Article provided by Wikipedia

Intelligence has been defined in many different ways to include the capacity for "logic, "understanding, "self-awareness, "learning, "emotional knowledge, "reasoning, "planning, "creativity, and "problem solving. It can be more generally described as the ability to perceive or infer "information, and to retain it as "knowledge to be applied towards adaptive behaviors within an environment or context.

Intelligence is most widely studied in humans but has also been observed in both non-human animals and in plants. Intelligence in machines is called "artificial intelligence, which is commonly implemented in "computer systems using "programs.

History of the term

The term "intelligence" derives from the Latin "nouns intelligentia or intellēctus, which in turn stem from the verb intelligere, to comprehend or perceive. In the "Middle Ages, intellectus became the scholarly technical term for understanding, and a translation for the Greek philosophical term "nous. This term, however, was strongly linked to the "metaphysical and "cosmological theories of "teleological "scholasticism, including theories of the immortality of the soul, and the concept of the "Active Intellect (also known as the Active Intelligence). This entire approach to the study of nature was strongly rejected by the "early modern philosophers such as "Francis Bacon, "Thomas Hobbes, "John Locke, and "David Hume, all of whom preferred the word "understanding" (instead of "intellectus" or "intelligence") in their English philosophical works.[1][2] Hobbes for example, in his Latin "De Corpore, used "intellectus intelligit" (translated in the English version as "the understanding understandeth") as a typical example of a logical "absurdity.[3] The term "intelligence" has therefore become less common in English language philosophy, but it has later been taken up (with the scholastic theories which it now implies) in more contemporary "psychology.[4]

Definitions

The "definition of intelligence is controversial.[5] Some groups of "psychologists have suggested the following definitions:

From ""Mainstream Science on Intelligence" (1994), an "op-ed statement in the Wall Street Journal signed by fifty-two researchers (out of 131 total invited to sign):[6]

A very general mental capability that, among other things, involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly and learn from experience. It is not merely book learning, a narrow academic skill, or test-taking smarts. Rather, it reflects a broader and deeper capability for comprehending our surroundings—"catching on," "making sense" of things, or "figuring out" what to do.[7]

From ""Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns" (1995), a report published by the Board of Scientific Affairs of the "American Psychological Association:

Individuals differ from one another in their ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning, to overcome obstacles by taking thought. Although these individual differences can be substantial, they are never entirely consistent: a given person's intellectual performance will vary on different occasions, in different domains, as judged by different criteria. Concepts of "intelligence" are attempts to clarify and organize this complex set of phenomena. Although considerable clarity has been achieved in some areas, no such conceptualization has yet answered all the important questions, and none commands universal assent. Indeed, when two dozen prominent theorists were recently asked to define intelligence, they gave two dozen, somewhat different, definitions.[8]

Besides those definitions, "psychology and "learning researchers also have suggested definitions of intelligence such as:

Researcher Quotation
"Alfred Binet Judgment, otherwise called "good sense", "practical sense", "initiative", the faculty of adapting one's self to circumstances ... auto-critique.[9]
"David Wechsler The aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with his environment.[10]
"Lloyd Humphreys "...the resultant of the process of acquiring, storing in memory, retrieving, combining, comparing, and using in new contexts information and conceptual skills".[11]
"Howard Gardner To my mind, a human intellectual competence must entail a set of skills of "problem solving — enabling the individual to resolve genuine problems or difficulties that he or she encounters and, when appropriate, to create an effective product — and must also entail the potential for finding or creating problems — and thereby laying the groundwork for the acquisition of new knowledge.[12]
"Linda Gottfredson The ability to deal with cognitive complexity.[13]
"Sternberg & Salter "Goal-directed adaptive behavior.[14]
"Reuven Feuerstein The theory of Structural Cognitive Modifiability describes intelligence as "the unique propensity of human beings to change or modify the structure of their cognitive functioning to adapt to the changing demands of a life situation".[15]
"Legg & "Hutter A synthesis of 70+ definitions from psychology, philosophy, and AI researchers: "Intelligence measures an agent’s ability to achieve goals in a wide range of environments",[5] which has been mathematically formalized.[16]
"Alexander Wissner-Gross F = T ∇ S${\displaystyle _{\tau }}$[17]

"Intelligence is a force, F, that acts so as to maximize future freedom of action. It acts to maximize future freedom of action, or keep options open, with some strength T, with the diversity of possible accessible futures, S, up to some future time horizon, τ. In short, intelligence doesn't like to get trapped".

Human intelligence

Human intelligence is the intellectual power of humans, which is marked by complex "cognitive feats and high levels of "motivation and "self-awareness.[18] Intelligence enables humans to remember descriptions of things and use those descriptions in future behaviors. It is a cognitive process. It gives humans the "cognitive abilities to "learn, "form concepts, "understand, and "reason, including the capacities to "recognize patterns, comprehend ideas, "plan, "solve problems, and use "language to "communicate. Intelligence enables humans to "experience and "think.

