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"Islam is the second largest religious belief in "Europe after "Christianity.["citation needed] Although the majority of Muslim communities in Europe are of recent migrations, there are "indigenous" (pre-Modern) ones in the "Balkans.

Islam entered southern Europe through the invading ""Moors" of "North Africa in the 8th–10th centuries; Muslim political entities existed firmly in what is today "Spain, "Portugal, "South Italy and "Malta for several centuries. The Muslim community in these territories was converted or expelled by the end of the 15th century (see "Reconquista). Islam began significantly expanding in the "Caucasus after "conquests by Persian dynasties since the early 16th century. The "Ottoman Empire expanded into southeastern Europe, invading and conquering huge portions of the "Byzantine Empire in the 14th and 15th centuries. Over the centuries, the Ottoman Empire also gradually lost almost all of its European territories, until the empire collapsed in 1922. The countries of the Balkans continue to have large populations of native Muslims, though the majority are "unobservant or secular.

The term "Muslim Europe" is used for the Muslim-majority countries of "Albania, "Kosovo and "Bosnia and Herzegovina. Transcontinental countries, such as "Turkey, "Azerbaijan and "Kazakhstan have large Muslim populations, as does "Russia in the "North Caucasus.

In the late 20th and early 21st centuries substantial numbers of Muslims "immigrated to Western Europe. By 2010 an estimated 44 million Muslims were living in Europe (6%), including an estimated 19 million in the EU (3.8%).[2] They are projected to comprise 8% by 2030.["citation needed] They are often the subject of intense discussion and political campaigns. These have been periodically revived by events such as "terrorist attacks by Islamists, the "cartoons affair in Denmark, debates over "Islamic dress, and ongoing support for "populist "right-wing parties that view Muslims as a threat to European values, culture and ways of life. Such events have also fueled growing debate regarding the topic of "Islamophobia, attitudes toward Muslims and the populist right[3]

Contents

History[edit]

The Muslim population in Europe is extremely diverse with varied histories and origins. Today, the Muslim-majority regions of Europe are "Bosnia and Herzegovina, "Albania, "Kosovo, parts of "Macedonia and "Montenegro, as well as some "Russian regions in "Northern Caucasus and the "Volga region. The communities consist predominantly of indigenous Europeans of the Muslim faith whose religious tradition dates back several hundred years. The "transcontinental countries of "Turkey, "Azerbaijan and "Kazakhstan also are Muslim majority.

Moors, Al-Andalus and Sicily[edit]

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The "Moors request permission from "James I of Aragon, Spain, 13th century

Muslim forays into Europe began shortly after the religion's inception, with a short-lived invasion of "Byzantine Sicily by a small "Arab and Berber force that landed in 652. Islam gained its first genuine foothold in continental Europe from 711 onward, with the "Umayyad conquest of Hispania. The Arabs renamed the land "Al-Andalus, which expanded to include the larger parts of what is now Portugal and Spain except for the northern highlands. It is estimated that Al-Andalus had a Muslim majority by the 10th century after most of the local population willingly converted to Islam.[4] This coincided with the "La Convivencia period of the "Iberian Peninsula as well as the "Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain. The Christian counter-offensive known as the "Reconquista began in the early 8th century, when Muslim forces managed to temporarily push into "southern France. Slowly, the Christian forces began a re-conquest of the fractured "Taifa kingdoms of Al-Andalus. There was still a Muslim presence north of Spain, especially in "Fraxinet all the way into "Switzerland until the 10th century.[5] Muslim forces under the "Aghlabids "conquered Sicily after a series of expeditions spanning 827–902, and had notably "raided Rome in 846. The "Emirate of Sicily was established in 965. Arabs held onto southern Italy until their "expulsion by the Normans in 1072. By 1236, practically all that remained of Muslim Spain was the southern province of "Granada.

The Arabs imposed "Sharia, thus, the Latin- and Greek-speaking Christian communities, as well as a community of Jews, had limited "freedom of religion under the Muslims as "dhimmi (non-Muslims). They were required to pay "jizya (poll tax), "kharaj (land tax), but exempt from the Muslim tax of "zakaat. These taxes marked their status as subject to Muslim rule, albeit in exchange for protection against foreign and internal aggression.

Cultural impact and interaction[edit]

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"Araz" coat of arms of "Polish Tatar nobility. Tatar coats of arms often included motifs related to Islam.

