The Israeli settlements in the West Bank make up what Israel calls the "Judea and Samaria Area. Since December 2007, approval by both the Israeli Prime Minister and Israeli Defense Minister of all settlement activities (including planning) in the West Bank is required. Authority for planning and construction is held by the "Israel Defense Forces "Civil Administration.
The area consists of four "cities, thirteen "local councils and six "regional councils.
- Cities: "Ariel, "Betar Illit, "Maale Adumim, "Modi'in Illit;
- Local councils: "Alfei Menashe, "Beit Aryeh-Ofarim, "Beit El, "Efrat, "Elkana, "Giv'at Ze'ev, "Har Adar, "Immanuel, "Karnei Shomron, "Kedumim, "Kiryat Arba, "Ma'ale Efraim, "Oranit;
- Regional councils: "Gush Etzion (Ezion Bloc), "Har Hebron ("Mount Hebron), "Matte Binyamin (Staff of "Benjamin, named after the ancient "Israelite tribe that dwelled in the area), "Megilot (Scrolls, named after the "Dead Sea scrolls, which were discovered in the area), "Shomron Regional Council ("Samaria), "Biq'at HaYarden ("Jordan valley).
The "Yesha Council ("Hebrew: מועצת יש"ע, Moatzat Yesha, a Hebrew acronym for "Judea, "Samaria and "Gaza) is the umbrella organization of municipal councils in the West Bank.
The actual buildings of the Israeli settlements cover only 1 percent of the West Bank, but their jurisdiction and their regional councils extend to about 42 percent of the West Bank, according to the Israeli NGO "B'Tselem. Yesha Council chairman "Dani Dayan disputes the figures and claims that the settlements only control 9.2 percent of the West Bank.
Between 2001 and 2007 more than 10,000 Israeli settlement units were built, while 91 permits were issued for Palestinian construction, and 1,663 Palestinian structures were demolished in Area C.
West Bank Palestinians have their cases tried in Israel's military courts while Jewish Israeli settlers living in the same occupied territory are tried in civil courts. The arrangement has been described as "de facto segregation" by the UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. A bill to formally extend Israeli law to the Israeli settlements in the West Bank was rejected in 2012.
On 31 August 2014, Israel announced it was appropriating 400 hectares of land in the West Bank to eventually house 1,000 Israel families. The appropriation was described as the largest in more than 30 years. According to reports on Israel Radio, the development is a response to the "2014 kidnapping and murder of Israeli teenagers.
East Jerusalem is defined in the "Jerusalem Law as part of Israel and its capital, "Jerusalem. As such it is administered as part of the city and its district, the "Jerusalem District. Pre-1967 residents of East Jerusalem and their descendants have residency status in the city but many have refused Israeli citizenship. Thus, the Israeli government maintains an administrative distinction between Israeli citizens and non-citizens in East Jerusalem, but the "Jerusalem municipality does not.
The Golan Heights is administered under Israeli civil law as the Golan sub-district, a part of the "Northern District. Israel makes no legal or administrative distinction between pre-1967 communities in the Golan Heights (mainly "Druze) and the post-1967 settlements.
After the capture of the Sinai Peninsula from "Egypt in the 1967 Six-Day War, settlements were established along the Gulf of Aqaba and in the northeast, just below the "Gaza Strip. It had plans to expand the settlement of "Yamit into a city with a population of 200,000, though the actual population of Yamit did not exceed 3,000. The Sinai Peninsula was returned to Egypt in stages beginning in 1979 as part of the "Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty. As required by the treaty, Israel evacuated the civilian population, which took place in 1982. Some evacuation was done forcefully in some instances, such as the evacuation of Yamit.
Before "Israel's unilateral disengagement plan in which the Israeli settlements were evacuated, there were "21 settlements in the "Gaza Strip under the administration of the "Hof Aza Regional Council. The land was allocated in such a way that each Israeli settler disposed of 400 times the land available to the Palestinian refugees, and 20 times the volume of water allowed to the peasant farmers of the Strip.
The consensus view in the "international community is that the existence of Israeli settlements in the "West Bank including "East Jerusalem and the "Golan Heights is in violation of international law. The "Fourth Geneva Convention includes statements such as "the Occupying Power shall not deport or transfer parts of its own civilian population into the territory it occupies".
At present, the view of the "international community, as reflected in numerous UN resolutions, regards the building and existence of Israeli settlements in the "West Bank, "East Jerusalem and the "Golan Heights as a violation of international law. "UN Security Council Resolution 446 refers to the "Fourth Geneva Convention as the applicable international legal instrument, and calls upon Israel to desist from transferring its own population into the territories or changing their demographic makeup. The reconvened Conference of the High Contracting Parties to the Geneva Conventions has declared the settlements illegal as has the primary judicial organ of the UN, the "International Court of Justice.
The position of successive Israeli governments is that all authorized settlements are entirely legal and consistent with international law. In practice, Israel does not accept that the Fourth Geneva Convention applies "de jure, but has stated that on humanitarian issues it will govern itself de facto by its provisions, without specifying which these are. The scholar and jurist "Eugene Rostow has disputed the illegality of authorized settlements.
Under Israeli law, West Bank settlements must meet specific criteria to be legal. In 2009, there were approximately 100 small communities that did not meet these criteria and are referred to as "illegal outposts.
In 2014 twelve EU countries warned businesses against involving themselves in the settlements. According to the warnings, economic activities relating to the settlements involve legal and economic risks stemming from the fact that the settlements are built on occupied land not recognized as Israel's.
After the Six-Day War, in 1967, "Theodor Meron, legal counsel to the "Israeli Foreign Ministry stated in a legal opinion to the Prime Minister,
"My conclusion is that civilian settlement in the administered territories contravenes the explicit provisions of the Fourth Geneva Convention."
This legal opinion was sent to Prime Minister "Levi Eshkol. However, it was not made public at the time. The Labor cabinet allowed settlements despite the warning. This paved the way for future settlement growth. In 2007, Meron stated that "I believe that I would have given the same opinion today."
