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Main article: "Future Map Policy Analysis Market

Futures Markets Applied to Prediction (FutureMAP) was intended to harness collective intelligence by researching "prediction market techniques for avoiding surprise and predicting future events. The intent was to explore the feasibility of market-based trading mechanisms to predict political instability, threats to national security, and other major events in the near future.[24] In laymans terms, FutureMap would be a website that allowed people to bet on when a terrorist attack would occur.[25] The bookie would have been the federal government.[25] Several Senators were outraged at the very notion of such a program.[25] Then Senate Minority Leader Tom Daschle said on the floor of the Senate "I couldn't believe that we would actually commit $8 million to create a Web site that would encourage investors to bet on futures involving terrorist attacks and public assassinations. ... I can't believe that anybody would seriously propose that we trade in death. ... How long would it be before you saw traders investing in a way that would bring about the desired result?"[25] Democratic Senator from Oregon, Ron Wyden said, "The idea of a federal betting parlor on atrocities and terrorism is ridiculous and it's grotesque."[25] The ranking Democrat on the Armed Services Committee, Sen. Carl Levin of Michigan, thought the program was so ridiculous that he thought initial reports of it were the result of a hoax.[25] The program was then dropped.

TIDES[edit]

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Goals of the Translingual Information Detection, Extraction and Summarization (TIDES) project

Translingual Information Detection, Extraction and Summarization (TIDES) developing advanced language processing technology to enable English speakers to find and interpret critical information in multiple languages without requiring knowledge of those languages.[26]

Outside groups (such as universities, corporations, etc.) were invited to participate in the annual "information retrieval, topic detection and tracking, automatic content extraction, and "machine translation evaluations run by "NIST.[26]

Genoa / Genoa II[edit]

"Genoa and "Genoa II focused on providing advanced decision-support and collaboration tools to rapidly deal with and adjust to dynamic crisis management and allow for inter-agency collaboration in real-time.[27][28] Another function was to be able to make estimates of possible future scenarios to assist intelligence officials in deciding what to do,[29] in a manner similar to the DARPA's "Deep Green program which is designed to assist Army commanders in making battlefield decisions.

Wargaming the Asymmetric Environment (WAE)[edit]

Wargaming the Asymmetric Environment (WAE) focused on developing automated technology capable of identifying predictive indicators of terrorist activity or impending attacks by examining individual and group behavior in broad environmental context and examining the motivation of specific terrorists.[30]

Effective Affordable Reusable Speech-to-text (EARS)[edit]

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Graphic from the Information Awareness Office's website describing the goals of the Effective, Affordable, Reusable Speech-to-Text (EARS) project

Effective Affordable Reusable Speech-to-text (EARS) to develop automatic "speech-to-text transcription technology whose output is substantially richer and much more accurate than previously possible. EARS was to focus on everyday human-to-human speech from broadcasts and telephone conversations in multiple languages.[31] It is expected to increase the speed with which speech can be processed by computers by 100 times or more.[29]

The intent is to create a core enabling technology (technology that is used as a component for future technologies) suitable for a wide range of future surveillance applications.[31]

Babylon[edit]

Babylon to develop rapid, two-way, natural language speech translation interfaces and platforms for the warfighter for use in field environments for force protection, refugee processing, and medical triage.[32]

Bio-Surveillance[edit]

Bio-Surveillance to develop the necessary information technologies and resulting prototype capable of detecting the covert release of a biological pathogen automatically, and significantly earlier than traditional approaches.[33]

Communicator[edit]

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Diagram (from official IAO site) describing capabilities of the "Communicator" project

Communicator was to develop "dialogue interaction" technology that enables warfighters to talk with computers, such that information will be accessible on the battlefield or in command centers without ever having to touch a keyboard. The Communicator Platform was to be both wireless and mobile, and to be designed to function in a networked environment.[34]

