specific animal species that an individual can harvest in a single day. A possession limit is the maximum number of a specific animal species that can be in an individual's possession at any time.

Shooting[edit]

Gun usage in hunting is typically regulated by game category, area within the state, and time period. Regulations for big-game hunting often specify a minimum "caliber or "muzzle energy for "firearms. The use of "rifles is often banned for safety reasons in areas with high "population densities or limited "topographic relief. Regulations may also limit or ban the use of "lead in "ammunition because of environmental concerns. Specific seasons for "bow hunting or "muzzle-loading "black-powder guns are often established to limit competition with hunters using more effective "weapons.

""
""
A man target practicing for the hunting seasons

Hunting in the United States is not associated with any particular class or culture; a 2006 poll showed seventy-eight percent of Americans supported legal hunting,[32] although relatively few Americans actually hunt. At the beginning of the 21st century, just six percent of Americans hunted. "Southerners in states along the eastern seaboard hunted at a rate of five percent, slightly below the national average, and while hunting was more common in other parts of the South at nine percent, these rates did not surpass those of the Plains states, where twelve percent of "Midwesterners hunted. Hunting in other areas of the country fell below the national average.[33] Overall, in the 1996–2006 period, the number of hunters over the age of sixteen declined by ten percent, a drop attributable to a number of factors including "habitat loss and changes in recreation habits.[34]

Regulation[edit]

Regulation of hunting within the United States dates from the 19th century. Some modern hunters see themselves as "conservationists and sportsmen in the mode of "Theodore Roosevelt and the "Boone and Crockett Club. Local hunting clubs and national organizations provide hunter education and help protect the future of the sport by buying land for future hunting use. Some groups represent a specific hunting interest, such as "Ducks Unlimited, "Pheasants Forever, or the "Delta Waterfowl Foundation. Many hunting groups also participate in lobbying the federal government and state government.

Each year, nearly $200 million in hunters' federal excise taxes are distributed to state agencies to support wildlife management programs, the purchase of lands open to hunters, and hunter education and safety classes. Since 1934, the sale of "Federal Duck Stamps, a required purchase for migratory "waterfowl hunters over sixteen years old, has raised over $700 million to help purchase more than 5,200,000 acres (8,100 sq mi; 21,000 km2) of habitat for the "National Wildlife Refuge System lands that support waterfowl and many other wildlife species and are often open to hunting. States also collect money from hunting licenses to assist with management of game animals, as designated by law. A key task of federal and state "park rangers and "game wardens is to enforce laws and regulations related to hunting, including species protection, "hunting seasons, and hunting bans.

Varmint hunting[edit]

""
""
The "coypu is hunted as a pest in Louisiana.

Varmint hunting is an American phrase for the selective killing of non-game animals seen as pests. While not always an efficient form of "pest control, varmint hunting achieves selective control of pests while providing recreation and is much less regulated. Varmint species are often responsible for detrimental effects on crops, livestock, "landscaping, "infrastructure, and pets. Some animals, such as wild rabbits or squirrels, may be utilised for fur or meat, but often no use is made of the carcass. Which species are varmints depends on the circumstance and area. Common varmints may include various "rodents, "coyotes, "crows, "foxes, "feral cats, and feral "hogs. Some animals once considered varmints are now protected, such as wolves. In the US state of "Louisiana, a non-native rodent, the "coypu, has become so destructive to the local ecosystem that the state has initiated a "bounty program to help control the population.

Fair chase[edit]

""
""
Hunters with an "American black bear in the "Great Smoky Mountains

The principles of the "fair chase[35] have been a part of the American hunting tradition for over one hundred years. The role of the hunter-conservationist, popularised by Theodore Roosevelt, and perpetuated by Roosevelt's formation of the "Boone and Crockett Club, has been central to the development of the modern fair chase tradition.

Beyond Fair Chase: The Ethic and Tradition of Hunting, a book by Jim Posewitz, describes fair chase:

"Fundamental to ethical hunting is the idea of fair chase. This concept addresses the balance between the hunter and the hunted. It is a balance that allows hunters to occasionally succeed while animals generally avoid being taken."[36]

When "Internet hunting was introduced in 2005, allowing people to hunt over the Internet using remotely controlled guns, the practice was widely criticised by hunters as violating the principles of fair chase. As a representative of the "National Rifle Association (NRA) explained, "The NRA has always maintained that fair chase, being in the field with your firearm or bow, is an important element of hunting tradition. Sitting at your desk in front of your computer, clicking at a mouse, has nothing to do with hunting."[37]

One hunting club declares that a fair chase shall not involve the taking of animals under the following conditions:

Ranches[edit]

Indian "blackbuck, "nilgai, "axis deer, "fallow deer, and "barasingha can now be found on hunting "ranches in Texas, where they were introduced for sport hunting. Hunters can pay upwards of $4000 as fees for hunting a barasingha.

Russia[edit]

The "Russian imperial hunts evolved from hunting traditions of early Russian rulers—"Grand Princes and "Tsars—under the influence of hunting customs of European royal courts. The imperial hunts were organised mainly in "Peterhof, "Tsarskoye Selo, and "Gatchina.