In 1978, the "Legal Adviser of the Department of State of the United States reached the same conclusion.
The International Court of Justice, in its advisory opinion, has since ruled that Israel is in breach of international law by establishing settlements in Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem. The Court maintains that Israel cannot rely on its right of self-defense or necessity to impose a regime that violates international law. The Court also ruled that Israel violates basic human rights by impeding liberty of movement and the inhabitants' right to work, health, education and an adequate standard of living.
International intergovernmental organizations such as the Conference of the High Contracting Parties to the "Fourth Geneva Convention, major organs of the "United Nations, the "European Union, and "Canada, also regard the settlements as a violation of international law. The "Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination wrote that "The status of the settlements was clearly inconsistent with Article 3 of the Convention, which, as noted in the Committee's General Recommendation XIX, prohibited all forms of racial segregation in all countries. There is a consensus among publicists that the prohibition of racial discrimination, irrespective of territories, is an imperative norm of international law." "Amnesty International, and "Human Rights Watch have also characterized the settlements as a violation of international law.
In late January 2013 a report drafted by three justices, presided over by "Christine Chanet, and issued by the "United Nations Human Rights Council declared that Jewish settlements constituted a creeping annexation based on multiple violations of the "Geneva Conventions and international law, and stated that if "Palestine ratified the "Rome Accord, Israel could be tried for "gross violations of human rights law and serious violations of "international humanitarian law.' A spokesman for Israel's "Foreign Ministry declared the report ‘unfortunate' and accused the UN's "Human Rights Council of a "systematically one-sided and biased approach towards Israel." 
According to "Talia Sasson, the "High Court of Justice in Israel, with a variety of different justices sitting, has repeatedly stated for more than 4 decades that Israel's presence in the West Bank is in violation of international law.
Four prominent jurists cited the concept of the "sovereignty vacuum" in the immediate aftermath of the Six-Day War to describe the legal status of the West Bank and Gaza: "Yehuda Zvi Blum in 1968, "Elihu Lauterpacht in 1968, "Julius Stone in 1969 and 1981, and "Stephen M. Schwebel in 1970. "Eugene V. Rostow also argued in 1979 that the occupied territories' legal status was undetermined.
- "Stephen M. Schwebel. made three distinctions specific to the Israeli situation to claim that the territories were seized in self-defense and that Israel has more title to them than the previous holders.
- Professor "Julius Stone also wrote that "Israel's presence in all these areas pending negotiation of new borders is entirely lawful, since Israel entered them lawfully in self-defense." He argued that it would be an "irony bordering on the absurd" to read Article 49(6) as meaning that the State of Israel was obliged to ensure (by force if necessary) that areas with a millennial association with Jewish life, shall be forever "judenrein".
Professor Ben Saul took exception to this view, arguing that Article 49(6) can be read to include voluntary or assisted transfers, as indeed it was in the advisory opinion of the "International Court of Justice which had expressed this interpretation in the "Israeli Wall Advisory Opinion (2003).
Israel maintains that a temporary use of land and buildings for various purposes is permissible under a plea of military necessity and that the settlements fulfilled security needs. Israel argues that its settlement policy is consistent with international law, including the "Fourth Geneva Convention, while recognising that some settlements have been constructed illegally on private land. The Israeli Supreme Court has ruled that the power of the Civil Administration and the Military Commander in the occupied territories is limited by the entrenched customary rules of public international law as codified in the Hague Regulations and Geneva Convention IV. In 1998 the Israeli Minister of Foreign Affairs produced "The International Criminal Court Background Paper". It concludes
International law has long recognised that there are crimes of such severity they should be considered "international crimes." Such crimes have been established in treaties such as the Genocide Convention and the Geneva Conventions.... The following are Israel's primary issues of concern [ie with the rules of the ICC]: The inclusion of settlement activity as a "war crime" is a cynical attempt to abuse the Court for political ends. The implication that the transfer of civilian population to occupied territories can be classified as a crime equal in gravity to attacks on civilian population centres or mass murder is preposterous and has no basis in international law.
A UN conference was held in Rome in 1998, where Israel was one of seven countries to vote against the Rome Statute to establish the "International Criminal Court. Israel was opposed to a provision that included as a war crime the transfer of civilian populations into territory the government occupies. Israel has signed the statute, but not ratified the treaty.
By Israeli law, privately owned land can not be part of a settlement, unless the land in question has been confiscated for military purposes. In 2006 "Peace Now acquired a report, which it claims was leaked from the Israeli Government's Civil Administration, indicating that up to 40 percent of the land Israel plans to retain in the West Bank is privately owned by Palestinians. Peace Now called this a violation of Israeli law. Peace Now published a comprehensive report about settlements on private lands. In the wake of a legal battle, Peace Now lowered the figure to 32 percent, which the Civil Administration also denied. The Washington Post reported that "The 38-page report offers what appears to be a comprehensive argument against the Israeli government's contention that it avoids building on private land, drawing on the state's own data to make the case."
In February 2008, the Civil Administration stated that the land on which more than a third of West Bank settlements was built had been expropriated by the IDF for "security purposes." The unauthorized seizure of private Palestinian land was defined by the Civil Administration itself as 'theft.' According to "B'Tselem, more than 42 percent of the West Bank are under control of the Israeli settlements, 21 percent of which was seized from private Palestinian owners, much of it in violation of the 1979 Israeli Supreme Court decision.
In 1979, the government decided to extend settlements or build new ones only on "state lands".
A secret database, drafted by a retired senior officer, Baruch Spiegel, on orders from former "defense minister "Shaul Mofaz, found that some settlements deemed legal by Israel were illegal outposts, and that large portions of "Ofra, "Elon Moreh and "Beit El were built on private Palestinian land. The "Spiegel report" was revealed by Haaretz in 2009. Many settlements are largely built on private lands, without approval of the Israeli Government. According to Israel, the bulk of the land was vacant, was leased from the state, or bought fairly from Palestinian landowners.
