Internet art (often referred to as net art) is a form of "digital artwork distributed via the "Internet. This form of art has circumvented the traditional dominance of the gallery and museum system, delivering aesthetic experiences via the Internet. In many cases, the viewer is drawn into some kind of "interaction with the work of art. Artists working in this manner are sometimes referred to as net artists.
Internet art can happen outside the technical structure of the Internet, such as when artists use specific social or cultural Internet traditions in a project outside it. Internet art is often—but not always—interactive, participatory, and "multimedia-based. Internet art can be used to spread a message, either political or social, using human interactions.
The term Internet art typically does not refer to art that has been simply digitized and uploaded to be viewable over the Internet. This can be done through a web browser, such as images of paintings uploaded for viewing in an online gallery. Rather, this genre relies intrinsically on the Internet to exist, taking advantage of such aspects as an interactive interface and connectivity to multiple social and economic cultures and micro-cultures. It refers to the Internet as a whole, not only to web-based works.
Theorist and curator "Jon Ippolito defined "Ten Myths" about Internet art in 2002. He cites the above stipulations, as well as defining it as distinct from commercial web design, and touching on issues of permanence, archivability, and collecting in a fluid medium.
History and context
Internet art is rooted in disparate artistic traditions and movements, ranging from "Dada to "Situationism, "conceptual art, "Fluxus, "video art, "kinetic art, "performance art, "telematic art and "happenings.
In 1974, Canadian artist Vera Frenkel worked with the Bell Canada Teleconferencing Studios to produce the work String Games, the first artwork to use telecommunications technologies.
An early "telematic artwork was "Roy Ascott's work, La Plissure du Texte, performed in collaboration created for an exhibition at the "Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris in 1983.
Media art institutions such as "Ars Electronica Festival in "Linz, or the "Paris-based IRCAM (a research center for electronic music), would also support or present early Networked art.
With the rise of search engines as a gateway to accessing the web in the late 1990s, many net artists turned their attention to related themes. The 2001 'Data Dynamics' exhibit at the Whitney Museum of American Art featured 'Netomat' (Maciej Wisniewski) and 'Apartment' (Marek Walczak and "Martin Wattenberg, which used search queries as raw material. "Mary Flanagan's 'The Perpetual Bed' received attention for its novel use of 3D nonlinear narrative space, or what she called "navigable narratives."   Her 2001 work in the Whitney Biennial, 'collection' collected items from hard drives around the world and displayed them in a 'computational collective unconscious.' "Golan Levin's 'The Secret Lives of Numbers' (2000) visualized the "popularity" of the numbers 1 to 1,000,000 as measured by Alta Vista search results. Such works pointed to alternative interfaces and questioned the dominant role of search engines in controlling access to the net.
Nevertheless, the Internet is not reducible to the web, nor to search engines. Besides these "unicast (point to point) applications, suggesting that there is some reference points, there is also a "multicast (multipoint and acentered) internet that has been explored by very few artistic experiences, such as the "Poietic Generator. Internet art has, according to Juliff and Cox, suffered under the privileging of the user interface inherent within computer art. They argue that Internet is not synonymous with a specific user and specific interface, but rather a dynamic structure that encompasses coding and the artist's intention.
The emergence of social networking platforms, understood to be "web-based services that allow individuals to... construct a public or semi-public profile within a bounded system... articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection, and... view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the system", facilitated a transformative shift in the distribution of internet art. Early online communities were organized around specific "topical hierarchies", whereas social networking platforms consist of egocentric networks, with the "individual at the center of their own community". Artistic communities on the Internet underwent a similar transition in the mid-2000s, shifting from Surf Clubs, "15 to 30 person groups whose members contributed to an ongoing visual-conceptual conversation through the use of digital media" and whose membership was restricted to a select group of individuals, to image-based social networking platforms, like Flickr, which permit access to any individual with an e-mail address. Internet artists make extensive use of the networked capabilities of social networking platforms, and are rhizomatic in their organization, in that "production of meaning is externally contingent on a network of other artists' content".
- ^ a b Ippolito, Jon. "Ten Myths of Internet Art". VECTORS: Digital art of our time. New York: New York Digital Salon. Retrieved September 21, 2010.
- ^ Chandler, Annmarie; Neumark, Norie (2005). At a Distance: Precursors to Art and Activism on the Internet. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. "ISBN "0-262-03328-3.