Australia[edit]

""
""
Riders gather for a "dingo drive in "Morven, Queensland, 1936

Hunting in "Australia has evolved around the hunting and eradication of various animals considered to be pests. All native animals are protected by law, and can only be killed under special permit. Hunted introduced species include deer, pigs, goats, foxes, and rabbits.

Japan[edit]

The numbers of licensed hunters in Japan, including those using "snares and guns, is generally decreasing, while their average age is increasing. As of 2010, there were approximately 190,000 registered hunters, approximately 65% of whom were sixty years old or older.[39]

Trinidad and Tobago[edit]

There is a very active tradition of hunting of small to medium-sized wild game in "Trinidad and Tobago. Hunting is carried out with firearms, and aided by the use of hounds, with the illegal use of trap guns and snare nets. With approximately 12,000 sport hunters applying for hunting permits in recent years (in a very small country of about the size of the state of Delaware at about 5128 square kilometers and 1.3 million inhabitants), there is some concern that the practice might not be sustainable. In addition there are at present no bag limits and the open season is comparatively very long (5 months – October to February inclusive). As such hunting pressure from legal hunters is very high. Added to that, there is a thriving and very lucrative black market for poached wild game (sold and enthusiastically purchased as expensive luxury delicacies) and the numbers of commercial poachers in operation is unknown but presumed to be fairly high. As a result, the populations of the five major mammalian game species ("red-rumped agouti, "lowland paca, "nine-banded armadillo, "collared peccary, and "red brocket deer) are thought to be quite low (although scientifically conducted population studies are only just recently being conducted as of 2013). It appears that the red brocket deer population has been extirpated on Tobago as a result of over-hunting. Various herons, ducks, doves, the "green iguana, the "gold tegu, the "spectacled caiman and the "common opossum are also commonly hunted and poached. There is also some poaching of 'fully protected species', including "red howler monkeys and "capuchin monkeys, "southern tamanduas, "Brazilian porcupines, "yellow-footed tortoises, "Trinidad piping guans and even one of the national birds, the "scarlet ibis. Legal hunters pay very small fees to obtain hunting licences and undergo no official basic conservation biology or hunting-ethics training. There is presumed to be relatively very little subsistence hunting in the country (with most hunting for either sport or commercial profit). The local wildlife management authority is under-staffed and under-funded, and as such very little in the way of enforcement is done to uphold existing wildlife management laws, with hunting occurring both in and out of season, and even in wildlife sanctuaries. There is some indication that the government is beginning to take the issue of wildlife management more seriously, with well drafted legislation being brought before Parliament in 2015. It remains to be seen if the drafted legislation will be fully adopted and financially supported by the current and future governments, and if the general populace will move towards a greater awareness of the importance of wildlife conservation and change the culture of wanton consumption to one of sustainable management.

Wildlife management[edit]

Hunting is claimed to give "resource managers an important tool[40][41] in managing populations that might exceed the "carrying capacity of their "habitat and threaten the well-being of other species, or, in some instances, damage human health or safety.["citation needed][42] However, in most circumstances carrying capacity is determined by a combination habitat and food availability, and hunting for 'population control' has no effect on the annual population of species.["citation needed] In some cases, it can increase the population of predators such as coyotes by removing territorial bounds that would otherwise be established, resulting in excess neighbouring migrations into an area, thus artificially increasing the population.[43] Hunting advocates["who?] assert that hunting reduces "intraspecific competition for food and shelter, reducing mortality among the remaining animals. Some "environmentalists assert["who?] that (re)introducing "predators would achieve the same end with greater efficiency and less negative effect, such as introducing significant amounts of free "lead into the environment and "food chain.

In the United States, wildlife managers are frequently part of hunting regulatory and licensing bodies, where they help to set rules on the number, manner and conditions in which game may be hunted.

Management agencies sometimes rely on hunting to control specific animal populations, as has been the case with deer in North America. These hunts may sometimes be carried out by professional shooters, although others may include amateur hunters. Many US city and local governments hire professional and amateur hunters each year to reduce populations of animals such as deer that are becoming hazardous in a restricted area, such as neighbourhood parks and "metropolitan open spaces.

A large part of managing populations involves managing the number and, sometimes, the size or age of animals harvested so as to ensure the sustainability of the population. Tools that are frequently used to control harvest are bag limits and season closures, although gear restrictions such as archery-only seasons are becoming increasingly popular in an effort to reduce hunter success rates.["citation needed]

Bag limits[edit]

Bag limits are provisions under the law that control how many animals of a given species or group of species can be killed, although there are often species for which bag limits do not apply. There are also "jurisdictions where bag limits are not applied at all or are not applied under certain circumstances. The phrase bag limits comes from the custom among hunters of small game to carry successful kills in a small basket, similar to a "fishing creel.

Where bag limits are used, there can be daily or seasonal bag limits; for example, ducks can often be harvested at a rate of six per hunter per day.[44] Big game, like "moose, most often have a seasonal bag limit of one animal per hunter.["citation needed] Bag limits may also regulate the size, sex, or age of animal that a hunter can kill. In many cases, bag limits are designed to allocate harvest among the hunting population more equitably rather than to protect animal populations.