Invoking the Absentee Property Law to transfer, sell or lease property in East Jerusalem owned by Palestinians who live elsewhere without compensation has been criticized both inside and outside of Israel. Opponents of the settlements claim that "vacant" land belonged to Arabs who fled or collectively to an entire village, a practice that developed under "Ottoman rule. "B'Tselem charged that Israel is using the absence of modern legal documents for the communal land as a legal basis for expropriating it. These "abandoned lands" are sometimes laundered through a series of fraudulent sales.
According to Amira Hass, one of the techniques used by Israel to expropriate Palestinian land is to place desired areas under a 'military firing zone' classification, and then issue orders for the evacuation of Palestinians from the villages in that range, while allowing contiguous Jewish settlements to remain unaffected.
Effects on Palestinian human rights
Amnesty International argues that Israel's settlement policy is discriminatory and a violation of Palestinian human rights. B'Tselem claims that Israeli travel restrictions impact on Palestinian "freedom of movement and Palestinian human rights have been violated in Hebron due to the presence of the settlers within the city. According to B'Tselem, over fifty percent of West Bank land expropriated from Palestinians has been used to establish settlements and create reserves of land for their future expansion. The seized lands mainly benefit the settlements and Palestinians cannot use them. The roads built by Israel in the West Bank to serve the settlements are closed to Palestinian vehicles' and act as a barrier often between villages and the lands on which they subsist.
Human Rights Watch and other human rights observer volunteer regularly file reports on "settler violence," referring to stoning and shooting incidents involving Israeli settlers. Israel's withdrawal from Gaza and Hebron have led to violent settler protests and disputes over land and resources. "Meron Benvenisti described the settlement enterprise as a "commercial real estate project that conscripts Zionist rhetoric for profit."
The construction of the "Israeli West Bank barrier has been criticized as an infringement on Palestinian human and land rights. The "United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs estimated that 10% of the West Bank would fall on the Israeli side of the barrier.
In July 2012, the "UN Human Rights Council decided to set up a probe into Jewish settlements. The report of "the independent international fact-finding mission which investigated the "implications of the Israeli settlements on the civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights of the Palestinian people throughout the Occupied Palestinian Territory" was published in February 2013.
Goods produced in Israeli settlements are able to stay competitive on the global market, in part because of massive state subsidies they receive from the Israeli government. Farmers and producers are given state assistance, while companies that set up in the territories receive tax breaks and direct government subsidies. An Israeli government fund has also been established to help companies pay customs penalties. Palestinian officials estimate that settlers sell goods worth some $500 million to the Palestinian market. Israel has built 16 industrial zones, containing roughly 1000 industrial plants, in the West Bank and East Jerusalem on acreage that consumes large parts of the territory planned for a future Palestinian state. According to Jodi Rudoren these installations both entrench the occupation and provide work for Palestinians, even those opposed to it. The 16 parks are located at "Shaked, "Beka'ot, Baran, "Karnei Shomron, "Emmanuel, "Barkan, "Ariel, "Shilo, "Halamish, "Ma'ale Efraim, "Sha'ar Binyamin, "Atarot, "Mishor Adumim, "Gush Etzion, "Kiryat Arba and Metarim (2001).
Export to EU
According to Israeli government estimates, $230 million worth of settler goods including fruit, vegetables, cosmetics, textiles and toys are exported to the EU each year, accounting for approximately 2% of all Israeli exports to Europe. A 2013 report of Profundo revealed that at least 38 Dutch companies imported settlement products.
"European Union law requires a distinction to be made between goods originating in Israel and those from the occupied territories. The former benefit from preferential custom treatment according to the "EU-Israel Association Agreement (2000); the latter don't, having been explicitly excluded from the agreement. In practice, however, settler goods often avoid mandatory customs through being labelled as originating in Israel, while European customs authorities commonly fail to complete obligatory postal code checks of products to ensure they have not originated in the occupied territories.
In 2009, the "United Kingdom's Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs issued new guidelines concerning labelling of goods imported from the West Bank. The new guidelines require labelling to clarify whether West Bank products originate from settlements or from the Palestinian economy. Israel's foreign ministry said that the UK was "catering to the demands of those whose ultimate goal is the boycott of Israeli products"; but this was denied by the UK government, who said that the aim of the new regulations was to allow consumers to choose for themselves what produce they buy. Denmark has similar legislation requiring food products from settlements in the occupied territories to be accurately labelled.
Palestinian economy and resources
A Palestinian report argued in 2011 that settlements have a detrimental effect on the Palestinian economy, equivalent to about 85% of the nominal gross domestic product of Palestine, and that the "occupation enterprise" allows the state of Israel and commercial firms to profit from Palestinian natural resources and tourist potential. A 2013 report published by the "World Bank analysed the impact that the limited access to Area C lands and resources had on the Palestinian economy. While settlements represent a single axis of control, it is the largest with 68% of the Area C lands reserved for the settlements. The report goes on to calculate that access to the lands and resources of Area C, including the territory in and around settlements, would increase the Palestinian GDP by some $3.5 billion (or 35%) per year.
The Israeli Supreme Court has ruled that Israeli companies are entitled to exploit the West Bank's natural resources for economic gain, and that international law must be "adapted" to the "reality on the ground" of long-term occupation.
Due to the availability of jobs offering twice the prevailing salary of the West Bank (as of August 2013[update]), as well as high unemployment, tens of thousands of Palestinians work in Israeli settlements. According to the "Manufacturers Association of Israel, some 22,000 Palestinians were employed in construction, agriculture, manufacturing and service industries. An "Al-Quds University study in 2011 found that 82% of Palestinian workers said they would prefer to not work in Israeli settlements if they had alternative employment in the West Bank.
Palestinians have been highly involved in the construction of settlements in the West Bank. In 2013, the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics released their survey showing that the number of Palestinian workers who are employed by the Jewish settlements increased from 16,000 to 20,000 in the first quarter. The survey also found that Palestinians who work in Israel and the settlements are paid more than twice their salary compared to what they receive from Palestinian employers.