Arabic-speaking Christian scholars saved influential pre-Christian texts and introduced aspects of "medieval Islamic culture[6][7][8] (including the "arts,[9][10][11] "economics,[12] "science and "technology).[13][14] (See "Latin translations of the 12th century and "Islamic contributions to Medieval Europe for more information).

Muslim rule endured in the "Emirate of Granada, from 1238 as a "vassal state of the Christian "Kingdom of Castile, until the completion of "La Reconquista in 1492.[15] The "Moriscos (Moorish in Spanish) were finally expelled from "Spain between 1609 (Castile) and 1614 (rest of Spain), by "Philip III during the "Spanish Inquisition.

Throughout the 16th to 19th centuries, the "Barbary States sent "pirates to raid nearby parts of Europe in order to capture Christian slaves to sell at "slave markets in the "Arab World throughout the Renaissance period.[16][17] According to Robert Davis, from the 16th to 19th centuries, pirates captured 1 million to 1.25 million Europeans as slaves. These slaves were captured mainly from the crews of captured vessels[18] and from coastal villages in "Spain and "Portugal, and from farther places like "Italy, "France or "England, the "Netherlands, "Ireland, the "Azores Islands, and even "Iceland.[16]

For a long time, until the early 18th century, the "Crimean Khanate maintained a massive "slave trade with the Ottoman Empire and the Middle East.[19] The Crimean Tatars frequently mounted raids into the "Danubian principalities, "Poland-Lithuania, and "Russia to enslave people whom they could capture.[20]

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"The Great Mosque of Paris, built after World War I.

Hungary[edit]

The "Böszörmény Muslims formed "an early community of Muslims in Hungary. Their biggest settlement was near the town of present-day "Orosháza in the central part of the Hungarian Kingdom. At that time this settlement entirely populated by Muslims was probably one of the biggest settlements of the Kingdom. This and several other Muslim settlements were all destroyed and their inhabitants massacred during the 1241 Mongol invasion of Hungary.

Russia and Ukraine[edit]

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"Log pod Mangartom Mosque was the only mosque ever built in "Slovenia, in the town of "Log pod Mangartom, during "World War I.

In the mid-7th century AD, following the "Muslim conquest of Persia, it spread into areas that would "later become part of "Russia.[21] There are accounts of the "trade connections between the Muslims and the "Rus, apparently people from "Baltic region who made their way towards the "Black Sea through "Central Russia. On his way to Volga Bulgaria, Ibn Fadlan brought detailed reports of the Rus, claiming that some had converted to Islam. "They are very fond of pork and many of them who have assumed the path of Islam miss it very much." The Rus also relished their "nabidh, a fermented drink Ibn Fadlan often mentioned as part of their daily fare.[22]

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The "Ottoman campaign for territorial "expansion in Europe in 1566, Crimean Tatars as vanguard.

The "Mongols began their "conquest of Rus', "Volga Bulgaria, and the "Cuman-Kipchak Confederation (present day Russia and "Ukraine) in the 13th century. After the Mongol empire split, the eastern European section became known as the "Golden Horde. Despite the fact that they were not Muslim at the time, the western Mongols adopted Islam as their religion in the early 14th century under "Berke Khan, and later "Uzbeg Khan who established it as the official religion of the state. Much of the mostly Turkic-speaking population of the Horde, as well as the small Mongol aristocracy, were Islamized (if they were not already Muslim, such as the Volga Bulgars) and became known to Russians and Europeans as the "Tatars. More than half[23] of the European portion of what is now Russia and Ukraine, were under the suzerainty of Muslim "Tatars and "Turks from the 13th to 15th centuries. The "Crimean Khanate became a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire in 1475 and subjugated what remained of the "Great Horde by 1502. The "Khanate of Kazan was conquered by "Ivan the Terrible in 1552.