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- ^ White, Norman T. "Plissure du Texte". The NorMill. Retrieved September 21, 2010. (Unedited transcript including organizational discussion.)
- ^ Klink, Patrick (1999). "Daring Digital Artist". UB Today. Buffalo: The University at Buffalo. Retrieved December 21, 2011.
- ^ Flanagan, Mary (2000). "navigating the narrative in space: gender and spatiality in virtual worlds". Art Journal. New York: The College Art Association. Retrieved December 21, 2011.
- ^ Cotter, Holland (2002). "Never Mind the Art Police, These Six Matter". New York: The New York Times. Retrieved December 21, 2011.
- ^ Toby Juliff, Travis Cox (2015). "The post-display condition of contemporary computer art" (PDF). eMaj. 8.
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- ^ a b Schneider, B. "From Clubs to Affinity: The Decentralization of Art on the Internet". 491. Archived from the original on 7 July 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
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- Kate Armstrong, Jeremy Bailey & Faisal Anwar on Net Art in Canadian Art Magazine 
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- "Fred Forest 1998,¨Pour un art actuel, l'art à l'heure d'Internet" l'Harmattan, Paris
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- Wilson, Stephen (2001). Information Arts: Intersections of Art, Science and Technology. Cambridge, Mass. : MIT Press. "ISBN "0-262-23209-X.
- "Caterina Davinio 2002. Tecno-Poesia e realtà virtuali / Techno-Poetry and Virtual Realities, Sometti, Mantua (IT) Collection: Archivio della poesia del 900. Mantua Municipality. With English translation. "ISBN "88-88091-85-8
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- WB05 e-symposium published as ISEA Newsletter #102 - "ISSN 1488-3635 #102 
- Juliff, Toby & Cox, Travis. 'The Post-display condition of contemporary computer art.' eMaj #8 (April 2015) https://emajartjournal.files.wordpress.com/2012/11/cox-and-juliff_the-post-display-condition-of-contemporary-computer-art.pdf
- Ascott, R.2003. Telematic Embrace: visionary theories of art, technology and consciousness. ("Edward A. Shanken, ed.) Berkeley: University of California Press.
- "Roy Ascott 2002. Technoetic Arts (Editor and Korean translation: YI, Won-Kon), (Media & Art Series no. 6, Institute of Media Art, Yonsei University). Yonsei: Yonsei University Press
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- "Fred Forest 2008. Art et Internet, Paris Editions Cercle D'Art / Imaginaire Mode d'Emploi
- Thomas Dreher: IASLonline Lessons/Lektionen in NetArt.
- Thomas Dreher: History of Computer Art, chap.VI: Net Art: Networks, Participation, Hypertext
- Monoskop (2010). Overview of 'surf clubs' phenomenon. 
- Art in the Era of the Internet, PBS Report
- (in Spanish) Martín Prada, Juan, Prácticas artísticas e Internet en la época de las redes sociales, Editorial AKAL, Madrid, 2012, "ISBN "978-84-460-3517-6
- Bosma, Josephine (2011) "Nettitudes - Let's Talk Net Art"  NAI Publishers, "ISBN "978-90-5662-800-0
- Schneider, B. (2011, January 6). From Clubs to Affinity: The Decentralization of Art on the Internet « 491. 491. Retrieved March 3, 2011, from https://web.archive.org/web/20120707101824/http://fourninetyone.com/2011/01/06/fromclubstoaffinity/
- Boyd, D. M., & Ellison, N. B. (2007). Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, 13(1). Retrieved March 14, 2011, from http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol13/issue1/boyd.ellison.
- Moss, Ceci. (2008). Thoughts on “New Media Artists v. Artists with Computers". Rhizome Journal. http://rhizome.org/editorial/2008/dec/3/thoughts-on-quotnew-media-artists-vs-artists-with-/
- Greene, Rachel. (2000) A History of Internet Art. Artforum, vol. 38.
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- Houghton, B. (2002). The Internet & art: A guidebook for artists. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. "ISBN "0-13-089374-9.
- Bosma, J. (2011). Nettitudes: Let's talk net art. Rotterdam: Nai Publishers. "ISBN "978-90-5662-800-0.
- Daniels, D., & Reisinger, G. (2009). Net pioneers 1.0: Contextualizing early net-based art. Berlin: Sternberg Press. "ISBN "978-1-933128-71-9.
- netartnet.net an online-gallery listing and directory of internet art