European Islam is a hypothesized new "branch of Islam, which some believe is emerging in "Europe, and which would combine the duties and principles of Islam with the contemporary "European cultures, including Europe's post-"Enlightenment values and traditions such as "human rights, "rule of law, "democracy and "gender equality.
Current population and its perception
According to the "Pew Forum, the total number of Muslims in Europe in 2010 was about 44 million (6%), excluding Turkey. The total number of Muslims in the "European Union in 2010 was about 19 million (3.8%). Approximately 9 million "Turks are living in Europe, excluding the "Turkish population of Turkey, which makes up the largest Muslim immigrant community in Europe. However the real number of Muslims in Europe is not well-known. The percentage of "Muslims in Russia (the biggest group of Muslims in Europe) varies from 5 to 11.7%, depending on sources. It also depends on if only observant Muslims or all people of Muslim descent are counted.
The Muslim population in Europe is extremely diverse with varied histories and origins. Today, the Muslim-majority regions of Europe are "Bosnia and Herzegovina, "Albania, "Kosovo, parts of "Bulgaria, "Macedonia and "Montenegro, as well as some "Russian regions in "Northern Caucasus and the "Volga region. The communities consist predominantly of indigenous Europeans of the Muslim faith whose religious tradition dates back several hundred years. The "transcontinental countries of "Turkey, "Azerbaijan and "Kazakhstan also are Muslim majority.
Muslim emigration to metropolitan France surged during the "Algerian War of Independence. In 1961, West German Government invited first "Gastarbeiters. Similar contracts were offered by Switzerland. A 2013 poll by "Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung says that "Islamic fundamentalism is widespread among European Muslims with the majority saying religious rules are more important than civil laws and three quarters rejecting religious pluralism within Islam. However, the formulations and interpretations of similar polls have been strongly contested. The "European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia reports that the Muslim population tends to suffer "Islamophobia all over Europe, although the perceptions and views of Muslims may vary.
A 2015 poll by the "Polish "Centre for Public Opinion Research found that 44% of Poles have a "negative attitude towards Muslims, with only 23% having a positive attitude towards them. Furthermore, a majority agreed with statements like "Muslims are intolerant of customs and values other than their own." (64% agreed, 12% disagreed), "Muslims living in Western European countries generally do not acquire customs and values that are characteristic for the majority of the population of that country." (63% agreed, 14% disagreed), "Islam encourages violence more than other religions." (51% agreed, 24% disagreed)
58.8% of "Albania adheres to Islam, making it the largest religion in the country. The majority of Albanian Muslims are Secular Sunni with a significant Bektashi Shia minority. The percentage is 93.5% in "Kosovo, 39.3% in "Macedonia (according to the 2002 Census, 46.5% of the children aged 0–4 were Muslim in Macedonia) and 50.7% in "Bosnia and Herzegovina. In transcontinental countries such as "Turkey 99%, and 93% in "Azerbaijan of the population is Muslim respectively. According to the 2011 census, 20% of the total population in "Montenegro are Muslims. In "Russia, "Moscow is home to an estimated 1.5 million Muslims.
A "Pew Research Center study, published in January 2011, forecast an increase of Muslims in European population from 6% in 2010 to 8% in 2030. The study also predicted that Muslim "fertility rate in Europe would drop from 2.2 in 2010 to 2.0 in 2030. On the other hand, the non-Muslim fertility rate in Europe would increase from 1.5 in 2010 to 1.6 in 2030. A Pew study published in 2015 projected that in 2050 Muslims will make up 10.2% of Europe's population. Data for the rates of growth of Islam in Europe reveal that the growing number of Muslims is due primarily to immigration and higher "birth rates.
"Philip Jenkins of Penn State University estimates that by 2100, Muslims will compose about 25% of Europe's population. Jenkins states this figure does not take account divergent birthrates amongst Europe's immigrant Christians. Eric Kaufman of "University of London argue that the main reason why Islam is expanding, is not because of conversion to Islam, but primarily to the nature of the religion as he call it “pro-natal”, where Muslims tend to have more children. Other analysts are skeptical about the accuracy of the claimed Muslim population growth, stating that because many European countries do not ask a person's religion on official forms or in censuses, it has been difficult to obtain accurate estimates, and arguing that there has been a decrease in Muslim fertility rates in "Morocco, the "Netherlands and "Turkey.
A 2007 Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) report argued that some Muslim population projections are overestimated, as they assume that all descendants of Muslims will become Muslims even in cases of mixed parenthood. Equally, Darren E. Sherkat questioned in "Foreign Affairs whether some of the Muslim growth projections are accurate as they do not take into account the increasing number of non-religious Muslims. Quantitative research is lacking, but he believes the European trend mirrors the American: data from the General Social Survey in the United States show that 32 percent of those raised Muslim no longer embrace Islam in adulthood, and 18 percent hold no religious identification. Studies show also that about half of the 4.2 million persons from Muslim background in Germany are no longer embrace Islam in adulthood.
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- "European Islam
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- "A Common Word Between Us and You
- "Islamophobic incidents
- "List of cities in the European Union by Muslim population
- "List of mosques in Europe
- "List of mosques in Russia
- "Persecution of Muslims
- "Turks in Europe
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- "Catholic–Muslim Forum
- "European Council for Fatwa and Research
- "Muslim Council for Cooperation in Europe
- "Pew Forum, 2011-01 report
- Islam in Russia: The Politics of Identity and Security. M.E. Sharpe. 2004. p. 3.
(..) It is difficult to establish exactly when Islam first appeared in Russia because the lands that Islam penetrated early in its expansion were not part of Russia at the time, but were "later incorporated into the expanding Russian Empire. Islam reached the Caucasus region in the middle of the seventh century as part of the Arab "conquest of the Iranian Sassanian Empire.
|last1=in Authors list ("help)
- Islam in Russia: The Politics of Identity and Security. M.E. Sharpe. 2004. p. 3.
(..) It is difficult to establish exactly when Islam first appeared in Russia because the lands that Islam penetrated early in its expansion were not part of Russia at the time, but were later incorporated into the expanding Russian Empire. Islam reached the Caucasus region in the middle of the seventh century as part of the Arab "conquest of the Iranian Sassanian Empire.
|last1=in Authors list ("help)
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