In 2008, "Kav LaOved charged that Palestinians who work in Israeli settlements are not granted basic protections of Israeli labor law. Instead, they are employed under "Jordanian labor law, which does not require minimum wage, payment for overtime and other social rights. In 2007, the "Supreme Court of Israel ruled that Israeli labor law does apply to Palestinians working in West Bank settlements and applying different rules in the same work place constituted discrimination. The ruling allowed Palestinian workers to file lawsuits in Israeli courts. In 2008, the average sum claimed by such lawsuits stood at 100,000 shekels.
According to Palestinian Center for Policy and Survey Research, 63% of Palestinians opposed PA plans to prosecute Palestinians who work in the settlements. However, 72% of Palestinians support a boycott of the products they sell. Although the Palestinian Authority has criminalized working in the settlements, the director-general at the Palestinian Ministry of Labor, Samer Salameh, described the situation in February 2014 as being "caught between two fires". He said "We strongly discourage work in the settlements, since the entire enterprise is illegal and illegitimate...but given the high unemployment rate and the lack of alternatives, we do not enforce the law that criminalizes work in the settlements."
Israeli settler violence
"Gush Emunim Underground was a militant organization that operated in 1979–1984. The organization planned attacks on Palestinian officials and the "Dome of the Rock. In 1994, "Baruch Goldstein of Hebron, a member of "Kach carried out the "Cave of the Patriarchs massacre, killing 29 Muslim worshipers and injuring 125. The attack was widely condemned by the Israeli government and Jewish community. The Palestinian leadership has accused Israel of "encouraging and enabling" settler violence in a bid to provoke Palestinian riots and violence in retaliation. Violence perpetrated by Israeli settlers against Palestinians constitutes terrorism according to the U.S. Department of State, and former IDF Head of Central Command Avi Mizrahi stated that such violence constitutes "terror."
In mid-2008, a UN report recorded 222 acts of "Israeli settler violence against Palestinians and IDF troops compared with 291 in 2007. This trend reportedly increased in 2009. Maj-Gen Shamni said that the number had risen from a few dozen individuals to hundreds, and called it "a very grave phenomenon." In 2008–2009, the defense establishment adopted a harder line against the extremists. This group responded with a tactic dubbed ""price tagging," vandalizing Palestinian property whenever police or soldiers were sent in to dismantle outposts. From January through to September 2013, 276 attacks by settlers against Palestinians were recorded.
Leading religious figures in the West Bank have harshly criticized these tactics. Rabbi "Menachem Froman of "Tekoa said that "Targeting Palestinians and their property is a shocking thing, (...) It's an act of hurting humanity. (...) This builds a wall of fire between Jews and Arabs." The Yesha Council and "Hanan Porat also condemned such actions. Other rabbis have been accused of inciting violence against non-Jews. In response to settler violence, the Israeli government said that it would increase law enforcement and cut off aid to illegal outposts. Some settlers are thought to lash out at Palestinians because they are "easy victims." The United Nations accused Israel of failing to intervene and arrest settlers suspected of violence. In 2008, Haaretz wrote that "Israeli society has become accustomed to seeing lawbreaking settlers receive special treatment and no other group could similarly attack Israeli law enforcement agencies without being severely punished."
In September 2011, settlers vandalized a mosque and an army base. They slashed tires and cut cables of 12 army vehicles and sprayed graffiti. In November 2011, the United Nations Office for Coordination of Human Affairs (OCHA) in the Palestinian territories published a report on settler violence that showed a significant rise compared to 2009 and 2010. The report covered physical violence and property damage such as uprooted olive trees, damaged tractors and slaughtered sheep. The report states that 90% of complaints filed by Palestinians have been closed without charge.
According to EU reports, Israel has created an "atmosphere of impunity" for Jewish attackers, which is seen as tantamount to tacit approval by the state. In the West Bank, Jews and Palestinians live under two different legal regimes and it is difficult for Palestinians to lodge complaints, which must be filed in Hebrew in Israeli settlements.
The 27 ministers of foreign affairs of the European Union published a report in May 2012 strongly denouncing policies of the State of Israel in the West Bank and denouncing "continuous settler violence and deliberate provocations against Palestinian civilians." The report by all EU ministers called "on the government of Israel to bring the perpetrators to justice and to comply with its obligations under international law."
In July 2014, a day after the burial of "three murdered Israeli teens. Khdeir, a 16-year-old "Palestinian, was forced into a car by 3 Israeli settlers on an "East Jerusalem street. His family immediately reported the fact to "Israeli Police who located his charred body a few hours later at "Givat Shaul in the "Jerusalem Forest. Preliminary results from the autopsy suggested that he was beaten and burnt while still alive. The murder suspects explained the attack as a response to the "June abduction and murder of three Israeli teens. The murders contributed to a breakout of hostilities in the "2014 Israel–Gaza conflict. In July 2015, a similar incident occurred where Israeli settlers made an arson attack on two "Palestinian houses, one of which was empty; however, the other was occupied, resulting in the burning to death of a Palestinian infant; the four other members of his family were evacuated to the hospital suffering serious injuries. These two incidents received condemnation from the United States, European Union and the "IDF. The European Union criticized Israel for "failing to protect the Palestinian population".
While the "Economy of the Palestinian territories has shown signs of growth, the "International Committee of the Red Cross reported that Palestinian olive farming has suffered. According to the ICRC, 10,000 olive trees were cut down or burned by settlers in 2007-2010. Foreign ministry spokesman "Yigal Palmor said the report ignored official PA data showing that the economic situation of Palestinians had improved substantially, citing Mahmoud Abbas's comment to "The Washington Post in May 2009, where he said "in the West Bank, we have a good reality, the people are living a normal life."
Haaretz blamed the violence during the olive harvest on a handful of extremists. In 2010, trees belonging to both Jews and Arabs were cut down, poisoned or torched. In the first two weeks of the harvest, 500 trees owned by Palestinians and 100 trees owned by Jews had been vandalized. In October 2013, 100 trees were cut down.