Without bag limits the wildlife would be heavily under populated.Poaching or not obeying a bag limit effects the population. Without bag limits more animals would be harvested than can maintain the population. It is still good to reach the bag limit though. Without hunting overpopulation could starve the animals. More animals would also be hit by cars which could effect humans as well.

Closed and open season[edit]

A "closed season is a time during which hunting an animal of a given species is contrary to law. Typically, closed seasons are designed to protect a species when they are most vulnerable or to protect them during their "breeding season.[45] By extension, the period that is not the closed season is known as the "open season.

Laws[edit]

Illegal hunting and harvesting of wild species contrary to local and international "conservation and "wildlife management laws is called "poaching. "Game preservation is one of the tactics used to prevent poaching. Violations of hunting laws and regulations involving poaching are normally punishable by law.[46] Punishment can include "confiscation of equipment, "fines or a "prison sentence. In "Costa Rica, all forms of sport hunting have been illegal since 10 December 2012.[47]

Methods[edit]

""
""
American "bison being chased off a cliff as seen and painted by "Alfred Jacob Miller
""
""
Master or whipper-in and fox hounds drawing a wood. Hunting in Yorkshire, northern England, in 2005: the last day of fully legal, proper, fox hunting

Historical, subsistence, and sport hunting techniques can differ radically, with modern hunting regulations often addressing issues of where, when, and how hunts are conducted. Techniques may vary depending on government regulations, a hunter's personal ethics, local custom, hunting equipment, and the animal being hunted. Often a hunter will use a combination of more than one technique. Laws may forbid sport hunters from using some methods used primarily in poaching and "wildlife management.

""
""
Africans hunting the "lion, 1841

Trophy hunting[edit]

""
""
"Royal Liechtenstein trophy collection at "Úsov Château, the "Czech Republic

Trophy hunting is the selective seeking of wild game. It may also include the controversial hunting of captive or semi-captive animals expressly bred and raised under controlled or semi-controlled conditions so as to attain trophy characteristics; this is sometimes known as canned hunts.[52]

History[edit]

In the 19th century, southern and central European sport hunters often pursued game only for a "trophy, usually the head or "pelt of an animal, which was then displayed as a sign of prowess. The rest of the animal was typically discarded. Some cultures, however, disapprove of such waste. In "Nordic countries, hunting for trophies was—and still is—frowned upon. Hunting in North America in the 19th century was done primarily as a way to supplement food supplies, although it is now undertaken mainly for sport.["citation needed] The "safari method of hunting was a development of sport hunting that saw elaborate travel in Africa, India and other places in pursuit of trophies. In modern times, "trophy hunting persists and is a significant industry in some areas.["citation needed]

Conservation tool[edit]

According to the "U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, hunting "provides an economic incentive" for ranchers to continue to breed those species, and that hunting "reduces the threat of the species' extinction."[53][54]

A scientific study in the journal, Biological Conservation, states that "trophy hunting is of "major importance to conservation in Africa by creating economic incentives for conservation over vast areas, including areas which may be unsuitable for alternative wildlife-based land uses such as photographic ecotourism."[55] However, another study states that less than 3% of a trophy hunters' expenditures reach the local level, meaning that the economic incentive and benefit is "minimal, particularly when we consider the vast areas of land that hunting concessions occupy."[56]

Financial incentives from "trophy hunting effectively more than double the land area that is used for wildlife conservation, relative to what would be conserved relying on national parks alone according to Biological Conservation,[55] although local communities usually derive no more than 18 cents per hectare from trophy hunting.[56]

"Trophy hunting has been considered essential for providing economic incentives to conserve large carnivores according to research studies in Conservation Biology,[57] Journal of Sustainable Tourism,[58] Wildlife Conservation by Sustainable Use,[59] and Animal Conservation.[57][60] Studies by the Centre for Responsible Tourism[61] and the IUCN state that ecotourism, which includes more than hunting, is a superior economic incentive, generating twice the revenue per acre and 39 times more permanent employment.[62]

The "U.S. House Committee on Natural Resources in 2016 concluded that trophy hunting may be contributing to the "extinction of certain animals.[63]

Controversy[edit]

Trophy hunting is most often criticised when it involves rare or "endangered animals.[64] Opponents may also see trophy hunting as an issue of "morality[65] or "animal cruelty, criticising the killing of living creatures for "recreation. "Victorian era dramatist "W. S. Gilbert remarked, ""Deer-stalking would be a very fine sport if only the deer had guns."[66]

There is also debate about the extent to which trophy hunting benefits the "local economy. Hunters argue that fees paid contribute to the local economy and provide value to animals that would otherwise be seen as competition for grazing, livestock, and crops.[67] This analysis is disputed by opponents of trophy hunting.[68] It is argued that the animals are worth more to the community for "ecotourism than hunting.[69]

Economics[edit]

""
""
"Chatelherault, built by "William Adam in 1743 as the "Duke of Hamilton's hunting lodge

A variety of industries benefit from hunting and support hunting on economic grounds. In "Tanzania, it is estimated that a safari hunter spends fifty to one hundred times that of the average "ecotourist. While the average photo tourist may seek luxury accommodation, the average safari hunter generally stays in tented camps. Safari hunters are also more likely to use remote areas, uninviting to the typical ecotourist. Advocates argue that these hunters allow for anti-poaching activities and revenue for local communities.["citation needed]