Belarus and Poland-Lithuania[edit]

"Lipka Tatar Muslims of "Belarus and "Poland-Lithuania.[24][25][26][27][28] The material of their Mosques is wood.[29]

Ottoman Empire and the Balkans[edit]

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The "Ottoman "Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, awaits the arrival of his Greek Muslim "Grand Vizier "Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha at "Buda, in the year 1529.
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Medieval Bulgaria particularly the city of "Sofia, was the administrative centre of almost all Ottoman possessions in the Balkans also known as "Rumelia.[30]

The "Ottoman Empire began its "expansion into Europe by taking the European portions of the Byzantine Empire in the 14th and 15th centuries up until the 1453 "capture of Constantinople, establishing Islam as the state religion in the region. The Ottoman Empire continued to stretch northwards, taking "Hungary in the 16th century, and reaching as far north as the "Podolia in the mid-17th century ("Peace of Buczacz), by which time most of the Balkans was under Ottoman control. Ottoman expansion in Europe ended with their defeat in the "Great Turkish War. In the "Treaty of Karlowitz (1699), the Ottoman Empire lost most of its conquests in "Central Europe. The Crimean Khanate was later annexed by "Russia in 1783.[31] Over the centuries, the Ottoman Empire gradually lost almost all of its European territories, until its collapse in 1922, when the former empire was transformed into the nation of "Turkey.["citation needed]

Between 1354 (when the Ottomans crossed into Europe at "Gallipoli) and 1526, the Empire had conquered the territory of present-day Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Albania, Serbia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Bosnia, and Hungary. The Empire laid siege to "Vienna in 1683. The intervention of the Polish King broke the siege, and from then afterwards the Ottomans battled the Habsburg Emperors until 1699, when the "Treaty of Karlowitz forced them to surrender Hungary and portions of present-day Croatia, Slovenia, and Serbia. From 1699 to 1913, wars and insurrections pushed the Ottoman Empire further back until it reached the current European border of present-day Turkey.["citation needed]

For most of this period, the Ottoman retreats were accompanied by Muslim refugees from these provinces (in almost all cases converts from the previous subject populations), leaving few Muslim inhabitants in Hungary, Croatia, and the Transylvania region of present-day Romania. Bulgaria remained under Ottoman rule until around 1878, and currently its population includes about 131,000 Muslims (2001 Census) (see "Pomaks).

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Painting of the bazaar at "Athens, "Ottoman Greece, early 19th century

Bosnia was conquered by the Ottomans in 1463, and a large portion of the population converted to Islam in the first 200 years of Ottoman domination. By the time Austria-Hungary occupied Bosnia in 1878, the Habsburgs had shed the desire to re-Christianize new provinces. As a result, a sizable Muslim population in Bosnia survived into the 20th century. Albania and the Kosovo area remained under Ottoman rule until 1913. Prior to the Ottoman conquest, the northern Albanians were "Roman Catholic and the southern Albanians were Christian Orthodox, but by 1913 the majority were Muslim.["citation needed]

Conversion to Islam[edit]

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Registration of Christian boys for the "tribute in blood. Ottoman miniature painting, 1558.[32]

Apart from the effect of a lengthy period under Ottoman domination, many of the subject population were converted to Islam as a result of a deliberate move by the Ottomans as part of a policy of ensuring the loyalty of the population against a potential Venetian invasion. However, Islam was spread by force in the areas under the control of the "Ottoman Sultan through "devşirme and "jizya.[33][34] Rather "Arnold explains Islam's spread by quoting 17th-century pro-Muslim["citation needed] author "Johannes Scheffler who stated:

Cultural influences[edit]

Islam piqued interest among European scholars, setting off the movement of "Orientalism. The founder of modern Islamic studies in Europe was "Ignác Goldziher, who began studying Islam in the late 19th century. For instance, Sir "Richard Francis Burton, 19th-century English explorer, scholar, and orientalist, and translator of "The Book of One Thousand and One Nights, disguised himself as a Pashtun and visited both Medina and Mecca during the Hajj, as described in his book A Personal Narrative of a Pilgrimage to Al-Medinah and Meccah.

"Islamic architecture influenced European architecture in various ways (for example, the "Türkischer Tempel synagogue in "Vienna). During the 12th-century Renaissance in Europe, Latin translations of "Arabic texts were introduced. The "Koran was also translated (for example, "Lex Mahumet pseudoprophete).