The dialogue interaction software was to interpret the context of the dialogue in order to improve performance, and to be capable of automatically adapting to new topics (because situations quickly change in war) so conversation is natural and efficient. The Communicator program emphasized task knowledge to compensate for natural language effects and noisy environments. Unlike automated translation of "natural language speech, which is much more complex due to an essentially unlimited vocabulary and grammar, the Communicator program is directed task specific issues so that there are constrained vocabularies (the system only needs to be able to understand language related to war). Research was also started to focus on foreign language computer interaction for use in supporting coalition operations.[34]

Live exercises were conducted involving small unit logistics operations involving the "United States Marines to test the technology in extreme environments.[34]

Components of TIA projects that continue to be developed[edit]

Despite the withdrawal of funding for the TIA and the closing of the IAO, the core of the project survived.[11][12][35] Legislators included a classified annex to the Defense Appropriations Act that preserved funding for TIA's component technologies, if they were transferred to other government agencies. TIA projects continued to be funded under classified annexes to Defense and Intelligence appropriation bills. However, the act also stipulated that the technologies only be used for military or foreign intelligence purposes against foreigners.[36]

TIA's two core projects are now operated by Advanced Research and Development Activity (ARDA) located among the 60-odd buildings of "Crypto City" at NSA headquarters in Fort Meade, MD. ARDA itself has been shifted from the NSA to the "Disruptive Technology Office (run by the "Director of National Intelligence). They are funded by National Foreign Intelligence Program for foreign counterterrorism intelligence purposes.

One technology, codenamed "Basketball" is the Information Awareness Prototype System, the core architecture to integrate all the TIA's information extraction, analysis, and dissemination tools. Work on this project is conducted by "SAIC through its former Hicks & Associates consulting arm run by former Defense and military officials and which had originally been awarded US$19 million IAO contract to build the prototype system in late 2002.[37]

The other project has been re-designated "Topsail" (formerly "Genoa II) and would provide IT tools to help anticipate and preempt terrorist attacks. SAIC has also been contracted to work on Topsail, including a US$3.7 million contract in 2005.

Media coverage and criticism[edit]

The first mention of the IAO in the mainstream media came from "The New York Times reporter "John Markoff on February 13, 2002.[38] Initial reports contained few details about the program. In the following months, as more information emerged about the scope of the TIA project, "civil libertarians became concerned over what they saw as the potential for the development of an "Orwellian mass surveillance system.