In the United Kingdom, the game hunting of birds as an industry is said to be extremely important to the rural economy. The Cobham Report of 1997 suggested it to be worth around £700 million, and hunting and shooting lobby groups claimed it to be worth over a billion pounds less than ten years later.["citation needed]

Hunting also has a significant financial impact in the United States, with many companies specialising in hunting "equipment or speciality tourism. Many different technologies have been created to assist hunters, even including iPhone applications.[70] Today's hunters come from a broad range of economic, social, and cultural backgrounds. In 2001, over thirteen million hunters averaged eighteen days hunting, and spent over $20.5 billion on their sport.["citation needed] In the US, proceeds from hunting licenses contribute to state game management programs, including preservation of wildlife habitat.

Environmental problems[edit]

Lead bullets that miss their target or remain in an unretrieved carcass could become a "toxicant in the environment but lead in ammunition because of its metallic form has a lower solubility and higher resistance to corrosion than other forms of lead making it hardly available to biological systems.[71] Waterfowl or other birds may ingest the lead and poison themselves with the neurotoxicant, but studies have demonstrated that effects of lead in ammunition are negligible on animal population size and growth.[72][73] Since 1991, US federal law forbids lead shot in waterfowl hunts, and 30 states have some type of restriction.[74]

In December 2014, a federal appeals court denied a lawsuit by environmental groups that the "EPA must use the "Toxic Substances Control Act to regulate lead in shells and cartridges. The groups sought EPA to regulate "spent lead", yet the court found EPA could not regulate spent lead without also regulating cartridges and shells.[75]

Conservation[edit]

""
""
Punishment of a Hunter (c. 1647) by "Paulus Potter

Hunters have been driving forces throughout history in the movement to ensure the preservation of "wildlife habitats and "wildlife for further hunting.[76] However, excessive hunting and poachers have also contributed heavily to the endangerment, extirpation and "extinction of many animals, such as the "quagga, the "great auk, "Steller's sea cow, the "thylacine, the "bluebuck, the "Arabian oryx, the "Caspian and "Javan tigers, the "markhor, the "Sumatran rhinoceros, the "bison, the "North American cougar, the "Altai argali sheep, the "Asian elephant and many more, primarily for commercial sale or sport. All these animals have been hunted to "endangerment or "extinction.[88] Hunting currently threatens bird and mammalian populations around the world.[89][90][91]

Legislation[edit]

Pittman–Robertson Wildlife Restoration Act of 1937[edit]

In 1937, American hunters successfully lobbied the US Congress to pass the "Pittman-Robertson Wildlife Restoration Act, which placed an eleven percent tax on all hunting equipment. This self-imposed tax now generates over $700 million each year and is used exclusively to establish, restore and protect wildlife habitats.[92] The act is named for Nevada Senator "Key Pittman and Virginia Congressman "Absalom Willis Robertson.

Federal Duck Stamp program[edit]

On 16 March 1934, "President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the "Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act, which requires an annual stamp purchase by all hunters over the age of sixteen. The stamps are created on behalf of the program by the "US Postal Service and depict wildlife artwork chosen through an annual contest. They play an important role in "habitat conservation because ninety-eight percent of all funds generated by their sale go directly toward the purchase or lease of "wetland habitat for protection in the "National Wildlife Refuge System.["citation needed] In addition to waterfowl, it is estimated that one third of the nation's endangered species seek food and shelter in areas protected using "Duck Stamp funds.["citation needed]

Since 1934, the sale of Federal Duck Stamps has generated $670 million, and helped to purchase or lease 5,200,000 acres (8,100 sq mi; 21,000 km2) of habitat. The stamps serve as a license to hunt migratory birds, an entrance pass for all National Wildlife Refuge areas, and are also considered collectors items often purchased for "aesthetic reasons outside of the hunting and birding communities. Although non-hunters buy a significant number of Duck Stamps, eighty-seven percent of their sales are contributed by hunters, which is logical, as hunters are required to purchase them. Distribution of funds is managed by the Migratory Bird Conservation Commission (MBCC).[93]

Species[edit]

Arabian oryx[edit]

The "Arabian oryx, a species of large "antelope, once inhabited much of the desert areas of the Middle East.[82] However, the species' striking appearance made it (along with the closely related scimitar-horned oryx and addax) a popular quarry for sport hunters, especially foreign executives of oil companies working in the region.["citation needed] The use of automobiles and high-powered rifles destroyed their only advantage: speed, and they became extinct in the wild exclusively due to sport hunting in 1972. The scimitar-horned oryx followed suit, while the addax became critically endangered.[94] However, the Arabian oryx has now made a comeback and been upgraded from "extinct in the wild" to "vulnerable" due to conservation efforts like captive breeding[95]

Markhor[edit]

The "markhor is an endangered species of wild goat which inhabits the mountains of "Central Asia and "Pakistan. The "colonization of these regions by "Britain gave British sport hunters access to the species, and they were hunted heavily, almost to the point of extinction. Only their willingness to breed in captivity and the inhospitability of their mountainous habitat prevented this. Despite these factors, the markhor is still endangered.[96]

