|"Mahmoud Ahmadinejad ("inc.)||24,527,516||62.63%|
|Blank or invalid votes||409,389||1.05%|
|Sources: "Ministry of Interior of Iran|
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Most of official objections to the election filed by Mousavi are related to issues before election  like misuse of government resources by Ahmadinejad in his election campaign. Eric A. Brill claimed there are no grounds to suspect the occurrence of fraud. For example, Mousavi claimed that over 10 million people had voted without proper identification, but his official complaint mentioned only 31 such voters. Widespread ballot-box stuffing was alleged, but no single stuffed box has ever been identified. Buying and selling of votes was alleged, but Mousavi has identified only four instances, and failed to provide any evidence. Thousands or millions of Mousavi votes were claimed to have been thrown away and replaced by Ahmadinejad votes, but no one has identified any of the perpetrators, nor mentioned exactly where or how this was accomplished. Vote counts from the field, approved in writing by Mousavi's observers, were said to have been altered by the Interior Ministry, but nobody has identified a single ballot box where this occurred even though the data has long been available to compare the counts for all 45,692 ballot boxes.
On the other hand, several supporters of green movement have continued to repeat the evidence supporting the alleged vote rigging. Reza Esfandiari and Yousef Bozorgmehr also maintain that the election data does comport to a natural outcome, allowing for some possible fraud at the local level.
"Mohtashami, former interior minister of Iran, who was in the election monitoring committee of Mousavi's campaign claimed that according to official censuses, the number of counted votes in 70 municipalities were more than the number of eligible voters who lived in those regions. In all those cities Ahmadinejad won by 80% to 90% However, "excess votes" have been common in all Iranian elections partly due to the way eligible voters are counted. For example, the Interior Ministry based their calculation of eligible voters on birth certificate registrations. Iranians do not register to vote and hundreds of thousands regularly vote outside their own regions. "Shemiran, which had the highest excess voter turnout (13 times the number of eligible voters), overwhelmingly voted for Mousavi.
On 17 June, "Tabnak, the news agency close to defeated candidate "Mohsen Rezaei who got only 678,240 votes in the election stated that "Mohsen Rezaei, until yesterday afternoon, found evidence that proves at least 900,000 Iranians, who had sent in their national ID card numbers, voted for [him]." However, there is no way of independently verifying whether those who disclosed their ID numbers had actually voted for Rezaei.
BBC Iranian affairs analyst Sadeq Saba found abnormalities in the way results were announced. Instead of results by province, the "results came in blocks of millions of votes," with very little difference between the blocks in the percentages going to each candidate. This suggested that Mahmoud Ahmadinejad did equally well in rural and urban areas, while his three opponents did equally badly in their home regions and provinces as in the rest of the country. This contradicted "all precedent in Iranian politics", where Ahmadinejad had been very popular in rural areas and unpopular in the big cities, where ethnic minorities had favored anti-establishment candidates, and where candidates had tended to carry their home provinces.
Another anomaly, according to British-based researcher Ali Alizadeh, is that a large turnout did not favor the opposition, since in elections, both in Iran and abroad, "those who usually don’t vote, i.e. the silent majority, only come out when they want to change the status quo."
According to modern Middle Eastern and South Asian historian "Juan Cole, there were several anomalies in the election results. Official reports gave Ahmadinejad 50% of the vote in "Tabriz despite the fact that this was the capital of Mousavi's home province, "Eastern Azerbaijan, where Mousavi's rallies were well attended and which has traditionally given good turnouts for even "minor presidential candidates" who came from the province. Ahmadinejad also won Tehran province by over 50%, but crucially lost to Mousavi in the actual city of Tehran and was also soundly beaten in the affluent suburb of "Shemiran to the north of the capital.
Statistical analyses of the official election results were published in "Journal of Applied Statistics, an online note, in "blogs, and in "The Washington Post.
Clashes broke out between police and groups protesting the election results from early morning on Saturday onward. Initially, the protests were largely peaceful. However, as time passed, they became increasingly violent. Some protesters began to get violent after the results of the election were announced. Angry crowds in Tehran broke into shops, tore down signs, and smashed windows. Civil unrest took place as protesters set fire to tyres outside the Interior Ministry building and others formed a "human chain of around 300 people to close off a major Tehran street.
The demonstrations grew bigger and more heated than the "1999 student protests. "Al Jazeera English described the 13 June situation as the "biggest unrest since the 1979 revolution." It also reported that protests seemed spontaneous without any formal organization. Two hundred people protested outside Iran's embassy in London on 13 June. "Ynet stated that "tens of thousands" protested on 13 June. Demonstrators chanted phrases such as "Down with the dictator", "Death to the dictator", and "Give us our votes back". Mousavi urged for calm and asked that his supporters refrain from acts of violence.
