To understand how the Internet is managed today, it is necessary to know a little of its history. The original "ARPANET is one of the components which eventually evolved to become the Internet. As its name suggests the ARPANET was sponsored by the "Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency within the "U.S. Department of Defense. During the development of ARPANET, a numbered series of "Request for Comments (RFCs) memos documented technical decisions and methods of working as they evolved. The standards of today's Internet are still documented by RFCs.
Between 1984 and 1986 the U.S. "National Science Foundation (NSF) created the "NSFNET backbone, using "TCP/IP, to connect their supercomputing facilities. NSFNET became a general-purpose research network, a hub to connect the supercomputing centers to each other and to the regional research and education networks that would in turn connect campus networks. The combined networks became generally known as the Internet. By the end of 1989, Australia, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, and the UK were connected to the Internet, which had grown to contain more than 160,000 hosts.
In 1990, the ARPANET was formally terminated. In 1991 the NSF began to relax its restrictions on commercial use on NSFNET and commercial network providers began to interconnect. The final restrictions on carrying commercial traffic ended on 30 April 1995, when the NSF ended its sponsorship of the NSFNET Backbone Service and the service ended. Today almost all Internet infrastructure in the United States, and large portion in other countries, is provided and owned by the private sector. Traffic is exchanged between these networks, at major interconnection points, in accordance with established Internet standards and commercial agreements.
During 1979 the Internet Configuration Control Board was founded by "DARPA to oversee the network's development. During 1984 it was renamed the Internet Advisory Board ("IAB), and during 1986 it became the Internet Activities Board.
The "Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) was formed during 1986 by the U.S. government to develop and promote Internet standards. It consisted initially of researchers, but by the end of the year participation was available to anyone, and its business was performed largely by email.
From the early days of the network until his death during 1998, "Jon Postel oversaw address allocation and other Internet protocol numbering and assignments in his capacity as Director of the Computer Networks Division at the "Information Sciences Institute of the "University of Southern California, under a contract from the Department of Defense. This function eventually became known as the "Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), and as it expanded to include management of the global Domain Name System ("DNS) root servers, a small organization grew. Postel also served as "RFC Editor.
Allocation of IP addresses was delegated to five "Regional Internet Registries (RIRs):
- "American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN) for North America
- "Réseaux IP Européens - Network Coordination Centre (RIPE NCC) for Europe, the Middle East, and Central Asia
- "Asia-Pacific Network Information Centre (APNIC) for Asia and the Pacific region
- "Latin American and Caribbean Internet Addresses Registry (LACNIC) for Latin America and the Caribbean region
- "African Network Information Center (AfriNIC) was created in 2004 to manage allocations for Africa
After Jon Postel's death in 1998, IANA became part of ICANN, a California "nonprofit established in September 1998 by the U.S. government and awarded a contract by the U.S. "Department of Commerce. Initially two board members were elected by the Internet community at large, though this was changed by the rest of the board in 2002 in a poorly attended public meeting in "Accra, "Ghana.
In 1992 the "Internet Society (ISOC) was founded, with a mission to "assure the open development, evolution and use of the Internet for the benefit of all people throughout the world". Its members include individuals (anyone may join) as well as corporations, organizations, governments, and universities. The IAB was renamed the "Internet Architecture Board, and became part of ISOC. The Internet Engineering Task Force also became part of the ISOC. The IETF is overseen currently by the "Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG), and longer-term research is carried on by the "Internet Research Task Force and overseen by the "Internet Research Steering Group.
At the first "World Summit on the Information Society in "Geneva in 2003, the topic of Internet governance was discussed. ICANN's status as a private corporation under contract to the U.S. government created controversy among other governments, especially Brazil, China, South Africa, and some Arab states. Since no general agreement existed even on the definition of what comprised Internet governance, "United Nations "Secretary General "Kofi Annan initiated a "Working Group on Internet Governance ("WGIG) to clarify the issues and report before the second part of the "World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) in "Tunis 2005. After much controversial debate, during which the U.S. delegation refused to consider surrendering the U.S. control of the Root Zone file, participants agreed on a compromise to allow for wider international debate on the policy principles. They agreed to establish an "Internet Governance Forum (IGF), to be convened by the "United Nations "Secretary General before the end of the second quarter of 2006. The "Greek government volunteered to host the first such meeting.
Annual global IGFs have been held since 2006, with the Forum renewed for five years by the United Nations General Assembly in December 2010. In addition to the annual global IGF, regional IGFs have been organized in Africa, the Arab region, Asia-Pacific, and Latin America and the Caribbean, as well as in sub-regions. in December 2015, the United Nations General Assembly renewed the IGF for another ten years, in the context of the WSIS 10-year overall review.