American bison[edit]

The "American bison is a large "bovid which inhabited much of western North America prior to the 1800s, living on the prairies in large herds. However, the vast herds of bison attracted market hunters, who killed dozens of bison for their hides only, leaving the rest to rot. Thousands of these hunters quickly eliminated the bison herds, bringing the population from several million in the early 1800s to a few hundred by the 1880s. Conservation efforts have allowed the population to increase, but the bison remains near-threatened.[97]

White rhino[edit]

The Journal of International Wildlife Law and Policy cites that the legalization of white rhinoceros hunting in South Africa motivated private landowners to reintroduce the species onto their lands. As a result, the country saw an increase in white rhinos from fewer than one hundred individuals to more than 11,000, even while a limited number were killed as trophies.[98]

However, the illegal hunting of rhinoceros for their horns is highly damaging to the population and is currently growing globally,[99] with 1004 being killed in South Africa alone according to the most recent estimate.[100]

Other species[edit]

According to "Richard Conniff, Namibia is home to 1,750 of the roughly 5,000 black rhinos surviving in the wild because it allows "trophy hunting of various species. Namibia's mountain zebra population has increased to 27,000 from 1,000 in 1982. Elephants, which "are gunned down elsewhere for their ivory", have gone to 20,000 from 15,000 in 1995. Lions, which were on the brink of extinction "from Senegal to Kenya", are increasing in Namibia.[101]

In contrast, Botswana has recently been forced to ban trophy hunting following a precipitous wildlife decline.[102] The numbers of antelope plummeted across Botswana, with a resultant decline in predator numbers, while elephant numbers remained stable and hippopotamus numbers rose. According to the government of Botswana, trophy hunting is at least partly to blame for this, but many other factors, such as poaching, drought and habitat loss are also to blame.[103] Uganda recently did the same, arguing that "the share of benefits of sport hunting were lopsided and unlikely to deter poaching or improve [Uganda's] capacity to manage the wildlife reserves."[104]

Studies[edit]

