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Participants at the third "International Intersex Forum, Malta, in December 2013

"Intersex people are born with "sex characteristics, such as "chromosomes, "gonads, or "genitals, that, according to the UN "Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, "do not fit typical binary notions of "male or "female bodies."[1]

Intersex people face stigmatisation and discrimination from birth, particularly when an intersex variation is visible. In some countries (particularly in Africa and Asia) this may include "infanticide, abandonment and the stigmatization of families. Mothers in "East Africa may be accused of witchcraft, and the birth of an intersex child may be described as a "curse.[2][3][4]

Intersex infants and children, such as those with ambiguous outer genitalia, may be surgically and/or hormonally altered to fit perceived more socially-acceptable sex characteristics. However, this is considered controversial, with no firm evidence of good outcomes.[5] Such treatments may involve sterilization. Adults, including elite female athletes, have also been subjects of such treatment.[6][7] Increasingly these issues are recognized as human rights abuses, with statements from UN agencies,[8][9] the "Australian parliament,[10] and "German and Swiss ethics institutions.[11] "Intersex organizations have also issued joint statements over several years, including the "Malta declaration by the third "International Intersex Forum.

Implementation of human rights protections in legislation and regulation has progressed more slowly. In 2011, "Christiane Völling won the first successful case brought against a surgeon for non-consensual surgical intervention.[12] In 2015, the "Council of Europe recognized for the first time a right for intersex persons to not undergo sex assignment treatment.[13] In April 2015, "Malta became the first country to outlaw nonconsensual medical interventions to modify sex anatomy, including that of intersex people.[14][15]

Other human rights and legal issues include the right to life, protection from discrimination, access to justice and reparations, access to information, and legal recognition.[13][16] Few countries so far protect intersex people from discrimination, or provide access to reparations for harmful practices.[13][16]

Intersex and human rights[edit]

Research indicates a growing consensus that diverse intersex bodies are normal—if relatively rare—forms of human biology,[17] and human rights institutions are placing increasing scrutiny on medical practices and issues of discrimination against intersex people. A 2013 first international pilot study. "Human Rights between the Sexes, by "Dan Christian Ghattas,[18][19] found that intersex people are discriminated against worldwide:

Intersex individuals are considered individuals with a «disorder» in all areas in which Western medicine prevails. They are more or less obviously treated as sick or «abnormal», depending on the respective society.

The "Council of Europe highlights several areas of concern:

However, the implementation, codification and enforcement of intersex human rights remains slow. These actions take place through legislation, regulation and court cases, detailed below.

"Pinkwashing"[edit]

Multiple organizations have highlighted appeals to LGBT rights recognition that fail to address the issue of unnecessary "normalising" treatments on intersex children, using the portmanteau term ""pinkwashing". In June 2016, "Organisation Intersex International Australia pointed to contradictory statements by Australian governments, suggesting that the dignity and rights of LGBTI (LGBT and intersex) people are recognized while, at the same time, harmful practices on intersex children continue.[20]

In August 2016, "Zwischengeschlecht described actions to promote equality or civil status legislation without action on banning "intersex genital mutilations" as a form of "pinkwashing.[21] The organization has previously highlighted evasive government statements to UN Treaty Bodies that conflate intersex, transgender and LGBT issues, instead of addressing harmful practices on infants.[22]

Physical integrity and bodily autonomy[edit]

""
""
  Legal prohibition of non-consensual medical interventions
  Regulatory suspension of non-consensual medical interventions

Intersex people face stigmatisation and discrimination from birth. In some countries, particularly in Africa and Asia, this may include infanticide, abandonment and the stigmatization of families. Mothers in east Africa may be accused of witchcraft, and the birth of an intersex child may be described as a curse.[2][3] Abandonments and infanticides have been reported in "Uganda,[2] "Kenya,[23] "south Asia,[24] and "China.[4] In 2015, it was reported that an intersex "Kenyan adolescent, Muhadh Ishmael, was mutilated and later died. He had previously been described as a curse on his family.[23]

Non-consensual medical interventions to modify the sex characteristics of intersex people take place in all countries where the human rights of intersex people have been explored.[18] Such interventions have been criticized by the World Health Organization, other UN bodies such as the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, and an increasing number of regional and national institutions. In low and middle income countries, the cost of healthcare may limit access to necessary medical treatment at the same time that other individuals experience coercive medical interventions.[4]