Globalization and governance controversy
Role of ICANN and the U.S. Department of Commerce
The position of the "U.S. Department of Commerce as the controller of some aspects of the Internet gradually attracted criticism from those who felt that control should be more international. A hands-off philosophy by the Department of Commerce helped limit this criticism, but this was undermined in 2005 when the Bush administration intervened to help kill the ".xxx top-level domain proposal, and, much more severely, following the "2013 disclosures of mass surveillance by the U.S. government.
When the IANA functions were handed over to ICANN, a new U.S. nonprofit, controversy increased. ICANN's decision-making process was criticised by some observers as being secretive and unaccountable. When the directors' posts which had previously been elected by the "at-large" community of Internet users were abolished, some feared that ICANN would become illegitimate and its qualifications questionable, due to the fact that it was now losing the aspect of being a neutral governing body. ICANN stated that it was merely streamlining decision-making, and developing a structure suitable for the modern Internet. On 1 October 2015, following a community-led process spanning months, the stewardship of the IANA functions were transitioned to the global Internet community.
Other topics of controversy included the creation and control of "generic top-level domains (.com, .org, and possible new ones, such as .biz or .xxx), the control of "country-code domains, recent proposals for a large increase in ICANN's budget and responsibilities, and a proposed "domain tax" to pay for the increase.
There were also suggestions that individual governments should have more control, or that the "International Telecommunication Union or the "United Nations should have a function in Internet governance.
IBSA proposal (2011)
One controversial proposal to this effect, resulting from a September 2011 summit between India, Brazil, and South Africa (IBSA), would seek to move internet governance into a "UN Committee on Internet-Related Policy" (UN-CIRP). The move was a reaction to a perception that the principles of the 2005 Tunis Agenda for the Information Society have not been met. The statement called for the subordination of independent technical organizations such as ICANN and the ITU to a political organization operating under the auspices of the United Nations. After outrage from India’s civil society and media, the Indian government backed away from the proposal.
Montevideo Statement on the Future of Internet Cooperation (2013)
On 7 October 2013 the "Montevideo Statement on the Future of Internet Cooperation was released by the leaders of a number of organizations involved in coordinating the Internet's global technical infrastructure, loosely known as the "I*" (or "I-star") group. Among other things, the statement "expressed strong concern over the undermining of the trust and confidence of Internet users globally due to recent revelations of pervasive monitoring and surveillance" and "called for accelerating the globalization of ICANN and IANA functions, towards an environment in which all stakeholders, including all governments, participate on an equal footing". This desire to move away from a United States centric approach is seen as a reaction to the ongoing "NSA surveillance scandal. The statement was signed by the heads of the "Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), the "Internet Engineering Task Force, the "Internet Architecture Board, the "World Wide Web Consortium, the "Internet Society, and the five "regional Internet address registries ("African Network Information Center, "American Registry for Internet Numbers, "Asia-Pacific Network Information Centre, "Latin America and Caribbean Internet Addresses Registry, and "Réseaux IP Européens Network Coordination Centre).
Global Multistakeholder Meeting on the Future of Internet Governance (NetMundial) (2013)
In October 2013, Fadi Chehadé, former President and CEO of ICANN, met with Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff in Brasilia. Upon Chehadé's invitation, the two announced that Brazil would host an international summit on Internet governance in April 2014. The announcement came after the "2013 disclosures of mass surveillance by the U.S. government, and President Rousseff's speech at the opening session of the 2013 United Nations General Assembly, where she strongly criticized the U.S. surveillance program as a "breach of international law". The ""Global Multistakeholder Meeting on the Future of Internet Governance (NETMundial)" will include representatives of government, industry, civil society, and academia. At the "IGF VIII meeting in Bali in October 2013 a commentator noted that Brazil intends the meeting to be a ""summit" in the sense that it will be high level with decision-making authority. The organizers of the "NETmundial" meeting have decided that an online forum called "/1net", set up by the I* group, will be a major conduit of non-governmental input into the three committees preparing for the meeting in April.
NetMundial managed to convene a large number of global actors to produce a consensus statement on internet governance principles and a roadmap for the future evolution of the internet governance ecosystem. NETmundial Multistakeholder Statement – the outcome of the Meeting – was elaborated in an open and participatory manner, by means of successive consultations. This consensus should be qualified in that even though the statement was adopted by consensus, some participants, specifically the Russian Federation, India, Cuba, and ARTICLE 19, representing some participants from civil society expressed some dissent with its contents and the process.