A study issued by the "Wildlife Society concluded that hunting and trapping are cost effective tools that reduce wildlife damage by reducing a population below the capacity of the environment to carry it and changing the behaviors of animals to stop them from causing damage. The study furthermore states that the cessation of hunting could cause wildlife to be severely harmed, rural property values to fall, and the incentive of landowners to maintain natural habitats to diminish.[105]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Williams, Ted. "Wanted: More Hunters," Audubon magazine, March 2002, copy retrieved 26 October 2007.
  2. ^ Harper, Craig A. "Quality Deer Management Guidelines for Implementation" (PDF). Agricultural Extension Service, The University of Tennessee. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 September 2006. Retrieved 20 December 2006. 
  3. ^ a b "Red List Overview". IUCN Red List. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 8 September 2010.
  4. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Hunt". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved December 24, 2016. 
  5. ^ Gaudzinski, S (2004). "Subsistence patterns of Early Pleistocene hominids in the Levant – Taphonomic evidence from the 'Ubeidiya Formation (Israel)". Journal of Archaeological Science. 31: 65–75. "doi:10.1016/s0305-4403(03)00100-6. 
  6. ^ Rabinovich, R.; Gaudzinski-Windheuser, S.; Goren-Inbar, N. (2008). "Systematic butchering of fallow deer (Dama) at the early Middle Pleistocene Acheulian site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov (Israel)". Journal of Human Evolution. 54: 134–49. "doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2007.07.007. "PMID 17868780. 
  7. ^ In 1992, "trace element studies of the strontium/calcium ratios in "robust australopithecine fossils suggested the possibility of animal consumption, as did a 1994 using stable carbon isotopic analysis. Billings, Tom. "Comparative Anatomy and Physiology Brought Up to Date—continued, Part 3B". Retrieved 6 January 2007. 
  8. ^ Wong, Kate (18 March 2014). "How Hunting Made Us Human". Scientific American. 310 (4). Retrieved 26 March 2014. 
  9. ^ Surovell, Todd; Nicole Waguespack; P. Jeffrey Brantingham (13 April 2005). "Global archaeological evidence for proboscidean overkill" (PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Sciences (USA). 102 (17): 6231–36. "doi:10.1073/pnas.0501947102. "PMC 1087946Freely accessible. "PMID 15829581. Retrieved 1 January 2007. 
  10. ^ American Geophysical Union paper PP43A-01, abstract Archived 27 September 2007 at the "Wayback Machine. retrieved 26 October 2007
  11. ^ Miller, G. H. (2005). "Ecosystem Collapse in Pleistocene Australia and a Human Role in Megafaunal Extinction". "Science. 309 (5732): 287–90. "doi:10.1126/science.1111288. "PMID 16002615. 
  12. ^ Prideaux, G.J.; et al. (2007). "An arid-adapted middle Pleistocene vertebrate fauna from south-central Australia". Nature. 445: 422–25. "doi:10.1038/nature05471. "PMID 17251978. 
  13. ^ "Bonobos Hunt Other Primates". livescience.com. 2008. Retrieved 5 August 2012. 
  14. ^ Courtney Laird. "Bonobo social spacing". Davidson College. Archived from the original on 23 January 2008. Retrieved 10 March 2008. 
  15. ^ Lower Palaeolithic hunting spears from Germany. Hartmut Thieme. Letters to Nature. Nature 385, 807–10 (27 February 1997); "doi:10.1038/385807a0 [1]
  16. ^ Monte Morin, "Stone-tipped spear may have much earlier origin", "Los Angeles Times, 16 November 2012
  17. ^ Rick Weiss, "Chimps Observed Making Their Own Weapons", "The Washington Post, 22 February 2007
  18. ^ Zenin, Vasiliy N.; Evgeny N. Mashenko; Sergey V. Leshchinskiy; Aleksandr F. Pavlov; Pieter M. Grootes; Marie-Josée Nadeau (24–29 May 2003). "The First Direct Evidence of Mammoth Hunting in Asia (Lugovskoye Site, Western Siberia) (L)". 3rd International Mammoth Conference. Dawson City, Yukon Territory, Canada: John Storer, Government of Yukon. Archived from the original on 17 November 2006. Retrieved 1 January 2007.  External link in |publisher= ("help)
  19. ^ "In North America and Eurasia the species has long been an important resource—in many areas the most important resource—for peoples inhabiting the northern "boreal forest and tundra regions. Known human dependence on caribou/wild reindeer has a long history, beginning in the Middle Pleistocene (Banfield 1961:170; Kurtén 1968:170) and continuing to the present....The caribou/wild reindeer is thus an animal that has been a major resource for humans throughout a tremendous geographic area and across a time span of tens of thousands of years." Burch, Ernest S.; Jr (1972). "The Caribou/Wild Reindeer as a Human Resource". American Antiquity. 37 (3): 339–68. "doi:10.2307/278435. "JSTOR 278435. 
  20. ^ "The Nature Conservancy". The Nature Conservancy. Retrieved 2016-09-15. 
  21. ^ Binford, Louis (1986). "Human ancestors: Changing views of their behavior". Journal of Anthropological Archaeology. 3: 235–57. 
  22. ^ Blumenschine, Robert J. (1986) Early hominid scavenging opportunities: Implications of carcass availability in the Serengeti and Ngorongoro ecosystems. Oxford, England: B.A.R.
  23. ^ Machiavelli provides a rationale, if not the origin, of noble hunting: "Machiavelli, Niccolò (1531). "Discourses on the first decade of Titus Livius, Book 3". In Gilbert, Allan. Machiavelli: The Chief Works and Others. 1. Duke University Press (published 1989). p. 516. "ISBN "9780822381570. Retrieved 27 December 2013. [...] hunting expeditions, as Xenophon makes plain, are images of war; therefore to men of rank such activity is honorable and necessary. 