Several rights have been stated as affected by stigmatization and coercive medical interventions on minors:

Human rights reports[edit]

These issues have been addressed by a rapidly increasing number of international institutions. In 2012, the Swiss National Advisory Commission on Biomedical Ethics reported.[11] In 2013, they included the UN Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment,[8] and the Australian Senate.[10] In 2015 they included the Council of Europe, the United Nations "Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and the "World Health Organization. In April 2015, "Malta became the first country to outlaw coercive medical interventions.[14][15] In the same year, the Council of Europe became the first institution to state that intersex people have the right not to undergo sex affirmation interventions.[13]

For "Intersex Awareness Day, October 26, UN experts including the "Committee against Torture, the "Committee on the Rights of the Child and the "Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, along with the Council of Europe "Commissioner for Human Rights, the "Inter-American Commission on Human Rights and "United Nations Special Rapporteurs called for an urgent end to human rights violations against intersex persons, including in medical settings. The experts also called for the investigation of human rights abuses, access to reparations, and the implementation of anti-discrimination measures:[27]

In countries around the world, intersex infants, children and adolescents are subjected to medically unnecessary surgeries, hormonal treatments and other procedures in an attempt to forcibly change their appearance to be in line with societal expectations about female and male bodies. When, as is frequently the case, these procedures are performed without the full, free and informed consent of the person concerned, they amount to violations of fundamental human rights...

States must, as a matter of urgency, prohibit medically unnecessary surgery and procedures on intersex children. They must uphold the autonomy of intersex adults and children and their rights to health, to physical and mental integrity, to live free from violence and harmful practices and to be free from torture and ill-treatment. Intersex children and their parents should be provided with support and counselling, including from peers.[27]

In 2017, the human rights non-governmental organizations "Amnesty International[28][29] and "Human Rights Watch[30][31][32] published major reports on the rights of children with intersex conditions.

Constitutional Court of Colombia[edit]

Although not many cases of children with intersex conditions are available, a case taken to the "Constitutional Court of Colombia led to changes in their treatment.[33] The case restricted the power of doctors and parents to decide surgical procedures on children's ambiguous genitalia after the age of five, while continuing to permit interventions on younger children. Due to the decision of the Constitutional Court of Colombia on Case 1 Part 1 (SU-337 of 1999), doctors are obliged to inform parents on all the aspects of the intersex child. Parents can only consent to surgery if they have received accurate information, and cannot give consent after the child reaches the age of five. By then the child will have, supposedly, realized their gender identity.[34] The court case led to the setting of legal guidelines for doctors' surgical practice on intersex children.

Maltese legislation[edit]

In April 2015, "Malta became the first country to outlaw non-consensual medical interventions in a Gender Identity Gender Expression and Sex Characteristics Act.[14][15] The Act recognizes a right to bodily integrity and physical autonomy, explicitly prohibiting modifications to children's sex characteristics for social factors:

14. (1) It shall be unlawful for medical practitioners or other professionals to conduct any sex assignment treatment and/or surgical intervention on the sex characteristics of a minor which treatment and/or intervention can be deferred until the person to be treated can provide informed consent: Provided that such sex assignment treatment and/or surgical intervention on the sex characteristics of the minor shall be conducted if the minor gives informed consent through the person exercising parental authority or the tutor of the minor.

(2) In exceptional circumstances treatment may be effected once agreement is reached between the Interdisciplinary Team and the persons exercising parental authority or tutor of the minor who is still unable to provide consent: Provided that medical intervention which is driven by social factors without the consent of the minor, will be in violation of this Act.[35]

The Act was widely welcomed by civil society organizations.[26][36][37]

Chilean regulations[edit]

In January 2016, the "Ministry of Health of "Chile ordered the suspension of unnecessary normalization treatments for intersex children, including irreversible surgery, until they reach an age when they can make decisions on their own.[38][39] The regulations were superseded in August 2016.[40][41][42]

Right to life[edit]

"Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD or PIGD) refers to "genetic testing of "embryos prior to "implantation (as a form of "embryo profiling), and sometimes even of "oocytes prior to "fertilization. PGD is considered in a similar fashion to "prenatal diagnosis. When used to screen for a specific genetic condition, the method makes it highly likely that the baby will be free of the condition under consideration. PGD thus is an adjunct to "assisted reproductive technology, and requires "in vitro fertilization (IVF) to obtain "oocytes or "embryos for evaluation. The technology allows discrimination against those with "intersex traits.