NetMundial Initiative (2014)
The "NetMundial Initiative is an initiative by "ICANN CEO "Fadi Chehade along with representatives of the "World Economic Forum (WEF) and the Brazilian Internet Steering Committee (Comitê Gestor da Internet no Brasil), commonly referred to as "CGI.br"., which was inspired by the 2014 NetMundial meeting.
A month later, the Panel On Global Internet Cooperation and Governance Mechanisms (convened by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers ("ICANN) and the "World Economic Forum (WEF) with assistance from "The Annenberg Foundation), supported and included the NetMundial statement in its own report.
End of U.S. Department of Commerce oversight
On October 1, 2016 ICANN ended its contract with the United States Department of Commerce National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA).
- "Global Commission on Internet Governance, launched in January 2014 by two international think tanks, the "Centre for International Governance Innovation and "Chatham House, to make recommendations about the future of global Internet governance.
- "International Organization for Standardization, Maintenance Agency (ISO 3166 MA): Defines names and "postal codes of countries, "dependent territories, special areas of geographic significance. To date it has only played a minor role in developing Internet standards.
- "Internet Architecture Board (IAB): Oversees the technical and engineering development of the IETF and IRTF.
- "Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN): Coordinates the Internet's systems of unique identifiers: IP addresses, Protocol-Parameter registries, top-level domain space (DNS root zone). Performs "Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) functions for the global Internet community.
- "Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF): Develops and promotes a wide range of Internet standards dealing in particular with standards of the "Internet protocol suite. Their technical documents influence the way people design, use and manage the Internet.
- "Internet Governance Forum (IGF): A "multistakeholder forum for policy dialogue.
- "Internet Research Task Force (IRTF): Promotes research of the evolution of the Internet by creating focused, long-term research groups working on Internet protocols, applications, architecture, and technology.
- "Internet Network Operators' Groups (NOGs): informal groups established to provide forums for network operators to discuss matters of mutual interest.
- "Internet Society (ISOC): Assures the open development, evolution, and use of the Internet for the benefit of all people throughout the world. Currently ISOC has over 90 chapters in around 80 countries.
- "Number Resource Organization (NRO): Established in October 2003, the NRO is an unincorporated organization uniting the five regional Internet registries.
- "Regional Internet Registries (RIRs): There are five regional Internet registries. They manage the allocation and registration of Internet number resources, such as IP addresses, within geographic regions of the world. (Africa: www.afrinic.net; Asia Pacific: www.apnic.net; Canada and United States: www.arin.net; Latin America & Caribbean: www.lacnic.net; Europe, the Middle East and parts of Central Asia: www.ripe.net)
- "World Wide Web Consortium (W3C): Creates standards for the World Wide Web that enable an Open Web Platform, for example, by focusing on issues of accessibility, internationalization, and mobile web solutions.
United Nations bodies
- "Internet Governance Forum (IGF)
- "IGF regional, national, and subject area initiatives
- "Commission on Science and Technology for Development (CSTD) Working Group on Improvements to the IGF (CSTDWG), active from February 2011 to May 2012.
- "International Telecommunications Union (ITU)
- "World Conference on International Telecommunications (WCIT), a treaty-level conference facilitated by the ITU to address international telecommunications regulations, held in December 2012 in Dubai.
- "World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS), summits held in 2003 (Geneva) and 2005 (Tunis).
- "WSIS Forum, annual meetings held in Geneva starting in 2006 as a follow up of the WSIS Geneva Plan of Action.
- "WSIS + 10, a high-level event and extended version of the WSIS Forum to take stock of achievements in the last 10 years and develop proposals for a new vision beyond 2015, held from 13 to 17 April 2014 in "Sharm el-Sheikh, "Egypt.
- "Working Group on Internet Governance (WGIG), active from September 2004 to November 2005.
- Klein, Hans. (2004). "ICANN and Non-Territorial Sovereignty: Government Without the Nation State." Internet and Public Policy Project. Georgia Institute of Technology.
- Packard, Ashley (2010). Digital Media Law. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 65. "ISBN "978-1-4051-8169-3.
- Mueller, Milton L. (2010). Networks and States: The Global Politics of Internet Governance. MIT Press. p. 61. "ISBN "978-0-262-01459-5.
- "Affirmation of Commitments by the United States Department of Commerce and the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers". ICANN. Retrieved 11 October 2013.
- Woltag, Johann-Christoph (2012). Rüdiger Wolfrum, ed. Internet. Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law: Oxford University Press. "ISBN "978-0-19-965791-9.
