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Integrated Authority File
""Gemeinsame Normdatei 2012 Opera.png
GND screenshot
Acronym GND
Introduced 5 April 2012 (2012-04-05)
Managing organisation "DNB
Example 7749153-1

The Integrated Authority File ("German: Gemeinsame Normdatei, also known as: Universal Authority File) or GND is an international "authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from "catalogues. It is used mainly for "documentation in "libraries and increasingly also by "archives and "museums. The GND is managed by the "German National Library (German: Deutsche Nationalbibliothek; DNB) in cooperation with various regional library networks in "German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the "Creative Commons Zero (CC0) license.[1]

The GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in "library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It also comprises an "ontology intended for "knowledge representation in the "semantic web, available in the "RDF format.[2]

The Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files which have since been discontinued:

At the time of its introduction ("GND-Grundbestand" from 5 April 2012), the GND holds 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalized names.


Types of GND high-level entities[edit]

There are seven main types of GND entities:[3]

Typ German (official) English (translation)
p Person (individualisiert) person (individualized)
n Name (nicht individualisiert) name (not individualized)
k Körperschaft corporate body
v Veranstaltung event
w Werk work
s Sachbegriff topical term
g Geografikum geographical place name

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Integrated Authority File (GND)
  2. ^ GND Ontology – Namespace Document Archived 2013-01-03 at the "Wayback Machine., version 2012-06-30.
  3. ^ Entitätencodierung: Vergaberichtlinien (short lists: old and new version)

External links[edit]

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