"Georgiann Davis argues that such discrimination fails to recognize that many people with intersex traits led full and happy lives.[43] "Morgan Carpenter highlights the appearance of several intersex variations in a list by the UK "Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority of "serious" "genetic conditions" that may be de-selected, including "5 alpha reductase deficiency and "androgen insensitivity syndrome, traits evident in elite women athletes and "the world's first openly "intersex mayor".[44] "Organisation Intersex International Australia has called for the Australian "National Health and Medical Research Council to prohibit such interventions, noting a "close entanglement of intersex status, gender identity and sexual orientation in social understandings of sex and gender norms, and in medical and medical sociology literature".[45]

In 2015, the "Council of Europe published an Issue Paper on Human rights and intersex people, remarking:

Intersex people’s right to life can be violated in discriminatory “sex selection” and “preimplantation genetic diagnosis, other forms of testing, and selection for particular characteristics”. Such de-selection or selective abortions are incompatible with ethics and human rights standards due to the discrimination perpetrated against intersex people on the basis of their sex characteristics.[13]

Protection from discrimination[edit]

""
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  Explicit protection on grounds of sex characteristics
  Explicit protection on grounds of intersex status
  Explicit protection on grounds of intersex within attribute of sex

A handful of jurisdictions so far provide explicit protection from discrimination for intersex people. "South Africa was the first country to explicitly add intersex to legislation, as part of the attribute of 'sex'.[46] "Australia was the first country to add an independent attribute, of 'intersex status'.[47] "Malta was the first to adopt a broader framework of 'sex characteristics', through legislation that also ended modifications to the sex characteristics of minors undertaken for social and cultural reasons.[26] "Bosnia-Herzegovina listed as "sex characteristics"[48][49] "Greece prohibits discrimination and hate crimes based on "sex characteristics", since 24 December 2015.[50][51]

Education[edit]

An Australian survey of 272 persons born with atypical sex characteristics, published in 2016, found that 18% of respondents (compared to an Australian average of 2%) failed to complete secondary school, with early school leaving coincident with pubertal medical interventions, bullying and other factors.[52]

Employment[edit]

A 2015 Australian survey of people born with atypical sex characteristics found high levels of poverty, in addition to very high levels of early school leaving, and higher than average rates of disability.[53] An Employers guide to intersex inclusion published by Pride in Diversity and "Organisation Intersex International Australia also discloses cases of discrimination in employment.[54]

Healthcare[edit]

Discrimination protection intersects with involuntary and coercive medical treatment. Maltese protections on grounds of "sex characteristics provides explicit protection against unnecessary and harmful modifications to the sex characteristics of children.[15][26]

In May 2016, the "United States Department of Health and Human Services issued a statement explaining Section 1557 of the "Affordable Care Act stating that the Act prohibits "discrimination on the basis of intersex traits or atypical sex characteristics" in publicly-funded healthcare, as part of a prohibition of discrimination "on the basis of sex".[55]

Sport[edit]

In 2013, it was disclosed in a medical journal that four unnamed elite female athletes from developing countries were subjected to gonadectomies (sterilization) and partial clitoridectomies ("female genital mutilation) after "testosterone testing revealed that they had an intersex condition.[56][57] Testosterone testing was introduced in the wake of the "Caster Semenya case, of a "South African runner subjected to testing due to her appearance and vigor.[56][57][58][59] There is no evidence that innate hyperandrogenism in elite women athletes confers an advantage in sport.[60][61] While Australia protects intersex persons from discrimination, the Act contains an exemption in sport.

Access to justice and reparations[edit]

Access to reparation appears limited, with a scarcity of legal cases.