Twentieth century[edit]

Muslim emigration to metropolitan France surged during the "Algerian War of Independence.["citation needed] In 1961, the West German Government invited first "Gastarbeiters and similar contracts were offered by Switzerland; some of these migrant workers came from majority-Muslim countries such as Turkey.["citation needed] Migrants came to Britain from its majority-Muslim former colonies "Pakistan and "Bangladesh.["citation needed]

Current demographics[edit]

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Muslim-majority areas in Europe

The exact number of Muslims in Europe is unknown. According to estimates by the "Pew Forum, the total number of Muslims in Europe (excluding Turkey) in 2010 was about 44 million (6% of the total population), including 19 million (3.8% of the population) in the "European Union.[36]

Approximately 9 million "Turks are living in Europe, excluding the "Turkish population of Turkey, which makes up the largest Muslim immigrant community in Europe.[37] Estimates of the percentage of "Muslims in Russia (the biggest group of Muslims in Europe) vary from 5[38] to 11.7%,[36] depending on sources. It also depends on if only observant Muslims or all people of Muslim descent are counted.[39]

58.8% of "Albania adheres to Islam, making it the largest religion in the country. The majority of Albanian Muslims are Secular Sunni with a significant Bektashi Shia minority.[40] The percentage is 93.5% in "Kosovo,[41] 39.3% in "Macedonia[42][43] (according to the 2002 Census, 46.5% of the children aged 0–4 were Muslim in Macedonia)[44] and 50.7% in "Bosnia and Herzegovina.[45] In transcontinental countries such as "Turkey 99%, and 93% in "Azerbaijan[46] of the population is Muslim respectively. According to the 2011 census, 20% of the total population in "Montenegro are Muslims.[47] In "Russia, "Moscow is home to an estimated 1.5 million Muslims.[48][49][50]

Projections[edit]

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According to the "Pew Research Center, Europe's population was 6% Muslim in 2010, and is projected to be 8% Muslim by 2030.[36] (The data does not reckon illegal immigration from the Middle East and Africa since the "migration crisis.)

A "Pew Research Center study, published in January 2011, forecast an increase of Muslims in European population from 6% in 2010 to 8% in 2030.[36] The study also predicted that Muslim "fertility rate in Europe would drop from 2.2 in 2010 to 2.0 in 2030. On the other hand, the non-Muslim fertility rate in Europe would increase from 1.5 in 2010 to 1.6 in 2030.[36] Another Pew study published in 2017 projected that in 2050 Muslims will make 7.4% (if all migration into Europe were to immediately and permanently stop - a “zero migration” scenario) up to 14% (under a “high” migration scenario) of Europe's population.[51] Data from the 2000s for the rates of growth of Islam in Europe showed that the growing number of Muslims was due primarily to immigration and higher "birth rates.[52]

In 2006, the conservative Christian historian "Philip Jenkins, in an article for the "Foreign Policy Research Institute thinktank, wrote that by 2100, a Muslim population of about 25% of Europe's population was "probable"; Jenkins stated this figure did not take account growing birthrates amongst Europe's immigrant Christians, but did not give details of his metholodogy.[53] in 2010, "Eric Kaufmann, professor of politics at "Birkbeck, University of London said that "In our projections for Western Europe by 2050 we are looking at a range of 10-15 per cent Muslim population for most of the high immigration countries – Germany, France, the UK";[54] he argued that Islam was expanding, not because of conversion to Islam, but primarily due to the religion's “pro-natal” orientation, where Muslims tend to have more children.["citation needed] Other analysts are skeptical about the accuracy of the claimed Muslim population growth, stating that because many European countries do not ask a person's religion on official forms or in censuses, it has been difficult to obtain accurate estimates, and arguing that there has been a decrease in Muslim fertility rates in "Morocco, the "Netherlands and "Turkey.[55]

A 2007 Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) report argued that some Muslim population projections may be overestimated, as they assume that all descendants of Muslims will become Muslims even in cases of mixed parenthood.[56] Equally, Darren E. Sherkat questioned in "Foreign Affairs whether some of the Muslim growth projections are accurate as they do not take into account the increasing number of non-religious Muslims. Quantitative research is lacking, but he believes the European trend mirrors the American: data from the General Social Survey in the United States show that 32 percent of those raised Muslim no longer embrace Islam in adulthood, and 18 percent hold no religious identification.[57]