  24. ^ Dunlap, Thomas R. (1999). "Remaking Worlds: European models in New Lands". Nature and the English Diaspora: Environment and History in the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. Studies in Environment and History. Cambridge University Press. p. 61. "ISBN "9780521657006. Retrieved 24 December 2013. The settlers adopted sport hunting, as they did other elements of British culture, but they had to adapt it. Social circumstances and biological realities reshaped it and gave it new meaning. There was no elite monopolizing access to land. Indeed, the great attraction and boast of these nations were of land for all. 
  25. ^ In his commentary on Martianus Capella's early 5th-century work, The Marriage of Philology and Mercury, one of the main sources for medieval reflection on the liberal arts.
  26. ^ "Hunting with dogs « Defra". Defra.gov.uk. 18 February 2005. Retrieved 20 April 2012. 
  27. ^ http://www.aish.com/ci/be/The_Jewish_Ethicist_Judaism_and_Hunting.html
  28. ^ http://www.chabad.org/library/article_cdo/aid/1589324/jewish/The-Jewish-View-on-Hunting-for-Sport.htm
  29. ^ http://www.newmuslimguide.com/en/your-food-and-drink/66
  30. ^ Helplinelaw. "Indian Wildlife Protection Act, 1972". Helplinelaw.com. Retrieved 20 April 2012. 
  31. ^ BASC site
  32. ^ Results from a 2006 poll (813 people were polled) done by Responsive Management
  33. ^ National statistics from "US Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service and "US Department of Commerce, "US Census Bureau, 2001 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting and Wildlife Associated Recreation, 27.
  34. ^ Jackson, Patrick. Number of hunters is dwindling—Urbanization and cultural changes discourage newcomers to the sport.
  35. ^ Interpretations of the Fair Chase can be found on the web sites of various hunter's organizations, such as the Boone and Crockett Club and Hunt Fair Chase.
  36. ^ Posewitz, Jim (1 August 1994). Beyond Fair Chase: The Ethic and Tradition of Hunting. "Globe Pequot Press. p. 57. "ISBN "9781560442837. 
  37. ^ Humane Society Wildlife Abuse Campaign, Fact Sheet on Internet Hunting
  38. ^ "The Rules of Fair Chase". "Chatfield, Minnesota: "Pope and Young Club. Archived from the original on 24 May 2012. Retrieved 24 May 2012. While inside escape-proof fenced enclosures 
  39. ^ http://www.env.go.jp/nature/choju/docs/docs4/menkyo.pdf
  40. ^ Chardonnet, P; Clers, B; Fischer, J; Gerhold, R; Jori, F; Lamarque, F (2002). "The Value of Wildlife" (PDF). Rev. sci. tech. Off. Int. Epiz. 21 (1): 15–51. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 December 2006. , posted by the Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, Accessed 12 December 2006
  41. ^ Herring, Hal. Today's sportsmen and sportswomen are a powerful force for conservation
  42. ^ The hunting section of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service site includes articles and statistics relating to wildlife management.
  43. ^ "Hunting for Wildlife Population Control and Ethical Eating?". Free From Harm. 2015-01-14. Retrieved 2017-11-02. 
  44. ^ Debbie Young, 404-679-7292. "US Fish and Wildlife Service 2003 proposed bag limits for waterfowl". Fws.gov. Retrieved 20 April 2012. 
  45. ^ When can I hunt, Game Hunting, Recreation and Tourism; The Department of Sustainability and Environment (DSE), Government of Victoria, Australia., Accessed 4 December 2008. Archived 1 April 2011 at the "Wayback Machine.
  46. ^ "Hunting Laws and Regulations". elk-hunting.org. 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2012. 
  47. ^ http://www.americaeconomia.com/politica-sociedad/politica/costa-rica-es-el-primer-pais-latino-en-prohibir-la-caza-de-animales-como-
  48. ^ "ghillie suit". 
  49. ^ "Catalonian fiat, with picture". Gepec.org. Archived from the original on 14 May 2008. Retrieved 20 April 2012. 
  50. ^ Nancy L. Struna, People of Prowess: Sport, Leisure, and Labor in Early Anglo-America(1996), "ISBN "0-252-06552-2
  51. ^ Knight, John. "Solunar Tables for Fishermen Produced by Register-Guard." "The Register-Guard, 11 May 1949: 10. Print.
  52. ^ Motivations of International Trophy Hunters Choosing to Hunt in South Africa Archived 3 May 2015 at the "Wayback Machine.
  53. ^ http://www.fws.gov/policy/library/2005/05-17432.pdf
  54. ^ http://www.cbsnews.com/news/can-hunting-endangered-animals-save-the-species/
  55. ^ a b http://www.africanwildlifeconservationfund.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/Economic-and-conservation-significance.pdf
  56. ^ a b http://www.ifaw.org/sites/default/files/Ecolarge-2013-200m-question.pdf
  57. ^ a b "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 12 July 2014. 
  58. ^ "Trophy Hunting as a Sustainable Use of Wildlife Resources in Southern and Eastern Africa". Journal of Sustainable Tourism. 5: 306–321. "doi:10.1080/09669589708667294. 
  59. ^ "Hunting and Its Benefits: an Overview of Hunting in Africa with Special Reference to Tanzania". Wildlife Conservation by Sustainable Use: 295–313. "doi:10.1007/978-94-011-4012-6_15. 
  60. ^ http://www.ewca.gov.et/sites/default/files/Lindsey%20et%20al%20%202006%20Potential%20of%20trophy%20hunting%20to%20create%20incentives%20for%20wildlifeconservationin%20Africa.pdf
  61. ^ http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/bear-watching-more-profitable-than-bear-hunting-says-study-1.2488311
  62. ^ http://www.smithsonianmag.com/travel/should-trophy-hunting-of-lions-be-banned-155657735/
  63. ^ Smith, Jada F. (June 13, 2016). "Trophy Hunting Fees Do Little to Help Threatened Species, Report Says". "The New York Times. Retrieved May 26, 2017. 
  64. ^ Early Day Motion on trophy hunting Archived 22 February 2006 at the "Wayback Machine.
  65. ^ see, for example, this internet page Archived 10 July 2015 at the "Wayback Machine.
  66. ^ "Grossmith, George in "The Daily Telegraph, 7 June 1911
  67. ^ Martin, Glen. The lion, once king of vast African savanna, suffers alarming decline in population, San Francisco Chronicle, 6 October 2005. Retrieved 30 October 2007.
  68. ^ League Against Cruel Sports. Trophy Hunting July 2017