- Mueller, Milton L. (2010). Networks and States: The Global Politics of Internet Governance. MIT Press. p. 67. "ISBN "978-0-262-01459-5.
- Mueller, Milton L. (2010). Networks and States: The Global Politics of Internet Governance. MIT Press. pp. 79–80. "ISBN "978-0-262-01459-5.
- DeNardis, Laura, The Emerging Field of Internet Governance (17 September 2010). Yale Information Society Project Working Paper Series.
- Malte Ziewitz/Christian Pentzold, "In search of internet governance: Performing order in digitally networked environments", New Media & Society 16 (2014): pp. 306-322.
- "Report of the Working Group on Internet Governance (WGIG)", June 2005, p.4.
- Yochai Benkler, "From Consumers to Users: Shifting the Deeper Structures of Regulation Towards Sustainable Commons and User Access" Archived 9 March 2012 at the "Wayback Machine., 52 Fed. Comm. L.J. 561, (2000).
- Jovan Kurbalija, "An Introduction to Internet Governance", 5 ed, DiploFoundation (2012).
- Laura DeNardis, "The Emerging Field of Internet Governance" (17 September 2010), Yale Information Society Project Working Paper Series.
- On this, see e.g. Nicola Lucchi, "Internet Content Governace & Human Rights" 16 Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment and Technology Law Vol. 16, n. 4 (2014) 809-856.
- A History of the ARPANET: The First Decade (PDF) (Report). Arlington, VA: "Bolt, Beranek & Newman Inc. 1 April 1981.
- "RFC's, Internet Request For Comments". Livinginternet.com. Retrieved 2012-04-03.
- NSFNET: A Partnership for High-Speed Networking, Final Report 19877-1995 Archived 10 February 2015 at the "Wayback Machine., Karen D. Frazer, Merit Network, Inc., 1995
- "Retiring the NSFNET Backbone Service: Chronicling the End of an Era" Archived 1 January 2016 at the "Wayback Machine., Susan R. Harris, Ph.D., and Elise Gerich, ConneXions, Vol. 10, No. 4, April 1996
- "A Brief History of the Internet".
- "History page from the IAB website". Retrieved 2011-11-11.
- "RFC 2850: Charter of the Internet Architecture Board (IAB), May 2000
- "Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)". RIPE NCC. 10 Aug 2012. Retrieved 13 October 2012.
- O. Jacobsen, D. Lynch, Interop, Inc. (March 1991). "A Glossary of Networking Terms". IETF. Retrieved 13 October 2012.
- "Net governance chief will step down next year", David McGuire, Washingtonpost.com, 28 May 2002.
- Internet Society (ISOC) All About The Internet: History of the Internet
- "Internet governance: U.S., Developing countries strike deal", Innocent Gore, Africa News Service, 21 November 2005
- "UN General Assembly Resolution 65/141. Information and communications technologies for development" (PDF). 2011-02-11. Retrieved 2016-09-06.
- "UNGA Resolution 70/125 Outcome document of the high-level meeting of the General Assembly on the overall review of the implementation of the outcomes of the World Summit on the Information Society" (PDF). 2015-12-13. Retrieved 2016-09-06.
- "Bush administration objects to .xxx domains", Declan McCullagh, CNet News, 15 August 205. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
- "Chair's Summary", Eighth Meeting of the Internet Governance Forum (IGF), Bali, Indonesia, 22–25 October 2013. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
- "Stewardship of IANA Functions Transitions to Global Internet Community as Contract with U.S. Government Ends", ICANN, 1 October 2016. Retrieved 26 February 2016.
- Goldsmith/Wu, Jack/Tim (2006). Who Controls the Internet? Illusions of a Borderless World. New York: Oxford University Press Inc. p. 171. "ISBN "978-0-19-515266-1.
- Bamzai, Sandeep (20 October 2012). "Muzzlers of the Free Internet". London: Mail Today (New Delhi, India). Retrieved 15 March 2013.
- "Recommendations from the IBSA (India-Brazil-South Africa) Multistakeholder meeting on Global Internet Governance" Archived 5 October 2011 at the "Wayback Machine., 1–2 September 2011, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
- "Tunis Agenda for the Information Society", World Summit on the Information Society, 18 November 2005
- Kaul, Mahima. "India changes its internet governance position — backs away from UN proposal". UNCUT. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
- Montevideo Statement on the Future of Internet Cooperation, ICANN, 7 October 2013. Retrieved 12 October 2013.
- "Brazil's anti-NSA prez urged to SNATCH keys to the internet from America", Rik Myslewski, The Register, 11 October 2013. Retrieved 11 October 2013.