Note that much of the above definition applies also to the intelligence of non-human animals.

In animals

""
""
The common "chimpanzee can "use tools. This chimpanzee is using a stick to get food.

Although humans have been the primary focus of intelligence researchers, scientists have also attempted to investigate animal intelligence, or more broadly, animal "cognition. These researchers are interested in studying both mental ability in a particular "species, and comparing abilities between species. They study various measures of problem solving, as well as numerical and verbal reasoning abilities. Some challenges in this area are defining intelligence so that it has the same meaning across species (e.g. comparing intelligence between literate humans and illiterate animals), and also "operationalizing a measure that accurately compares mental ability across different species and contexts.

"Wolfgang Köhler's research on the intelligence of apes is an example of research in this area. Stanley Coren's book, "The Intelligence of Dogs is a notable book on the topic of dog intelligence.[19] (See also: "Dog intelligence.) Non-human animals particularly noted and studied for their intelligence include "chimpanzees, "bonobos (notably the language-using "Kanzi) and other "great apes, "dolphins, "elephants and to some extent "parrots, "rats and "ravens.

"Cephalopod intelligence also provides important comparative study. "Cephalopods appear to exhibit characteristics of significant intelligence, yet their "nervous systems differ radically from those of backboned animals. Vertebrates such as "mammals, "birds, "reptiles and "fish have shown a fairly high degree of intellect that varies according to each species. The same is true with "arthropods.

g factor in non-humans

Evidence of a general factor of intelligence has been observed in non-human animals. The general factor of intelligence, or "g factor, is a "psychometric construct that summarizes the correlations observed between an individual’s scores on a wide range of "cognitive abilities. First described in "humans, the g factor has since been identified in a number of non-human species.[20]

Cognitive ability and intelligence cannot be measured using the same, largely verbally dependent, scales developed for humans. Instead, intelligence is measured using a variety of interactive and observational tools focusing on "innovation, "habit reversal, "social learning, and responses to "novelty. Studies have shown that g is responsible for 47% of the individual variance in cognitive ability measures in "primates[20] and between 55% and 60% of the variance in "mice (Locurto, Locurto). These values are similar to the accepted variance in "IQ explained by g in humans (40-50%).[21]

In plants

It has been argued that plants should also be classified as intelligent based on their ability to sense and model external and internal environments and adjust their "morphology, "physiology and "phenotype accordingly to ensure self-preservation and reproduction.[22][23]

A counter argument is that intelligence is commonly understood to involve the creation and use of persistent memories as opposed to computation that does not involve learning. If this is accepted as definitive of intelligence, then it includes the artificial intelligence of robots capable of "machine learning", but excludes those purely autonomic sense-reaction responses that can be observed in many plants. Plants are not limited to automated sensory-motor responses, however, they are capable of discriminating positive and negative experiences and of 'learning' (registering memories) from their past experiences. They are also capable of communication, accurately computing their circumstances, using sophisticated "cost–benefit analysis and taking tightly controlled actions to mitigate and control the diverse environmental stressors.[24][25][26]

Artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence (or AI) is both the intelligence of machines and the branch of "computer science which aims to create it, through "the study and design of "intelligent agents"[27] or "rational agents", where an "intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions which maximize its chances of success.[28] "Achievements in artificial intelligence include constrained and well-defined problems such as games, "crossword-solving and "optical character recognition and a few more general problems such as "autonomous cars.[29] General intelligence or "strong AI has not yet been achieved and is a long-term goal of AI research.

Among the traits that researchers hope machines will exhibit are "reasoning, "knowledge, "planning, "learning, "communication, "perception, and the ability to "move and to manipulate objects.[27][28] In the field of artificial intelligence there is no consensus on how closely the brain should be "simulated.