  69. ^ "Persecution and Hunting"
  70. ^ "Hunting iPhone Apps". Hunting Boots Blog. 13 January 2011. 
  71. ^ Dr. Göttlein Axel. "Eco-toxicological assessment of hunting rifle ammunition". Bavarian Ministry of Nutrition, Agriculture and Forestry upon an initiative of the Bavarian Hunting Association. 
  72. ^ Frederik Verdonck. "Population Trend modelling of European Upland Birds due to Lead Shot Ingestion". 
  73. ^ Prof. Angelo Moretto, Università degli Studi di Milano; Prof. Piermannuccio Mannucci, Scientific Director, IRCCS Ca’ Granda Maggiore Policlinico Hospital Foundation, Milano. "Lead in game meat and implications for human health". Retrieved 18 February 2013. 
  74. ^ Michael Todd (14 October 2013). "Gunning for Lead Bullets". Pacific Standard. Archived from the original on 28 December 2014. Retrieved 30 December 2014. 
  75. ^ Zack Colman (23 December 2014). "EPA can't regulate lead bullets, says federal court". Washington Examiner. Retrieved 30 December 2014. 
  76. ^ Brockington, Dan. Nature unbound: conservation, capitalism and the future of protected areas, Earthscan, 2008.
    "The birth of the international conservation movement as we recognize it today was due to the influence of powerful aristocratic hunters who wished to preserve suitable specimens for their sport from the alleged depredations of Africans (Mackenzie, 1988). The international hunting fraternity remains a powerful force behind conservation today."
  77. ^ Hack, M.A., East, R. & Rubenstein, D.I. (2008). Equus quagga quagga. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 5 January 2008
  78. ^ Montevecchi, William A.; David A. Kirk (1996). "Demography–Great Auk (Pinguinus impennis)". The Birds of North America Online. Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Retrieved 2010-04-29.
  79. ^ Ellis, Richard (2004). No Turning Back: The Life and Death of Animal Species. New York City: Harper Perennial. p. 134. "ISBN "0-06-055804-0.
  80. ^ "Additional Thylacine Topics: Persecution". The Thylacine Museum. 2006. Retrieved 27 November 2006.
  81. ^ Skead, C.J. 1987. Historical mammal incidence in the Cape Province. Volume 1 – The Western and Northern Cape. The Department of Nature and Environmental Conservation of the Provincial Administration of the Cape of Good Hope, Cape Town
  82. ^ a b Talbot, Lee Merriam (1960). A Look at Threatened Species. The Fauna Preservation Society. pp. 84–91.
  83. ^ Geptner, V.G., Sludskii, A. A. (1972). Mlekopitaiušcie Sovetskogo Soiuza. Vysšaia Škola, Moskva. (In Russian; English translation: Heptner, V.G., Sludskii, A.A., Bannikov, A.G.) (1992). Mammals of the Soviet Union. Volume II, Part 2: Carnivora (Hyaenas and Cats).
  84. ^ Valdez, R. (2008). Capra falconeri. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 5 April 2009. Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is regarded as endangered
  85. ^ Staff (December/January2012). "Restoring a Prairie Icon". National Wildlife (National Wildlife Federation) 50 (1): 20–25.
  86. ^ Cardoza, J.E.; Langlois, S.A. (2002). "The eastern cougar: A management failure?". Wildlife Society Bulletin. 30 (1): 265–73. 
  87. ^ Endangered Animals – A Reference Guide to Conflicting Issues
  88. ^ [3][77][78][79][80][81][82][83][84][85][86][87]
  89. ^ Pennisi, Elizabeth (October 18, 2016). "People are hunting primates, bats, and other mammals to extinction". "Science. Retrieved May 26, 2017. 
  90. ^ Ripple, William J.; Abernethy, Katharine; Betts, Matthew G.; Chapron, Guillaume; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Galetti, Mauro; Levi, Taal; Lindsey, Peter A.; Macdonald, David W.; Machovina, Brian; Newsome, Thomas M.; Peres, Carlos A.; Wallach, Arian D.; Wolf, Christopher; Young, Hillary (2016). "Bushmeat hunting and extinction risk to the world's mammals". Royal Society Open Science. 3: 1–16. "doi:10.1098/rsos.160498. 
  91. ^ Benítez-López, A.; Alkemade, R.; Schipper, A. M.; Ingram, D. J.; Verweij, P. A.; Eikelboom, J. A. J.; Huijbregts, M. A. J. (April 14, 2017). "The impact of hunting on tropical mammal and bird populations". "Science. 356 (6334): 180–83. "doi:10.1126/science.aaj1891. 
  92. ^ "The Pittman–Robertson Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act". "United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved 11 May 2007. 
  93. ^ "Migratory Bird Conservation Commission". "United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved 31 May 2007. 
  94. ^ The Fundamentals of Conservation Biology, Malcolm L Hunter, Jr., James P. Gibbs
  95. ^ http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/extinction-countdown/2011/06/17/arabian-oryx-makes-history-as-first-species-to-be-upgraded-from-extinct-in-the-wild-to-vulnerable/
  96. ^ Endangered Wildlife and Plants of the World, 2001
  97. ^ American Bison: A Natural History, By Dale F. Lott, Harry W. Greene, ebrary, Inc, Contributor Harry W. Greene, Edition: illustrated, Published by University of California Press, 2003 "ISBN "978-0-520-24062-9
  98. ^ http://conservationmagazine.org/2014/01/can-trophy-hunting-reconciled-conservation/
  99. ^ 'Global surge' in rhino poaching "BBC. 1 December 2009
  100. ^ "946 rhino killed in 2013". Eyewitness News. 19 December 2013. Retrieved 25 December 2013. 
  101. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/21/opinion/a-trophy-hunt-thats-good-for-rhinos.html
  102. ^ http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-20544251
  103. ^ https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2011/jun/18/botswana-natural-wonder-brink-of-catastrophe
  104. ^ http://newswatch.nationalgeographic.com/2010/11/23/uganda_ends_sport_hunting/
  105. ^ Conover, Michael R. "Effect of Hunting and Trapping on Wildlife Damage." Wildlife Society Bulletin, Vol. 29. No. 2 (Summer. 2001). pp. 521–32. Published by: Allen Press. accessdate=19 August 2015

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

) )