Christiane Völling case, Germany[edit]

In "Germany in 2011, "Christiane Völling won what may be the first successful case against her medical treatment. The surgeon was ordered to pay €100,000 in damages[62][63] after a legal battle that began in 2007, thirty years after the removal of her reproductive organs.[12][64]

Benjamín-Maricarmen case, Chile[edit]

On August 12, 2005, the mother of a child, Benjamín, filed a lawsuit against the "Maule Health Service after the child's male gonads and reproductive system were removed without informing the parents of the nature of the surgery. The child had been raised as a girl. The claim for damages was initiated in the Fourth Court of Letters of "Talca, but ended up in the "Supreme Court of Chile. On November 14, 2012, the Court sentenced the Maule Health Service for "lack of service" and to pay compensation of 100 million pesos for moral and psychological damages caused to Benjamín, and another 5 million for each of the parents.[65][66]

M.C. v. Aaronson case, USA[edit]

In the "United States the M.C. v. Aaronson case, advanced by "interACT with the "Southern Poverty Law Center was brought before the courts in 2013.[67][68][69] In 2015, the Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit dismissed the case, stating that, "it did not “mean to diminish the severe harm that M.C. claims to have suffered” but that a reasonable official in 2006 did not have fair warning from then-existing precedent that performing sex assignment surgery on sixteen-month-old M.C. violated a clearly established constitutional right."[70][71] In July 2017, it was reported that the case had been settled out of court by the Medical University of South Carolina for $440,000, without admission of liability.[72]

Michaela Raab case, Germany[edit]

In 2015, Michaela Raab sued doctors in Nuremberg, Germany who failed to properly advise her. Doctors stated that they "were only acting according to the norms of the time - which sought to protect patients against the psychosocial effects of learning the full truth about their chromosomes."[63] On 17 December 2015, the Nuremberg State Court ruled that the "University of Erlangen-Nuremberg Clinic must pay damages and compensation.[73]

Access to information[edit]

With the rise of modern medical science in Western societies, many intersex people with ambiguous external genitalia have had their genitalia surgically modified to resemble either female or male genitals. Surgeons pinpointed the birth of intersex babies as a "social emergency".[74] A secrecy-based model was also adopted, in the belief that this was necessary to ensure “normal” physical and psychosocial development.[11][75][76] Disclosure also included telling people that they would never meet anyone else with the same condition.[10] Access to medical records has also historically been challenging.[13] Yet the ability to provide free, informed consent depends on the availability of information.

The "Council of Europe[13] and "World Health Organization[77] acknowledge the necessity for improvements in information provision, including access to "medical records.

Some intersex organizations claim that secrecy-based models have been perpetuated by a shift in clinical language to "Disorders of sex development. "Morgan Carpenter of "Organisation Intersex International Australia quotes the work of "Miranda Fricker on "hermeneutical injustice" where, despite new legal protections from discrimination on grounds of intersex status, "someone with lived experience is unable to even make sense of their own social experiences" due to the deployment of clinical language and "no words to name the experience".[78]

Legal recognition[edit]

According to the "Asia Pacific Forum of National Human Rights Institutions, few countries have provided for the legal recognition of intersex people. The Forum states that the legal recognition of intersex people is:

In some jurisdictions, access to any form of identification document can be an issue.[79]

Gender identities[edit]

Like all individuals, some intersex individuals may be raised as a particular sex (male or female) but then identify with another later in life, while most do not.[80][81][82] Like non-intersex people, some intersex individuals may not identify themselves as either exclusively female or exclusively male. A 2012 clinical review suggests that between 8.5-20% of persons with intersex conditions may experience "gender dysphoria,[83] while sociological research in Australia, a country with a third 'X' sex classification, shows that 19% of people born with atypical sex characteristics selected an "X" or "other" option, while 52% are women, 23% men and 6% unsure.[53][84]

Access to identification documents[edit]

Depending on the jurisdiction, access to any birth certificate may be an issue,[79] including a birth certificate with a sex marker.[85]

In 2014, in the case of Baby ‘A’ (Suing through her Mother E.A) & another v Attorney General & 6 others [2014], a Kenyan court ordered the Kenyan government to issue a birth certificate to a five-year-old child born in 2009 with ambiguous genitalia.[86] In "Kenya a birth certificate is necessary for attending school, getting a national identity document, and voting.[86] Many intersex persons in "Uganda are understood to be stateless due to historical difficulties in obtaining identification documents, despite a birth registration law that permits intersex minors to change assignment.[87]

Access to the same rights as other men and women[edit]