- Milton Mueller (2013-11-19). "Booting up Brazil". IGP Blog. Retrieved 2014-02-11.
- "Entrevista com Fadi Chehadé: Brasil sediará encontro mundial de governança da internet em 2014", Palácio do Planalto, 9 October 2013. Retrieved 4 March 2014.
- "Brazil to host global internet summit in ongoing fight against NSA surveillance", RT News, 10 October 2013. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
- "CENTR: Internet Governance in 2013 and What's Coming Up in 2014". CircleID. 2014-01-27. Retrieved 2014-02-11.
- Paul Wilson (2013-11-29). "What Is "1net" to Me". CircleID blog. Retrieved 2014-02-11.
- "NETmundial Multistakeholder Statement" (PDF). 2014-04-24. Retrieved 2016-09-06.
- ""NETmundial–Closing Session" (p 21-24)" (PDF). 2014-09-06. Retrieved 2016-09-06.
- NETmundial Initiative - Debrief with Founding Partners, retrieved 2015-04-14
- Public Declaration on the NETmundial Initiative issued by members of the board of CGI.br, 2014-11-24, retrieved 2015-04-14
- "Towards a Collaborative, Decentralized Internet Governance Ecosystem - report by the Panel On Global Internet Cooperation and Governance Mechanisms". 2014-05-20. Retrieved 2014-06-02.
- "Stewardship of IANA Functions Transitions to Global Internet Community as Contract with U.S. Government Ends - ICANN". www.icann.org. Retrieved 2016-10-01.
- Roadmap for the Internet of Things - Its Impact, Architecture and Future Governance, by Mark Fell, Carré & Strauss. 2014.
- Manifesto for Smarter Intervention in Complex Systems, by Mark Fell, Carré & Strauss. 2013.
- What is Internet Governance? A primer from the Council on Foreign Relations
- The Global War for Internet Governance, "Laura DeNardis, Yale University Press, 2014. Explains global power dynamics around technical and political governance of the Internet.
- Ruling the Root: Internet Governance and the Taming of Cyberspace by Milton Mueller, MIT Press, 2002. The definitive study of DNS and ICANN's early history.
- Protocol Politics, "Laura DeNardis, MIT Press, 2009. IP addressing and the migration to IPv6
- "One History of DNS" by Ross W. Rader. April 2001. Article contains historic facts about DNS and explains the reasons behind the so-called "dns war".
- "The Emerging Field of Internet Governance", by "Laura DeNardis. September 2010. Suggests a framework for understanding problems in Internet governance.
- Launching the DNS War: Dot-Com Privatization and the Rise of Global Internet Governance by Craig Simon. December 2006. Ph.D. dissertation containing an extensive history of events which sparked the so-called "dns war".
- "Habermas@discourse.net: Toward a Critical Theory of Cyberspace", by A. Michael Froomkin, 116 Harv. L. Rev. 749 (2003). Argues that the Internet standards process undertaken by the IETF fulfils "Jürgen Habermas's conditions for the best practical discourse.
- Mueller, Milton L. (2010). Networks and States: The Global Politics of Internet Governance. MIT Press. "ISBN "978-0-262-01459-5.
- Dutton, William H.; Malcolm Peltu (March 2007). "The emerging Internet governance mosaic: Connecting the pieces". Information Polity: The International Journal of Government & Democracy in the Information Age. 12 (1/2): 63–81. "ISSN 1570-1255.
- Malte Ziewitz and Christian Pentzold provide in "In search of internet governance: Performing order in digitally networked environments", New Media & Society 16 (2014): pp. 306–322 an overview of definitions of Internet Governance and approaches to its study.
|""||Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Internet Governance|
- APC Internet Rights Charter, Association for Progressive Communications, November 2006
- CircleID: Internet Governance
- Electronic Frontier Foundation, website
- The Future of Global Internet governance, Institute of Informatics and Telematics - Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricercha (IIT-CNR), Pisa
- Global Commission on Internet Governance, website
- Global Internet Governance Academic Network (GigaNet)
- ICANN - Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers
- Internet Governance Forum (IGF)
- Internet Governance Project
- Internet Society, website
- "The Politics and Issues of Internet Governance", Milton L. Mueller, April 2007, analysis from the Institute of research and debate on Governance (Institut de recherche et débat sur la gouvernance)
- "United States cedes control of the internet - but what now? - Review of an extraordinary meeting", Kieren McCarthy, The Register, 27 July 2006
- World Summit on the Information Society: Geneva 2003 and Tunis 2005