"Ynet reported on 14 June that two people had died in the rioting so far. That day, protests had been organized in front of the Iranian "embassies in "Turkey, "Dubai, Paris, Berlin, London, Rome, Sydney, "Vienna and "The Hague. In response to the reformist protests, tens of thousands of people rallied in Tehran on 14 June to support the victory of Ahmadinejad.
On 15 June, Mousavi rallied, with anywhere from hundreds of thousands to three million, of his supporters in Tehran, despite being warned by state officials that any such rally would be illegal. The demonstration was Mousavi's first public appearance after the election. Protests focused around "Azadi Tower, around which lines of people stretched for more than nine kilometers met. Gunshots were reported to have been fired at the rally, where Mousavi had spoken to his supporters saying, "The vote of the people is more important than Mousavi or any other person." All three opposition candidates appeared.
Competing rallies for Mousavi and for Ahmadinejad took place on 16 June. The pro-Ahmadinejad protesters, chanting the phrases "Death to America!" and "Death to Israel!", outnumbered their opponents, but they did not match the numbers of opponents who had protested the day before. Reports from the state media and elsewhere stated on 16 June that seven people have died in all of the protests so far. However, "The Times quoted a Rasoul Akram Hospital nurse that day who asserted that 28 people have suffered from "bullet wounds" and eight have died so far. Over half a million reformist Iranians marched silently from Haft-e-Tir Square to Vali Asr Square on 17 June. That day, the Iranian opposition group, "Human Rights Activists News Agency", stated that 32 people had died protesting during the events of 24 and 25 June.
On the weekend of 13 and 14 June, in a series of raids across "Tehran, the government arrested over 170 people, according to police officials. Among them were prominent reformist politicians, including "MIRO founder "Behzad Nabavi, "IIPF leader "Mohsen Mirdamadi, and former president "Mohammad Khatami's brother "Mohammad-Reza Khatami, who was later released. Also arrested were "Mostafa Tajzadeh and "Mohsen Aminzadeh, whom the "IRNA said were involved in orchestrating protests on 13 June. Anonymous sources said that the police stormed the headquarters of the IIPF and arrested a number of people. Iranian journalist Mashallah Shamsolvaezin claimed that Mousavi was put under "house arrest, although officials denied this. An estimated 200 people were detained after clashes with students at "Tehran university, although many were later released.
Acting Police Chief "Ahmad-Reza Radan stated via the state press service on the 14th that "in the interrogation of related rebels, we intend to find the link between the plotters and foreign media". A judiciary spokesman said they had not been arrested but that they were summoned, "warned not to increase tension," and later released. Intelligence minister "Gholam Hossein Mohseni-Ejehei linked some arrests to terrorism supported from outside Iran, stating that "more than 20 explosive consignments were discovered". Others, he said, were "counter-revolutionary groups" who had "penetrated election headquarters" of the election candidates.
On 16 June, Reuters reported that former vice-president "Mohammad-Ali Abtahi and former presidential advisor "Saeed Hajjarian had been arrested. Human rights lawyer "Abdolfattah Soltani, who had been demanding a recount of all votes, was also arrested on the Tuesday according to "Shirin Ebadi, who said that security officials had posed as clients. Over 100 students were arrested after security forces fired tear gas at protesters at "Shiraz university on the same day. "Reporters Without Borders reported that 5 of 11 arrested journalists were still detention as of 16 June, and that a further 10 journalists were unaccounted for and may have been arrested.
On 17 June, former foreign minister and secretary-general of the "Freedom Movement of Iran, "Ebrahim Yazdi, was arrested while undergoing tests at Pars hospital in Tehran. He was held overnight in "Evin Prison before being released and returning to hospital, where according to "Human Rights Watch he remained under guard. In "Tabriz, other Freedom Movement activists and eight members of the IIPF were arrested, with reports of at least 100 civic figures' arrests. The total number of arrests across Iran since the election was reported as 500.
"Aaron Rhodes, a spokesman for the international campaign for human rights in Iran, stated that "Iranian intelligence and security forces are using the public protests to engage in what appears to be a major purge of reform-oriented individuals whose situations in detention could be life-threatening". In "Isfahan Province, prosecutor-general Mohammadreza Habibi warned that dissidents could face execution under "Islamic law.
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According to the Telegraph, on 14 June "Iran's regime was doing its utmost to choke off the flow of news from its capital." Reporters from the Italian public television broadcaster "RAI stated that one of its interpreters was beaten with clubs by riot police and the officers then confiscated the cameraman's tapes. The "Al Arabiya's offices in Tehran were closed on 14 June for a week by Iranian authorities, who gave no explanation for the decision. Meanwhile, the director of "BBC World Service accused the Iranian Government of jamming its broadcasts to the country. Peter Horrocks said audiences in Iran, the Middle East and Europe had been affected by an electronic block on satellites used to broadcast the BBC Persian Television signal to Iran, adding: "It seems to be part of a pattern of behaviour by the Iranian authorities to limit the reporting of the aftermath of the disputed election".