Violent attacks on olive trees seem to be facilitated by the apparently systematic refusal of the Israeli authorities to allow Palestinians to visit their own groves, some times for years, especially in cases where the groves are deemed to be too close to settlements.
Pro-Palestinian activist violence
Pro-Palestinian activists who hold regular protests near the settlements have been accused of stone-throwing, physical assault and provocation. In 2008, Avshalom Peled, head of the "Israel Police's Hebron district, called "left-wing" activity in the city dangerous and provocative, and accused activists of antagonizing the settlers in the hope of getting a reaction.
Palestinian violence against settlers
Settlers are targeted by Palestinian armed groups who, according to Human Rights Watch, say that settlers are a legitimate target because they have forfeited their civilian status by residing in settlements that are illegal under international humanitarian law. Both Human Rights Watch and B'tselem rejected this argument on the basis that the legal status of the settlements has no effect on the civilian status of their residents. Human Rights Watch said the "prohibition against intentional attacks against civilians is absolute". B'tselem said "The settlers constitute a distinctly civilian population, which is entitled to all the protections granted civilians by international law. The Israeli security forces' use of land in the settlements or the membership of some settlers in the Israeli security forces does not affect the status of the other residents living among them, and certainly does not make them proper targets of attack."
Fatal attacks on settlers have included "firing of rockets and mortars and "drive-by shootings, also targeting infants and children. Violent incidents include the "murder of Shalhevet Pass, a ten-month-old baby shot by a Palestinian sniper in Hebron, and the "murder of two teenagers on 8 May 2001, whose bodies were hidden in a cave near "Tekoa. In the "Bat Ayin axe attack, children in "Bat Ayin were attacked by a Palestinian wielding an axe and a knife. A 13-year-old boy was killed and another was seriously wounded. "Rabbi Meir Hai, a father of seven, was killed in a drive-by shooting. In August 2011, five members of one family were killed in their beds. The victims were the father Ehud (Udi) Fogel, the mother Ruth Fogel, and three of their six children—Yoav, 11, Elad, 4, and Hadas, the youngest, a three-month-old infant. According to "David Ha'ivri, and as reported by multiple sources, the infant was decapitated.
Municipal Environmental Associations of Judea and Samaria, an environmental awareness group, was established by the settlers to address sewage treatment problems and cooperate with the Palestinian Authority on environmental issues. According to a Haaretz study, settlers account for 10% of the population in the West Bank but produce 25% of the sewage output.["citation needed] "Beit Duqqu and "Qalqilyah have accused settlers of polluting their farmland and villagers claim children have become ill after swimming in a local stream. Legal action was taken against 14 settlements by the "Israeli Ministry of the Environment. The Palestinian Authority has also been criticized by environmentalists for not doing more to prevent water pollution. Settlers and Palestinians share the mountain aquifer as a water source, and both generate sewage and industrial effluents that endanger the aquifer. "Friends of the Earth Middle East claimed that sewage treatment was inadequate in both sectors. Sewage from Palestinian sources was estimated at 46 million cubic meters a year, and sources from settler sources at 15 million cubic meters a year. A 2004 study found that sewage was not sufficiently treated in many settlements, while sewage from Palestinian villages and cities flowed into unlined cesspits, streams and the open environment with no treatment at all.
In a 2007 study, the "Israel Nature and Parks Authority and Israeli Ministry of Environmental Protection, found that Palestinian towns and cities produced 56 million cubic meters of sewage per year, 94 percent discharged without adequate treatment, while Israeli sources produced 17.5 million cubic meters per year, 31.5 percent without adequate treatment.
According to Palestinian environmentalists, the settlers operate industrial and manufacturing plants that can create pollution as many do not conform to Israeli standards. In 2005, an old quarry between "Kedumim and "Nablus was slated for conversion into an industrial waste dump. Pollution experts warned that the dump would threaten Palestinian water sources.
Impact on Palestinian demographics
The Consortium for Applied Research on International Migration (CARIM) has reported in their 2011 migration profile for Palestine that the reasons for individuals to leave the country are similar to those of other countries in the region and they attribute less importance to the specific political situation of the occupied Palestinian territory. Human Rights Watch in 2010 reported that Israeli settlement policies have had the effect of "forcing residents to leave their communities".
In 2008, "Condoleezza Rice suggested sending Palestinian refugees to South America, which might reduce pressure on Israel to withdraw from the settlements. Sushil P. Seth speculates that Israelis seem to feel["weasel words] that increasing settlements will force many Palestinians to flee to other countries and that the remainder will be forced to live under Israeli terms. Speaking anonymously with regard to Israeli policies in the South Hebron Hills, a UN expert said that the Israeli crackdown on alternative energy infrastructures like solar panels is part of a deliberate strategy in Area C.
"From December 2010 to April 2011, we saw a systematic targeting of the water infrastructure in "Hebron, "Bethlehem and the "Jordan valley. Now, in the last couple of months, they are targeting electricity. Two villages in the area have had their electrical poles demolished. There is this systematic effort by the civil administration targeting all Palestinian infrastructure in "Hebron. They are hoping that by making it miserable enough, they [the Palestinians] will pick up and leave."
Approximately 1,500 people in 16 communities, living in the area since the 19th century, and dependent on energy produced by these installations duct business are threatened with work stoppage orders from the Israeli administration on their installation of alternative power infrastructure, and demolition orders expected to follow will darken the homes of 500 people.
"Ariel University, formerly the College of Judea and Samaria, is the major Israeli institution of higher education in the West Bank. With close to 13,000 students, it is Israel's largest public college. The college was accredited in 1994 and awards bachelor's degrees in arts, sciences, technology, architecture and physical therapy. The school's current temporary status is that of a "university institution" conferred by the Israel Defense Forces, but it remains without university accreditation. 500 Arabs begin studies in Ariel saying 'There's no racism here'.
Teacher training colleges include "Herzog College in "Alon Shvut and Orot Israel College in "Elkana. "Ohalo College is located in "Katzrin, in the Golan Heights. Curricula at these institutions are overseen by the Council for Higher Education in Judea and Samaria (CHE-JS).