The "Asia Pacific Forum of "National Human Rights Institutions states that:

Recognition before the law means having legal personhood and the legal protections that flow from that. For intersex people, this is neither primarily nor solely about amending birth registrations or other official documents. Firstly, it is about intersex people who have been issued a male or a female birth certificate being able to enjoy the same legal rights as other men and women[16]

Binary categories[edit]

Access to a birth certificate with a correct sex marker may be an issue for people who do not identify with their sex assigned at birth,[13] or it may only be available accompanied by surgical requirements.[16]

Third categories[edit]

The passports and identification documents of "Australia and some other nationalities have adopted "X" as a valid third category besides "M" (male) and "F" (female), at least since 2003.[88][89] In 2013, Germany became the first European nation to allow babies with characteristics of both sexes to be registered as indeterminate gender on birth certificates, amidst opposition and skepticism from intersex organisations who point out that the law appears to mandate exclusion from male or female categories.[90][91][92] The Council of Europe acknowledged this approach, and concerns about recognition of third and blank classifications in a 2015 Issue Paper, stating that these may lead to "forced outings" and "lead to an increase in pressure on parents of intersex children to decide in favour of one sex."[13] The Issue Paper argues that "further reflection on non-binary legal identification is necessary":

"Mauro Cabral, "Global Action for Trans Equality (GATE) Co-Director, indicated that any recognition outside the “F”/”M” dichotomy needs to be adequately planned and executed with a human rights point of view, noting that: “People tend to identify a third sex with freedom from the gender binary, but that is not necessarily the case. If only trans and/or intersex people can access that third category, or if they are compulsively assigned a third sex, then the gender binary gets stronger, not weaker”[13]

Intersex rights by jurisdiction[edit]

Read country-specific pages on intersex rights via the links on the country name, where available.

Africa[edit]

Country/Jurisdiction Physical integrity and bodily autonomy "Reparations "Anti-discrimination protection "Access to identification documents "Access to same rights as other men and women "Changing M/F identification documents "Third gender or sex classifications
"Kenya "Kenya ""No[93] ""No ""Yes[79]
"South Africa "South Africa ""No[94][95] ""Yes[46] ""Yes Subject to medical and social reports
"Uganda "Uganda ""No[96][97] ""No ""Yes[98]

Americas[edit]

Country/Jurisdiction Physical integrity and bodily autonomy "Reparations "Anti-discrimination protection "Access to identification documents "Access to same rights as other men and women "Changing M/F identification documents "Third gender or sex classifications
"Argentina "Argentina ""No[99] ""No[99] ""No ""Yes Self-determination[100] ""No
"Chile "Chile ""No [101] November 2012, case before the "Supreme Court of Chile.[102][66] ""No (Pending)[103][104]
"Colombia "Colombia ""No No, but restricted in children aged over 5. ""No ""Yes Self-determination
"Mexico "Mexico ""No[105][106][107] ""No[106] ""No[106]
"United States "United States ""No[108] Partial, in healthcare[109] ""No Laws on "female genital mutilation not enforced[108] ""Yes Opt in, known for California, New York City, Ohio, Oregon only[110][111][112]

Asia[edit]

Country/Jurisdiction Physical integrity and bodily autonomy "Reparations "Anti-discrimination protection "Access to identification documents "Access to same rights as other men and women "Changing M/F identification documents "Third gender or sex classifications
"Bangladesh Bangladesh ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg[113]["citation needed] ""Yes[113]["citation needed]
"China "China ""No[114][115][116] ""No[117]
"India "India ""No[118] ""No ""Yes[119] ""Yes[119]
"Nepal "Nepal ""No ""No ""Yes[120]""Emblem-question.svg[121] ""Yes[120]
"Pakistan Pakistan ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg
"Thailand Thailand ""No ""No ""Warning Requires surgery[16]
"Vietnam Vietnam ""No ""No ""Warning Requires surgery[16]

Europe[edit]