"Al Jazeera English leveled allegations of direct media censorship by the Iranian government, stating that "some of the newspapers have been given notices to change their editorials or their main headlines". BBC correspondent "John Simpson was arrested, his material confiscated, and then released. "NBC News offices in Tehran were raided, with cameras and other equipment confiscated. "ABC News reporter Jim Sciutto also has had material taken. People from the German public broadcasters "ZDF and "ARD have been harassed as well, with men carrying batons and knives reportedly storming the ARD's Tehran office. A BBC corporate official has referred to the network's conflict with the regime as '"electronic warfare'.
On 13 June 2009, when thousands of opposition supporters clashed with the police, "Facebook was filtered again. Some news websites were also blocked by the Iranian authorities. Mobile phone services including text messaging also stopped or became very difficult to use. Specifically, all websites affiliated with the BBC were shut off, as were ones with "The Guardian. "Associated Press labeled the actions "ominous measures apparently seeking to undercut liberal voices". The restrictions were likely intended to prevent Mousavi's supporters from organizing large-scale protests. The protesters used phone calls, e-mails and word of mouth to get around the measures.
Ahmadinejad has responded to concerns by saying, "[d]on't worry about freedom in Iran... Newspapers come and go and reappear. Don't worry about it." In response to the crackdown, anti-regime activists have repeatedly taken down Ahmadinejad's and Khamenei's websites. According to CNN, the "United States State Department has worked with "Twitter to expand the website's access in Iran.
Due to protests, from the opposition, the Supreme Leader approved a partial recount of the results. The recount was random counting of 10% of the ballots. In order to create transparency, a 12 member council, showed the recount on television, and concluded that President Ahmadinejad still led Mousavi after the recount. After the recount, the Guardian council certified the election, and concluded no evidence of irregularities, and closed the dossier on the election.
The Iranian government blamed the unrest on a variety of targets, including the "Bahá'í Faith who served as "canaries in the coal mine of Iran’s theocracy" as Iran's largest religious minority by their "persecution and as "scapegoats". Hadad Adel even claimed that BBC stands for Bahá'í Broadcasting Company and other "allegations of Bahá'í involvement with other powers like the Israeli, British and American governments though these accusations had little to do with the religion and rather seemed to be a part of an Islamic repertoire of what a heresy is supposed to look like, and are "categorically rejected" by the Bahá'ís.
Iranian political reactions
- Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei initially urged the country to unite behind Ahmadinejad, labeling a victory by him as a "divine assessment." On 15 June, however, he ordered an investigation into the claims of vote fraud. Referring to Mousavi's appeal letter about the irregularities, Khamenei said "the Guardian Council has been emphasized to carry out investigation into this letter carefully," and probe allegations of Ahmadinejad cheating.
- Former Interior Minister "Sadeq Mahsouli said that he had not received any "written complaint" about election fraud or irregularities. He also remarked that the vote proceeded in a way that "ruled out the possibility of cheating."
- Chairman of the "Assembly of Experts "Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani was reported to have called a meeting of the Assembly, as they had the constitutional power to elect and dismiss the Supreme Leader.
- Incumbent President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, in a live address on state run television on 13 June, called the election "completely free" and the outcome "a great victory" for Iran. He also said, "[t]oday, the people of Iran have inspired other nations and disappointed their ill-wishers... propaganda facilities outside Iran and sometimes inside Iran were totally mobilized against our people." Ahmadinejad praised the country’s youth as well, but made no direct mention of the protests. He later dismissed the protests, comparing them to "the passions after a football match." In his 25 September 2009 speech at the UN he stated "Our nation has successfully gone through a glorious and successfully democratic election, ... They entrusted me once more with a large majority ..."
- Mir-Hossein Mousavi, the main opposition candidate, issued a statement saying, "I'm warning that I won't surrender to this manipulation." Mousavi lodged an official appeal against the result to the Guardian Council on 14 June. He was not optimistic about his appeal, saying that many of the group's members "during the election were not impartial."
- Reformist cleric Mehdi Karroubi, another opposition candidate, echoed Mousavi’s demand for the election to be canceled. He said, "I am announcing again that the elections should not be allowed and the results have no legitimacy or social standing... Therefore, I do not consider Mahmoud Ahmadinejad as president of the republic." He later declared in a speech to his supporters in "Khoramabad that "this phase [Election dispute] will not subside until we [Reformist leaders] suggest so."