Table, Islam by country
Country Muslims (official) Muslims (estimation) % of total population % of World Muslim population Community origin
(predominant)
"Albania "Albania 1,646,128 2,601,000 (Pew 2011) 58.79 (official);[58]82.1 (Pew 2011) 0.1 Indigenous ("Albanians)
"Andorra "Andorra N/A < 1,000 (Pew 2011) < 0.1 < 0.1 Immigrant
"Austria "Austria N/A 700,000 (2017 study)[59] 8[59] < 0.1 Immigrant
"Belarus "Belarus N/A 19,000 (Pew 2011) 0.2 < 0.1 Immigrant
"Belgium "Belgium N/A 781,887 (2015 est.)[60] 5.9[61]–7[60] < 0.1 Immigrant
"Bosnia and Herzegovina "Bosnia-Herzegovina 1,790,454 (2016 census) 1,564,000 (Pew 2011) 50.7 (official);[62] 41.6 (Pew 2011) 0.1 Indigenous ("Bosniaks)
"Bulgaria "Bulgaria 577,000 (2011 census)[63] 1,002,000 (Pew 2011) 7.8 (official); 13.4 (Pew 2011) < 0.1 Indigenous ("Pomaks, "Turks)
"Croatia "Croatia N/A 56,000 (Pew 2011) 1.3 (Pew 2011) < 0.1 Immigrant
"Cyprus "Cyprus N/A 200,000 (Pew 2011) 22.7 (Pew 2011) < 0.1 Indigenous ("Turks)
"Czech Republic "Czech Republic N/A 4,000 (Pew 2011) < 0.1 < 0.1 Immigrant
"Denmark "Denmark N/A 226,000 (Pew 2011) 4.1 (Pew 2011) < 0.1 Immigrant
"Estonia "Estonia 1,508 2,000 0.1 (Pew 2011) < 0.1 Immigrant
"Faroe Islands "Faroe Islands N/A < 1,000 (Pew 2011) < 0.1 < 0.1 Immigrant
"Finland "Finland N/A 42,000 (Pew 2011) 0.8 (Pew 2011) <0.1 Immigrant
"France "France N/A 4,704,000 (Pew 2011) 7.5 (Pew 2011) 0.3 Immigrant
"Germany "Germany N/A 4,119,000 (Pew 2011); 4,700,000 (CIA)[64] 5 (Pew 2011) 0.2 Immigrant
"Greece "Greece N/A 527,000 (Pew 2011) 4.7 (Pew 2011) <0.1 Indigenous ("minority)
"Hungary "Hungary 5,579[65] 25,000 (Pew 2011) 0.3 (Pew 2011) <0.1 Immigrant
"Iceland "Iceland 770[66] < 1,000 (Pew 2011) 0.2[66] <0.1 Immigrant
"Republic of Ireland "Ireland 70,158 (2016 census) 43,000 (Pew 2011) 1.3[67] <0.1 Immigrant
"Italy "Italy N/A 1,583,000 (Pew 2011) 2.3;[68] 2.6 (Pew 2011) 0.1 Immigrant
"Kosovo "Kosovo N/A 1,584,000 (CIA);[69] 2,104,000 (Pew 2011) 95.6 0.1 Indigenous ("Albanians)
"Latvia "Latvia N/A 2,000 (Pew 2011) 0.1 <0.1 Immigrant
"Liechtenstein "Liechtenstein N/A 2,000 (Pew 2011) 4.8 (Pew 2011) <0.1 Immigrant
"Lithuania "Lithuania N/A 3,000 (Pew 2011) 0.1 (Pew 2011) <0.1 Immigrant
"Luxembourg "Luxembourg N/A 11,000 (Pew 2011) 2.3 (Pew 2011) <0.1 Immigrant
"Republic of Macedonia "Macedonia N/A 713,000 (Pew 2011) 34.9 (Pew 2011) <0.1 Indigenous ("Albanians, "Turks, "Romani)
"Malta "Malta N/A 1,000 (Pew 2011) 0.3 (Pew 2011) <0.1 Immigrant
"Moldova "Moldova N/A 15,000 (Pew 2011) 0.4 (Pew 2011) < 0.1 Immigrant
"Monaco "Monaco N/A < 1,000 (Pew 2011) 0.5 (Pew 2011) < 0.1 Immigrant
"Montenegro "Montenegro 118,477 (2011)[70] 116,000 (Pew 2011) 19.11[70] < 0.1 Indigenous ("Bosniaks, "Albanians, ""Muslims")
"Netherlands "Netherlands N/A 914,000 (Pew 2011) 5[71] – 6[61] 0.1 Immigrant
"Norway "Norway N/A 106,700–194,000 (Brunborg & Østby 2011);[72] 2–4[72] < 0.1 Immigrant
"Poland "Poland N/A 20,000 (Pew 2011) 0.1 (Pew 2011) < 0.1 Immigrant
"Portugal "Portugal N/A 65,000 (Pew 2011) 0.6 (Pew 2011) < 0.1 Immigrant
"Romania "Romania N/A 73,000 (Pew 2011) 0.3 (Pew 2011) < 0.1 Indigenous ( "Turks and "Tatars)
"Russia "Russia N/A 16,379,000 (Pew 2011) 11.7 (Pew 2011); 15 (CIA)[73]) 1.0 Indigenous
"San Marino "San Marino N/A < 1,000 (Pew 2011) < 0.1 < 0.1 Immigrant
"Serbia "Serbia 228,828 (2011) 280,000 (Pew 2011) 3.1 (CIA);[74] 3.7 (Pew 2011) < 0.1 Indigenous ("Bosniaks, ""Muslims", "Albanians)
"Slovakia "Slovakia 10,866 4,000 (Pew 2011) 0.1 (Pew 2011) < 0.1 Immigrant
"Slovenia "Slovenia 73,568 49,000 (Pew 2011) 2.4 (Pew 2011) < 0.1 Immigrant
"Spain "Spain 1,887,906 1,021,000 (Pew 2011) 4.1[75] 0.1 Immigrant
"Sweden "Sweden N/A 450–500,000 (2009 "DRL);[76] 451,000 (Pew 2011) 5[76] < 0.1 Immigrant
"Switzerland "Switzerland N/A 433,000 5.7 (Pew 2011) < 0.1 Immigrant
"Ukraine "Ukraine N/A 393,000 (Pew 2011) 0.9 (Pew 2011) < 0.1 Immigrant
"United Kingdom "United Kingdom 3,106,368 2,869,000 (Pew 2011) 4.6 (Pew 2011) 0.2 Immigrant