In March 2012, The Shomron Regional Council was awarded the "Israeli Ministry of Education's first prize National Education Award in recognizing its excellence in investing substantial resources in the educational system. The Shomron Regional Council achieved the highest marks in all parameters (9.28 / 10). "Gershon Mesika, the head of the regional council, declared that the award was a certificate of honour of its educators and the settlement youth who proved their quality and excellence.
In 1983 an Israeli government plan entitled "Master Plan and Development Plan for Settlement in Samaria and Judea" envisaged placing a "maximally large Jewish population" in priority areas to accomplish incorporation of the West Bank in the Israeli "national system". According to "Ariel Sharon, strategic settlement locations would work to preclude the formation of a "Palestinian state.
Palestinians argue that the policy of settlements constitutes an effort to preempt or sabotage a "peace treaty that includes Palestinian "sovereignty, and claim that the presence of settlements harm the ability to have a viable and contiguous state. This was also the view of the Israeli Vice Prime Minister "Haim Ramon in 2008, saying "the pressure to enlarge Ofra and other settlements does not stem from a housing shortage, but rather is an attempt to undermine any chance of reaching an agreement with the Palestinians ..."
The "Israel Foreign Ministry asserts that some settlements are legitimate, as they took shape when there was no operative diplomatic arrangement, and thus they did not violate any agreement. Based on this, they assert that:
- Prior to the signing of the "Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty, the eruption of the "First Intifada, down to the signing of the "Israel–Jordan peace treaty in 1994, Israeli governments on the left and right argued that the settlements were of strategic and tactical importance. The location of the settlements was primarily chosen based on the threat of an attack by the bordering hostile countries of "Jordan, "Syria, and "Egypt and possible routes of advance into Israeli population areas. These settlements were seen as contributing to the security of Israel at a time when peace treaties had not been signed.
Dismantling of settlements
An early evacuation took place in 1982 as part of the Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty, when Israel was required to evacuate its settlers from the 18 Sinai settlements. Arab parties to the conflict had demanded the dismantlement of the settlements as a condition for peace with Israel. The evacuation was carried out with force in some instances, for example in Yamit. The settlements were demolished, as it was feared that settlers might try to return to their homes after the evacuation.
"Israel's unilateral disengagement plan took place in 2005. It involved the evacuation of settlements in the Gaza Strip and part of the West Bank, including all 21 settlements in Gaza and four in the West Bank, while retaining control over Gaza's borders, coastline, and airspace. Most of these settlements had existed since the early 1980s, some were over 30 years old; the total population involved was more than 10,000["citation needed]. There was significant opposition to the plan among parts of the Israeli public, and especially those living in the territories. "George W. Bush said that a permanent peace deal would have to reflect "demographic realities" in the West Bank regarding Israel's settlements.
Within the former settlements, almost all buildings were demolished by Israel, with the exception of certain government and religious structures, which were completely emptied. Under an international arrangement, productive greenhouses were left to assist the Palestinian economy but about 30% of these were destroyed within hours by Palestinian looters. Following the withdrawal, many of the former synagogues were torched and destroyed by Palestinians. The Palestinian leadership "maintained" that the synagogues were "symbols of Israeli occupation." "Kofi Annan, the "Secretary-General of the United Nations at the time, said the Palestinian Authority had a "moral responsibility to protect the synagogues as places with religious significance."
Some believe that settlements need not necessarily be dismantled and evacuated, even if Israel withdraws from the territory where they stand, as they can remain under Palestinian rule. These ideas have been expressed both by left-wing Israelis, and by Palestinians who advocate the "two-state solution, and by extreme Israeli right-wingers and settlers who object to any dismantling and claim links to the land that are stronger than the political boundaries of the state of Israel.
The Israeli government has often threatened to dismantle "outposts. Some have actually been dismantled, occasionally with use of force; this led to "settler violence.
Palestinian statehood bid of 2011
American refusal to declare the settlements illegal was said to be the determining factor in the 2011 attempt to declare Palestinian statehood at the United Nations, the so-called "Palestine 194 initiative.
Israel announced additional settlements in response to the Palestinian diplomatic initiative and Germany responded by moving to stop deliveries to Israel of submarines capable of carrying nuclear weapons.
Finally in 2012, several European states switched to either abstain or vote for statehold in response to continued settlement construction. Israel approved further settlements in response to the vote, which brought further worldwide condemnation.
Impact on peace process
The settlements have been a source of tension between Israel and the U.S. "Jimmy Carter regarded the settlements as illegal and tactically unwise. "Ronald Reagan stated that they were legal but an obstacle to negotiations. In 1991, the U.S. delayed a subsidized loan to pressure Israel on the subject of settlement-building in the Jerusalem-Bethlehem corridor. In 2005, U.S. declared support for "the retention by Israel of major Israeli population centers as an outcome of negotiations," reflecting the statement by "George W. Bush that a permanent peace treaty would have to reflect "demographic realities" in the West Bank. In June 2009, Barack Obama said that the United States "does not accept the legitimacy of continued Israeli settlements."
Palestinians claim that Israel has undermined the Oslo accords and peace process by continuing to expand the settlements. Settlements in the Sinai Peninsula were evacuated and razed in the wake of the peace agreement with "Egypt. The 27 ministers of foreign affairs of the European Union published a report in May 2012 strongly denouncing policies of the State of Israel in the West Bank and finding that Israeli settlements in the West Bank are illegal and "threaten to make a two-state solution impossible." "/> In the framework of the "Oslo I Accord of 1993 between the Israeli government and the "Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), a "modus vivendi was reached whereby both parties agreed to postpone a final solution on the destination of the settlements to the permanent status negotiations (Article V.3). Israel claims that settlements thereby were not prohibited, since there is no explicit interim provision prohibiting continued settlement construction, the agreement does register an undertaking by both sides, namely that "Neither side shall initiate or take any step that will change the status of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip pending the outcome of the permanent status negotiations" (Article XXX1 (7)), which has been interpreted as, not forbidding settlements, but imposing severe restrictions on new settlement building after that date. Melanie Jacques argued in this context that even 'agreements between Israel and the Palestinians which would allow settlements in the OPT, or simply tolerate them pending a settlement of the conflict, violate the Fourth Geneva Convention.'