- Mohsen Rezai, on 17 June, he gave an ultimatum to Interior Ministry to release details of the results by that day, otherwise he would call for a new election. He said "The unprecedented delay has raised doubts about the possibility of manipulation in the results." However, on 24 July he withdrew formal complaints filed with the Guardian Council, saying that "The [current] political, social and security situation has entered a sensitive and decisive phase, which is more important than the election."
- Gholam Ali Haddad Adel, a former Iranian parliamentary speaker, called on Mousavi to concede defeat, saying that then "everyone will benefit".
- The "Association of Combatant Clerics, a moderate reformist clerical body which former President "Khatami is a member of, issued a statement posted on reformist web sites saying the election was rigged and calling for it to be canceled, warning that "if this process becomes the norm, the republican aspect of the regime will be damaged and people will lose confidence in the system."
- Former Foreign Minister "Ibrahim Yazdi said, "[w]e don't have any doubt. And as far as we are concerned, it is not legitimate. There were many, many irregularities." He also described the process as a "coup". On 17 June, he was arrested and transferred to prison.
- Reformist politician "Ata'ollah Mohajerani blasted the election as "The End of the Islamic Republic".
- Hadi Ghaemi, spokesman for the "International Campaign for Human Rights in Iran, denounced the outcome. He also compared the government's post-election activities to those of the Chinese government during the "Tiananmen Square protests of 1989.
- In a letter published on his website, reformist cleric "Grand Ayatollah Hossein-Ali Montazeri stated that government used elections "in the worst way possible. Declaring results that no one in their right mind can believe, and despite all the evidence of crafted results, and to counter people protestations, in front of the eyes of the same nation who carried the weight of a revolution and 8 years of war, in front of the eyes of local and foreign reporters, attacked the children of the people with astonishing violence. And now they are attempting a purge, arresting intellectuals, political opponents and Scientists."
- The Iranian national soccer team playing in their World Cup Qualifier wore green "wristbands in support for Mousavi.
- Popular "classical musician "Mohammad Reza Shajarian demanded that Iranian government television and radio never play his music again after Ahmadinejad called Mousavi supporters "brushwood and thorns". "Shajarian remarked, "my voice is like brushwood and thorns".
- British politician "George Galloway has stated that Ahmadinejad "is the president of an important country and we'll just have to accept it."
- According to three Iranian newspapers 105 of 290 members of the Iranian Parliament invited to attend a 24 June victory party for Mahmoud Ahmadinejad attended the event, suggesting, according to the American "New York Times newspaper, "a deep divide within the political elite over the election and its aftermath."
- In his 19 June address to the nation after Friday prayers, Supreme Leader Ayatollah "Ali Khamenei defended the reputations of "Hashemi Rafsanjani and "Ali Akbar Nateq-Nouri despite the fact that "Never before have I mentioned people by name in the Friday prayer sermons" adding that "The live televised debates were a positive step, but these (accusations against fellow candidates) should be removed. After the debates, I had a talk with the president because I knew he would listen to me." This amounted to a criticism of Ahmadinejad, who had made accusations against Nateq-Nouri's family during the debate and accused "Rafsanjani of being "corrupt" and whom he had called "the main puppet master."
Many western countries expressed doubt about the result and/or reacted in favour of protestors. Other countries, namely Brazil and some other Asian countries, amongst others, welcomed the result.
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|""||Wikimedia Commons has media related to Iranian presidential election 2009.|
- Coordination site for Ahmadinejad's supporters (Persian)
- Mir-Hossein Mousavi campaign site (Persian)
- Mehdi Karroubi campaign site (Persian)
- Mohsen Rezaee campaign site (Persian)
- Iranian Pictures of Post Election 2009
- Iranian Protesters Fill Streets After Election Result - slideshow by The New York Times
- The Big Picture: Iran's Disputed Election - high res images by The Boston Globe
- Flickr Photos - Iranian Elections 2009 From The Beginning
- Iranian Stories (Persian) (English) (French) - webdocumentary disseminating and collecting eye witness testimonies of 2009 Iran election
Polling in Iran
- A discussion with pollster Hossein Ghazian - IranWire in Persian.
- Who's Who in Iran? by BBC News
- Rafsanjani's Gambit Backfires
- Letter from Mousavi to the Guardian Council - Challenging the Results
- Roundup: Analyses of Fraud in Iran
- Question & Answer on the Iran Crisis
- Don't Assume Ahmadinejad Really Lost by Robert Baer, Time Magazine, 16 June 2009
- Coverage from the Huffington Post: Live-Blogging The Uprising, Aljazeera, BBC, New York Times, The Globe Opinion
- The Iranian elections and the aftermath, Analysis by Rouzbeh Parsi, June 2009, "European Union Institute for Security Studies
- Iran Electoral Archive - 2009 Presidential Election
- Iranian Green Movement between two Elections, 2009-2013 - The Dynamics of Off-line and Online Activism