Society[edit]

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"Mosque of Rome, in "Rome, the largest in the EU
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The "East London Mosque was one of the first in Britain to be allowed to use loudspeakers to broadcast the adhan.[77]

Islamic organizations[edit]

Mosques[edit]

Islamic dress[edit]

Islamism[edit]

Attitudes towards Muslims[edit]

A 2008 poll by "Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung found that ""Islamic fundamentalism" (defined was the belief that believers should return to the eternal and unchangeable rules laid down in the past; that these rules allow only one interpretation and are binding for all believers; and that religious rules have priority over secular laws) was widespread among Muslims in six European countries, with the majority saying religious rules are more important than civil laws and three quarters rejecting religious pluralism within Islam.[78] However, the formulations and interpretations of similar polls have been strongly contested.[79] The "European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia reports that the Muslim population tends to suffer "Islamophobia all over Europe, although the perceptions and views of Muslims may vary.[80]

A 2015 poll by the "Polish "Centre for Public Opinion Research found that 44% of Poles have a "negative attitude towards Muslims, with only 23% having a positive attitude towards them. Furthermore, a majority agreed with statements like "Muslims are intolerant of customs and values other than their own." (64% agreed, 12% disagreed), "Muslims living in Western European countries generally do not acquire customs and values that are characteristic for the majority of the population of that country." (63% agreed, 14% disagreed), "Islam encourages violence more than other religions." (51% agreed, 24% disagreed)[81]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Religious Composition by Country, 2010-2050". "Pew Research Center. 12 April 2015. Retrieved 22 October 2017. 
  2. ^ "The future of the global Muslim population - Europe (excluding however Turkey and including Siberian Russia)". Pew Research Center). January 27, 2011. 
  3. ^ Goodwin, Matthew J.; Cutts, David; Janta-Lipinski, Laurence (September 2014). "Economic Losers, Protestors, Islamophobes or Xenophobes? Predicting Public Support for a Counter-Jihad Movement". Political Studies: n/a–n/a. "doi:10.1111/1467-9248.12159. 
  4. ^ Hourani 2002, p. 42.
  5. ^ Manfred, W: "International Journal of Middle East Studies", pages 59-79, Vol. 12, No. 1. Middle East Studies Association of North America, Aug 1980.
  6. ^ Hill, Donald. Islamic Science and Engineering. 1993. Edinburgh Univ. Press. "ISBN "0-7486-0455-3, p.4
  7. ^ Brague, Rémi (2009-04-15). The Legend of the Middle Ages. p. 164. "ISBN "9780226070803. Retrieved 11 Feb 2014. 
  8. ^ Kitty Ferguson (3 March 2011). Pythagoras: His Lives and the Legacy of a Rational Universe. Icon Books Limited. pp. 100–. "ISBN "978-1-84831-250-0. It was in the Near and Middle East and North Africa that the old traditions of teaching and learning continued, and where Christian scholars were carefully preserving ancient texts and knowledge of the ancient Greek language. 
  9. ^ Islamic art and architecture History.com