Final status proposals have called for retaining long-established communities along the "Green Line and transferring the same amount of land in Israel to the Palestinian state. The Clinton administration "proposed that Israel keep some settlements in the West Bank, especially those in large blocs near the pre-1967 borders of Israel, with the Palestinians receiving concessions of land in other parts of the country. Both Clinton and "Tony Blair pointed out the need for territorial and diplomatic compromise based on the validity of some of the claims of both sides.
"Fayed Mustafa, Palestinian ambassador to Russia, called for the return of Palestinian territories to Egypt and Jordan if talks failed.
As Minister of Defense, Ehud Barak approved a plan requiring security commitments in exchange for withdrawal from the West Bank. Barak also expressed readiness to cede parts of East Jerusalem and put the holy sites in the city under a "special regime."
On 14 June 2009, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, as an answer to U.S. President Barack Obama's speech in Cairo, delivered a speech setting out his principles for a Palestinian-Israeli peace, among others, he alleged "... we have no intention of building new settlements or of expropriating additional land for existing settlements." In March 2010, the Netanyahu government announced plans for building 1,600 housing units in "Ramat Shlomo across the Green Line in East Jerusalem during U.S. Vice President "Joe Biden's visit to Israel causing a diplomatic row.
On 6 September 2010, Jordanian King "Abdullah II and Syrian President "Bashar al-Assad said that Israel would need to withdraw from all of the lands occupied in 1967 in order to achieve peace with the Palestinians.
Bradley Burston has said that a negotiated or unilateral withdraw from most of the settlements in the West Bank is gaining traction in Israel.
In November 2010, the United States offered to "fight against efforts to "delegitimize Israel" and provide extra arms to Israel in exchange for a continuation of the settlement freeze and a final peace agreement, but failed to come to an agreement with the Israelis on the exact terms.
In December 2010, the United States criticised efforts by the Palestinian Authority to impose borders for the two states through the United Nations rather than through direct negotiations between the two sides. In February 2011, it "vetoed a "draft resolution to condemn all Jewish settlements established in the occupied Palestinian territory since 1967 as illegal. The resolution, which was supported by all other Security Council members and co-sponsored by nearly 120 nations, would have demanded that "Israel, as the occupying power, immediately and completely ceases all settlement activities in the occupied Palestinian territory, including East Jerusalem and that it fully respect its legal obligations in this regard." The U.S. "representative said that while it agreed that the settlements were illegal, the resolution would harm chances for negotiations. Israel's deputy Foreign Minister, Daniel Ayalon, said that the "UN serves as a rubber stamp for the Arab countries and, as such, the General Assembly has an automatic majority," and that the vote "proved that the United States is the only country capable of advancing the peace process and the only righteous one speaking the truth: that direct talks between Israel and the Palestinians are required." Palestinian negotiators, however, have refused to resume direct talks until Israel ceases all settlement activity.
In November 2009, Israeli Prime Minister Netanyahu issued a 10-month settlement freeze in the West Bank in an attempt to restart negotiations with the Palestinians. The freeze did not apply to building in Jerusalem in areas across the green line, housing already under construction and existing construction described as "essential for normal life in the settlements" such as synagogues, schools, kindergartens and public buildings. The Palestinians refused to negotiate without a complete halt to construction. In the face of pressure from the United States and most world powers supporting the demand by the Palestinian Authority that Israel desist from settlement project in 2010, Israel's ambassador to the UN Meron Reuben said Israel would only stop settlement construction after a peace agreement is concluded, and expressed concern were Arab countries to press for UN recognition of a Palestinian state before such an accord. He cited Israel's dismantlement of settlements in both the Sinai which took place after a peace agreement, and its unilateral dismantlement of settlements in the Gaza Strip. He presumed that settlements would stop being built were Palestinians to establish a state in a given area.
Proposals for land swap
"The Clinton Parameters, a 2000 peace proposal by then U.S. President "Bill Clinton, included a plan on which the Palestinian State was to include 94–96% of the "West Bank, and around 80% of the settlers were to be under Israeli sovereignty, and in exchange for that, Israel will concede some territory (so called 'Territory Exchange' or 'Land Swap') within the Green Line (1967 borders). The swap would consist of 1–3% of Israeli territory, such that the final borders of the West Bank part of the Palestinian state would include 97% of the land of the original borders.
In 2010, Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas said that the Palestinians and Israel have agreed on the principle of a land swap. The issue of the ratio of land Israel would give to the Palestinians in exchange for keeping settlement blocs is an issue of dispute, with the Palestinians demanding that the ratio be 1:1, and Israel insisting that other factors be considered as well.
Under any peace deal with the Palestinians, Israel intends to keep the major settlement blocs close to its borders, which contain over 80% of the settlers. Prime Ministers "Yitzhak Rabin, "Ariel Sharon, and "Benjamin Netanyahu have all stated Israel's intent to keep such blocs under any peace agreement. U.S. President "George W. Bush acknowledged that such areas should be annexed to Israel in a 2004 letter to Prime Minister Sharon.
The "European Union position is that any annexation of settlements should be done as part of mutually agreed land swaps, which would see the Palestinians controlling territory equivalent to the territory captured in 1967. The EU says that it will not recognise any changes to the 1967 borders without an agreement between the parties.
Israeli Foreign Minister "Avigdor Lieberman has proposed a "plan which would see settlement blocs annexed to Israel in exchange for heavily "Arab areas inside Israel as part of a "population exchange.
According to "Mitchell G. Bard: "Ultimately, Israel may decide to unilaterally disengage from the West Bank and determine which settlements it will incorporate within the borders it delineates. Israel would prefer, however, to negotiate a peace treaty with the Palestinians that would specify which Jewish communities will remain intact within the mutually agreed border of Israel, and which will need to be evacuated. Israel will undoubtedly insist that some or all of the "consensus" blocs become part of Israel".