On November 14, 2002, The New York Times published a column by "William Safire in which he claimed "[TIA] has been given a $200 million budget to create computer dossiers on 300 million Americans."[39] Safire has been credited with triggering the anti-TIA movement.[40]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Information Awareness Office". "DARPA. Archived from the original on 30 November 2013. 
  2. ^ Tim Dowling. "What does the Prism logo mean?". "The Guardian. Retrieved 30 November 2013. The Prism logo is slightly more opaque than the one used by the US government's Information Awareness Office, which boasted an all-seeing eye atop a pyramid, casting a golden light across an adjacent planet Earth. 
  3. ^ Hendrik Hertzberg (December 9, 2002). "Too Much Information". "The New Yorker. Retrieved 30 November 2013. The Information Awareness Office's official seal features an occult pyramid topped with mystic all-seeing eye, like the one on the dollar bill. Its official motto is "Scientia Est Potentia," which doesn't mean "science has a lot of potential." It means "knowledge is power." 
  4. ^ Jonathan Turley (November 17, 2002). "George Bush's Big Brother". "The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 19 December 2013. 
  5. ^ a b James Poulos. "Obama Administration Anti-Leak Scheme Shows Precrime and Total Information Awareness Go Hand In Hand". "Forbes. Retrieved 19 October 2013. 
  6. ^ a b John Horgan. "U.S. Never Really Ended Creepy "Total Information Awareness" Program". "Scientific American. Retrieved 19 October 2013. 
  7. ^ John Markoff (November 22, 2002). "Pentagon Plans a Computer System That Would Peek at Personal Data of Americans". The New York Times. 
  8. ^ a b Total Information Awareness (TIA), Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC)
  9. ^ Dismantling the Empire: America's Last Best Hope By Chalmers Johnson "ISBN 0-8050-9303-6 "Congress's action did not end the Total Information Awareness program. The National Security Agency secretly decided to continue it through its private contractors."
  10. ^ "Total/Terrorism Information Awareness (TIA): Is It Truly Dead?". Electronic Frontier Foundation (official website). 2003. Retrieved 2009-03-15. 
  11. ^ a b c Harris, Shane (Feb 23, 2006). "TIA Lives On". National Journal. Archived from the original on May 28, 2011. Retrieved 2009-03-16. 
  12. ^ a b "U.S. Still Mining Terror Data". Wired News. February 23, 2004. 
  13. ^ a b c Lundin, Leigh (7 July 2013). "Pam, Prism, and Poindexter". Spying. Washington: SleuthSayers. Retrieved 4 January 2014. 
  14. ^ Overview of the Information Awareness Office
  15. ^ Search Results - THOMAS (Library of Congress)
  16. ^ The Global Information Society Project
  17. ^ Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 2004, Pub. L. No. 108–87, § 8131, 117 Stat. 1054, 1102 (2003)
  18. ^ 149 Cong. Rec. H8755—H8771 (24 September 2003)
  19. ^ a b c "Human Identification at a distance". Information Awareness Office (official website -- mirror). Archived from the original on February 15, 2009. Retrieved 2009-03-15. 
  20. ^ a b c "Evidence Extraction and Link Discovery". Information Awareness Office (official website -- mirror). Retrieved 2009-03-15. 
  21. ^ a b c "Genisys". Information Awareness Office (official website). Retrieved 2009-03-15. 
  22. ^ Lee, Newton (7 April 2015). Counterterrorism and Cybersecurity: Total Information Awareness (2, illustrated, revised ed.). Springer. p. 141. "ISBN "9783319172446. 
  23. ^ a b Ethier, Jason. "Current Research in Social Network Theory". Northeastern University College of Computer and Information Science. Archived from the original on February 26, 2015. Retrieved 2009-03-15. 
  24. ^ FutureMap
  25. ^ a b c d e f CNN
  26. ^ a b "TIDES". Information Awareness Office (official website -- mirror). Retrieved 2009-03-15. 
  27. ^ "Genoa". Information Awareness Office (official website). Retrieved 2009-03-15. 
  28. ^ "Genoa II". Information Awareness Office (official website). Retrieved 2009-03-15. 
  29. ^ a b Belasco, Amy (January 21, 2003). "EFF: Memorandum Regarding TIA Funding". Electronic Frontier Foundation. Retrieved 2009-03-15. 
  30. ^ "Wargaming the Asymmetric Environment (WAE)". www.darpa.mil/iao. Information Awareness Office. Retrieved 16 June 2016. 
  31. ^ a b "EARS". Information Awareness Office (official website -- mirror). Retrieved 2009-03-15. 
  32. ^ Babylon
  33. ^ BSS
  34. ^ a b c "Communicator". Information Awareness Office (official website). Retrieved 2009-03-15. 
  35. ^ Wanted: Competent Big Brothers, Newsweek, 8 February 2006, retrieved 27 July 2007
  36. ^ The Total Information Awareness Project Lives On, Technology Review, 26 April 2006, retrieved 27 July 2007
  37. ^ TIA Lives On, National Journal, 23 February 2006, retrieved 27 July 2007
  38. ^ Markoff, John (February 13, 2002). "Chief Takes Over at Agency To Thwart Attacks on U.S". The New York Times. Retrieved May 5, 2010. 
  39. ^ Safire, William (2002-11-14). "You Are a Suspect". The New York Times. p. 2. Retrieved 2010-10-21. 
  40. ^ Big Brother ...

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