  10. ^ Carole Hillenbrand. The Crusades: Islamic perspectives, Routledge, 2000, p. 386
  11. ^ Hillenbrand, p. 388
  12. ^ Savory; p. 195-8
  13. ^ Hyman and Walsh Philosophy in the Middle Ages Indianapolis, 3rd edition, p. 216
  14. ^ Meri, Josef W. and Jere L. Bacharach, Editors, Medieval Islamic Civilization Vol.1, A - K, Index, 2006, p. 451
  15. ^ Hourani 2002, p. 41.
  16. ^ a b "British Slaves on the Barbary Coast". 
  17. ^ "Jefferson Versus the Muslim Pirates by Christopher Hitchens, City Journal Spring 2007". 
  18. ^ Milton, G (2005) White Gold: The Extraordinary Story of Thomas Pellow And Islam's One Million White Slaves, Sceptre, London
  19. ^ "The Crimean Tatars and their Russian-Captive Slaves" (PDF). Eizo Matsuki, Mediterranean Studies Group at Hitotsubashi University.
  20. ^ "Historical survey > Slave societies". Encyclopædia Britannica,
  21. ^ Islam in Russia: The Politics of Identity and Security. M.E. Sharpe. 2004. p. 3. (..) It is difficult to establish exactly when Islam first appeared in Russia because the lands that Islam penetrated early in its expansion were not part of Russia at the time, but were later incorporated into the expanding Russian Empire. Islam reached the Caucasus region in the middle of the seventh century as part of the Arab "conquest of the Iranian Sassanian Empire.   |first1= missing |last1= in Authors list ("help)
  22. ^ Vikings in the East, Remarkable Eyewitness Accounts
  23. ^ Encarta, Mongol Invasion of Russia. Archived from the original on 2009-11-01. 
  24. ^ "Poland's Lipka Tatars: A Model For Muslims In Europe?". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. 
  25. ^ "The mosques of Lithuania". The Economist. 14 September 2015. 
  26. ^ ""Sarmatism" and Poland's national consciousness - Visegrad Insight". 
  27. ^ "February - 2015 - Visegrad Insight". 
  28. ^ "Photographer captures the essence of Islam in Europe". Aquila Style. 
  29. ^ "Mosques of Europe: the social, theological and geographical aspects". Aquila Style. 
  30. ^ Rossos, Andrew (2008). "Ottoman Reform and Decline (c. 1800–1908)". Macedonia and the Macedonians (PDF). 
  31. ^ "Avalanche Press". Retrieved 21 June 2015. 
  32. ^ Nasuh, Matrakci (1588). "Janissary Recruitment in the Balkans". Süleymanname, Topkapi Sarai Museum, Ms Hazine 1517. 
  33. ^ Basgoz, I. & Wilson, H. E. (1989), The educational tradition of the Ottoman Empire and the development of the Turkish educational system of the republican era. Turkish Review 3(16), 15
  34. ^ The preaching of Islam: history of the propagation of the Muslim faith By Sir Thomas Walker Arnold, pp. 135-144
  35. ^ Johannes Scheffler (1663). Türcken-Schrifft Von den Ursachen der Türkischen Überziehung. (trans. Writing on the Turks: Of the causes of the Turkish invasion").  as quoted in Sir Thomas Walker Arnold (1896). The preaching of Islam: a history of the propagation of the Muslim faith. , pg. 158
  36. ^ a b c d e Pew 2011.
  37. ^ Cole, Jeffrey (2011), Ethnic Groups of Europe: An Encyclopedia, ABC-CLIO, p. 367, "ISBN "1-59884-302-8 
  38. ^ by example only 6% of the Russian population is Islamic [1]
  39. ^ "What is the weight of Islam in France ?". Les décodeurs (Le Monde). January 21, 2015. 
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