Country/Jurisdiction Physical integrity and bodily autonomy "Reparations "Anti-discrimination protection "Access to identification documents "Access to same rights as other men and women "Changing M/F identification documents "Third gender or sex classifications
"Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina ""No ""Yes[122]
"Denmark Denmark ""No[28][29] ""No ""Yes Self-determination[123] ""No
"Finland Finland ""No ""Yes[124] ""Emblem-question.svg ""Emblem-question.svg ""No
"France "France ""No[125][126] ""No Under consideration.[126] ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""Emblem-question.svg ""No
"Germany "Germany ""No[127][128][129] ""Warning Two successful legal cases[130][131][132] ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""Emblem-question.svg ""Warning Compulsory for some infants, otherwise not available[133][134]
"Greece Greece ""No ""Yes[50]
"Republic of Ireland Ireland ""No[135][136] ""No ""Yes Self-determination[123] ""No
"Jersey "Jersey ""No ""Yes[137]
"Malta "Malta ""Yes Legislated[35] ""Yes[35] ""Yes ""Yes ""Yes Self-determination[123] ""Yes[138]
"Switzerland "Switzerland ""No[11][139][140][141] ""No ""No ""No
"United Kingdom "United Kingdom ""No[142][143] ""No ""No Requires diagnosis of "gender dysphoria[144] ""No

Oceania[edit]

Country/Jurisdiction Physical integrity and bodily autonomy "Reparations "Anti-discrimination protection "Access to identification documents "Access to same rights as other men and women "Changing M/F identification documents "Third gender or sex classifications
"Australia "Australia ""No [145][10] ""Yes At federal level[146] ""No Exemptions regarding sport and female genital mutilation[146] ""Yes Policies vary depending on jurisdiction[147] ""Yes Opt in at federal level, State/Territory policies vary[147][148]
"New Zealand "New Zealand ""No[145][149] ""No ""No Exemptions regarding female genital mutilation[16] ""Yes ""Yes (Passports) ""Warning (Third birth certificate may be used if determined at birth[150]