References

1. ^ Maich, Aloysius (1995). "A Hobbes Dictionary". Blackwell: 305
2. ^ Nidditch, Peter. "Foreword". An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. Oxford University Press. p. xxii
3. ^ English version Archived on date 11 March 2014, at the "Wayback Machine. Latin version Archived on date 5 November 2013, at the "Wayback Machine.
4. ^ This paragraph almost verbatim from Goldstein, Sam; Princiotta, Dana; Naglieri, Jack A., Eds. (2015). Handbook of Intelligence: Evolutionary Theory, Historical Perspective, and Current Concepts. New York, Heidelberg, Dordrecht, London: Springer. p. 3. "ISBN "978-1-4939-1561-3.
5. ^ a b S. Legg; M. Hutter. "A Collection of Definitions of Intelligence". 157: 17–24.
6. ^ Gottfredson & 1997777, pp. 17–20
7. ^ "Gottfredson, Linda S. (1997). "Mainstream Science on Intelligence (editorial)" (PDF). Intelligence. 24: 13–23. "doi:10.1016/s0160-2896(97)90011-8. "ISSN 0160-2896. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 December 2014.
8. ^ "Neisser, Ulrich; Boodoo, Gwyneth; Bouchard, Thomas J.; Boykin, A. Wade; Brody, Nathan; Ceci, Stephen J.; Halpern, Diane F.; Loehlin, John C.; Perloff, Robert; "Sternberg, Robert J.; Urbina, Susana (1996). "Intelligence: Knowns and unknowns" (PDF). American Psychologist. 51: 77–101. "doi:10.1037/0003-066x.51.2.77. "ISSN 0003-066X. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 March 2016. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
9. ^ Binet, Alfred (1916) [1905]. "New methods for the diagnosis of the intellectual level of subnormals". The development of intelligence in children: The Binet-Simon Scale. E.S. Kite (Trans.). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. pp. 37–90. Retrieved 10 July 2010. originally published as Méthodes nouvelles pour le diagnostic du niveau intellectuel des anormaux. L'Année Psychologique, 11, 191-244
10. ^ "Wechsler, D (1944). The measurement of adult intelligence. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. "ISBN "0-19-502296-3. "OCLC 219871557. ASIN = B000UG9J7E
11. ^ Humphreys, L. G. (1979). "The construct of general intelligence". Intelligence. 3 (2): 105–120. "doi:10.1016/0160-2896(79)90009-6.
12. ^ Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books. 1993. "ISBN "0-465-02510-2. "OCLC 221932479.
13. ^ "Gottfredson, L. (1998). "The General Intelligence Factor" (pdf). Scientific American Presents. 9 (4): 24–29. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 March 2008. Retrieved 18 March 2008.
14. ^ "Sternberg RJ; Salter W (1982). Handbook of human intelligence. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. "ISBN "0-521-29687-0. "OCLC 11226466.
15. ^ Feuerstein, R., Feuerstein, S., Falik, L & Rand, Y. (1979; 2002). Dynamic assessments of cognitive modifiability. ICELP Press, Jerusalem: Israel; Feuerstein, R. (1990). The theory of structural modifiability. In B. Presseisen (Ed.), Learning and thinking styles: Classroom interaction. Washington, DC: National Education Associations
16. ^ S. Legg; M. Hutter (2007). "Universal Intelligence: A Definition of Machine Intelligence". Minds & Machines. 17 (4): 391–444. "arXiv:. "doi:10.1007/s11023-007-9079-x.
17. ^ "TED Speaker: Alex Wissner-Gross: A new equation for intelligence". TED.com. Archived from the original on 4 September 2016. Retrieved 7 September 2016.
18. ^ Tirri, Nokelainen. Measuring Multiple Intelligences and Moral Sensitivities in Education. Springer. "ISBN "978-94-6091-758-5. Archived from the original on 2 August 2017.
19. ^ Coren, Stanley (1995). The Intelligence of Dogs. Bantam Books. "ISBN "0-553-37452-4. "OCLC 30700778.
20. ^ a b Reader, S. M., Hager, Y., & Laland, K. N. (2011). The evolution of primate general and cultural intelligence. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 366(1567), 1017-1027.
21. ^ Kamphaus, R. W. (2005). Clinical assessment of child and adolescent intelligence. Springer Science & Business Media.
22. ^ Trewavas, Anthony (September 2005). "Green plants as intelligent organisms". Trends in Plant Science. 10 (9): 413–419. "doi:10.1016/j.tplants.2005.07.005. "PMID 16054860.
23. ^ Trewavas, A. (2002). "Mindless mastery". Nature. 415 (6874): 841. "doi:10.1038/415841a. "PMID 11859344.
24. ^ Goh, C. H.; Nam, H. G.; Park, Y. S. (2003). "Stress memory in plants: A negative regulation of stomatal response and transient induction of rd22 gene to light in abscisic acid-entrained Arabidopsis plants". The Plant Journal. 36 (2): 240–255. "doi:10.1046/j.1365-313X.2003.01872.x. "PMID 14535888.
25. ^ Volkov, A. G.; Carrell, H.; Baldwin, A.; Markin, V. S. (2009). "Electrical memory in Venus flytrap". Bioelectrochemistry. 75 (2): 142–147. "doi:10.1016/j.bioelechem.2009.03.005. "PMID 19356999.
26. ^ Rensing, L.; Koch, M.; Becker, A. (2009). "A comparative approach to the principal mechanisms of different memory systems". Naturwissenschaften. 96 (12): 1373–1384. "Bibcode:2009NW.....96.1373R. "doi:10.1007/s00114-009-0591-0. "PMID 19680619.
27. ^ a b Goebel, Randy; Poole, David L.; Mackworth, Alan K. (1997). Computational intelligence: A logical approach (pdf). Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. p. 1. "ISBN "0-19-510270-3. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 March 2008.
28. ^ a b Russell, Stuart J.; Norvig, Peter (2003). Artificial intelligence: A modern approach. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall. "ISBN "0-13-790395-2. "OCLC 51325314.
29. ^ Simonite, Tom. "Google: Our Robot Cars Are Better Drivers Than Puny Humans".