See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Free & Equal Campaign Fact Sheet: Intersex" (PDF). United Nations "Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. 2015. Retrieved 28 March 2016. 
  2. ^ a b c Civil Society Coalition on Human Rights and Constitutional Law; Human Rights Awareness and Promotion Forum; Rainbow Health Foundation; Sexual Minorities Uganda; Support Initiative for Persons with Congenital Disorders (2014). "Uganda Report of Violations based on Sex Determination, Gender Identity, and Sexual Orientation". 
  3. ^ a b Grady, Helen; Soy, Anne (May 4, 2017). "The midwife who saved intersex babies". BBC World Service, Kenya. 
  4. ^ a b c Beyond the Boundary - Knowing and Concerns Intersex (October 2015). "Intersex report from Hong Kong China, and for the UN Committee Against Torture: the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment". 
  5. ^ "Submission 88 to the Australian Senate inquiry on the involuntary or coerced sterilisation of people with disabilities in Australia". Australasian Paediatric Endocrine Group (APEG). 27 June 2013. 
  6. ^ "Rebecca Jordan-Young, Peter Sonksen, "Katrina Karkazis (2014). "Sex, health, and athletes". "BMJ. 348: g2926. "PMID 24776640. "doi:10.1136/bmj.g2926. 
  7. ^ Macur, Juliet (6 October 2014). "Fighting for the Body She Was Born With". "The New York Times. Retrieved 9 February 2015. 
  8. ^ a b c "Report of the UN Special Rapporteur on Torture" (PDF). "Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights. February 2013. 
  9. ^ "Eliminating forced, coercive and otherwise involuntary sterilization, An interagency statement". "World Health Organization. May 2014. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f "Australian Senate Community Affairs Committee (October 2013). "Involuntary or coerced sterilisation of intersex people in Australia". 
  11. ^ a b c d e f Swiss National Advisory Commission on Biomedical Ethics NEK-CNE (November 2012). On the management of differences of sex development. Ethical issues relating to "intersexuality".Opinion No. 20/2012 (PDF). 2012. Berne. 
  12. ^ a b "German Gender-Assignment Case Has Intersexuals Hopeful". DW.COM. "Deutsche Welle. 12 December 2007. Retrieved 2015-12-21. 
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Council of Europe; Commissioner for Human Rights (April 2015), Human rights and intersex people, Issue Paper 
  14. ^ a b c Reuters (1 April 2015). "Surgery and Sterilization Scrapped in Malta's Benchmark LGBTI Law". The New York Times. 
  15. ^ a b c d e "Star Observer (2 April 2015). "Malta passes law outlawing forced surgical intervention on intersex minors". Star Observer. 
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h Asia Pacific Forum of National Human Rights Institutions (June 2016). Promoting and Protecting Human Rights in relation to Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Sex Characteristics. "Asia Pacific Forum of National Human Rights Institutions. "ISBN "978-0-9942513-7-4. 
  17. ^ Zderic, Stephen (2002). Pediatric gender assignment : a critical reappraisal ; [proceedings from a conference ... in Dallas in the spring of 1999 which was entitled "pediatric gender assignment - a critical reappraisal"]. New York, NY [u.a.]: Kluwer Acad. / Plenum Publ. "ISBN "0306467593. 
  18. ^ a b "Ghattas, Dan Christian; "Heinrich Böll Foundation (September 2013). "Human Rights Between the Sexes" (PDF). 
  19. ^ "A preliminary study on the life situations of inter* individuals". "OII Europe. 4 November 2013. 
  20. ^ "Submission: list of issues for Australia’s Convention Against Torture review". "Organisation Intersex International Australia. June 28, 2016. 
  21. ^ ""Intersex legislation" that allows the daily mutilations to continue = PINKWASHING of IGM practices". "Zwischengeschlecht. August 28, 2016. 
  22. ^ "TRANSCRIPTION > UK Questioned over Intersex Genital Mutilations by UN Committee on the Rights of the Child - Gov Non-Answer + Denial". "Zwischengeschlecht. May 26, 2016. 
  23. ^ a b Odero, Joseph (December 23, 2015). "Intersex in Kenya: Held captive, beaten, hacked. Dead.". 76 CRIMES. Retrieved 2016-10-01. 
  24. ^ Warne, Garry L.; Raza, Jamal (September 2008). "Disorders of sex development (DSDs), their presentation and management in different cultures". Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders. 9 (3): 227–236. "ISSN 1389-9155. "PMID 18633712. "doi:10.1007/s11154-008-9084-2. 
  25. ^ United Nations; "Committee on the Rights of Persons with Diabilities (April 17, 2015). Concluding observations on the initial report of Germany (advance unedited version). Geneva: United Nations. 
  26. ^ a b c d "Cabral, Mauro (April 8, 2015). "Making depathologization a matter of law. A comment from GATE on the Maltese Act on Gender Identity, Gender Expression and Sex Characteristics". "Global Action for Trans Equality. Retrieved 2015-07-03. 
  27. ^ a b "Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (October 24, 2016), End violence and harmful medical practices on intersex children and adults, UN and regional experts urge 
  28. ^ a b Amnesty International (2017). First, Do No Harm. 
  29. ^ a b Amnesty International (2017). "First, Do No Harm: ensuring the rights of children born intersex.". Retrieved 2017-05-13. 
  30. ^ "Human Rights Watch; "interACT (July 2017). “I Want to Be Like Nature Made Me”. "ISBN "978-1-62313-502-7. 
  31. ^ Stewart, Philippa (2017-07-25). "Interview: Intersex Babies Don’t Need ‘Fixing’". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 2017-07-25. 
  32. ^ Human Rights Watch (2017-07-25). "US: Harmful Surgery on Intersex Children". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 2017-07-25. 
  33. ^ Curtis, Skyler (2010–2011). "Reproductive Organs and Differences of Sex Development: The Constitutional Issues Created by the Surgical Treatment of Intersex Children". McGeorge Law Review. 42: 863. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  34. ^ "Corte Constitucional de Colombia: Sentencia T-1025/02". Retrieved 2 December 2012. 
  35. ^ a b c Malta (April 2015), Gender Identity, Gender Expression and Sex Characteristics Act: Final version 
  36. ^ OII Europe (April 1, 2015). "OII-Europe applauds Malta's Gender Identity, Gender Expression and Sex Characteristics Act. This is a landmark case for intersex rights within European law reform". Retrieved 2015-07-03. 
  37. ^ "Carpenter, Morgan (April 2, 2015). "We celebrate Maltese protections for intersex people". "Organisation Intersex International Australia. Retrieved 2015-07-03. 
  38. ^ "Chilean Government Stops the 'Normalization' of Intersex Children". "OutRight Action International. January 14, 2016. 
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