Proposal of dual citizenship
A number of proposals for the granting of Palestinian citizenship or residential permits to Jewish settlers in return for the removal of Israeli military installations from the West Bank have been fielded by such individuals as Arafat, "Ibrahim Sarsur and "Ahmed Qurei. In contrast, "Mahmoud Abbas said in July 2013 that "In a final resolution, we would not see the presence of a single Israeli—civilian or soldier—on our lands."
Israeli Minister "Moshe Ya'alon said in April 2010 that "just as Arabs live in Israel, so, too, should Jews be able to live in Palestine." ... "If we are talking about coexistence and peace, why the [Palestinian] insistence that the territory they receive be ethnically cleansed of Jews?".
The idea has been expressed by both advocates of the two-state solution and supporters of the settlers and conservative or fundamentalist currents in Israeli Judaism that, while objecting to any withdrawal, claim "stronger links to the land than to the state of Israel.
On 19 June 2011, "Haaretz reported that the Israeli cabinet voted to revoke Defense Minister "Ehud Barak's authority to veto new settlement construction in the West Bank, by transferring this authority from the Agriculture Ministry, headed by Barak ally "Orit Noked, to the Prime Minister's office.
In 2009, newly elected Prime Minister "Benjamin Netanyahu said: "I have no intention of building new settlements in the West Bank... But like all the governments there have been until now, I will have to meet the needs of natural growth in the population. I will not be able to choke the settlements." On 15 October 2009, he said the settlement row with the United States had been resolved.
In April 2012, four illegal outposts were retroactively legalized by the Israeli government. In June 2012, the Netanyahu government announced a plan to build 851 homes in five settlements: 300 units in "Beit El and 551 units in other settlements.
Amid peace negotiations that showed little signs of progress, Israel issued on 3 November 2013, tenders for 1,700 new homes for Jewish settlers. The plots were offered in nine settlements in areas Israel says it intends to keep in any peace deal with the Palestinians. On 12 November, Peace Now revealed that the Construction and Housing Ministry had issued tenders for 24,000 more settler homes in the West Bank, including 4,000 in East Jerusalem. 2,500 units were planned in Ma'aleh Adumim, some 9,000 in the "Gush Etzion Region, and circa 12,000 in the "Binyamin Region, including 1,200 homes in the "E1 area in addition to 3,000 homes in previously frozen E1 projects. Circa 15,000 homes of the 24,000 plan would be east of the "West Bank Barrier and create the first new settlement blocs for two decades, and the first blocs ever outside the Barrier, far inside the West Bank.
As stated before, the Israeli government (as of 2015) has a program of residential subsidies in which Israeli settlers receive about double that given to Israelis in Tel Aviv and Jerusalem. As well, settlers in isolated areas receive three times the Israeli national average. From the beginning of 2009 to the end of 2013, the Israeli settlement population as a whole increased by a rate of over 4% per year. A New York Times article in 2015 stated that said building had been "at the heart of mounting European criticism of Israel."
- "Israeli settlement timeline
- "Jewish land purchase in Palestine
- "List of Israeli settlements with city status in the West Bank
- "Palestinian Land Law
- "Population statistics for Israeli West Bank settlements
- "State of Judea
- "Unrecognized Bedouin villages in Israel
- "Regulation Law
|i.||^ Statistics for the "West Bank ("Judea and Samaria") from the Statistical Abstract of Israel 2013 No. 64.
- Citations from the "Drobles Plan (October 1978): 
"Settlement throughout the entire Land of Israel is for security and by right. A strip of settlements at strategic sites enhances both internal and external security alike, as well as making concrete and realizing our right to Eretz Israel."
"The disposition of the settlements must be carried out not only around the settlements of the minorities, but also in between them." [Note: "minorities" refers to the Arab population in Israel and the "Palestinian territories. The West Bank had some 98% Arabs in 1978.]
"New settlements will be established only on State-owned land, and not on private Arab-owned land which is duly registered. We should ensure that there is no need for the expropriation of private plots from the members of the minorities."
"As is known, it is the task of the land settlement department to initiate, plan and implement the settlement enterprise according to the decisions of the Government and of the joint Government-World Zionist Organization Committee for Settlement."
"This will enable us to bring about the dispersion … to the presently empty areas of J&S."
- Citations from the Matityahu Drobles follow up-plan (September 1980): 
THE SETTLEMENT STRATEGY IN JUDEA AND SAMARIA
"In light of the current negotiations on the future of Judea and Samaria, it will now become necessary for us to conduct a race against time. During this period, everything will be mainly determined by the facts we establish in these territories and less by any other considerations. This is therefore the best time for launching an extensive and comprehensive settlement momentum, particularly on the Judea and Samaria hilltops which are not easily passable by nature and which preside over the Jordan Valley on the cast and over the Coastal Plain on the west."
"It is therefore significant to stress today, mainly by means of actions, that the autonomy does not and will not apply to the territories but only to the Arab population thereof. This should mainly find expression by establishing facts on the ground. Therefore, the state-owned lands and the uncultivated barren lands in Judea and Samaria ought to be seized right away, with the purpose of settling the areas between and around the centers occupied by the minorities so as to reduce to the minimum the danger of an additional Arab state being established in these territories. Being cut off by Jewish settlements the minority population will find it difficult to form a territorial and political continuity."
"There mustn't be even the shadow of a doubt about our intention to keep the territories of Judea and Samaria for good. Otherwise, the minority population may get into a state of growing disquiet which will eventually result in recurrent efforts to establish an additional Arab state in these territories. The best and most effective way of removing every shadow of a doubt about our intention to hold on to Judea and Samaria forever is by speeding up the settlement momentum in these territories."
SETTLEMENT POLICY IN JUDEA AND SAMARIA
"Thus, it is necessary to establish additional settlements near every existing settlement in Judea and Samaria, so as to create settlement clusters in homogenous settlement regions ..."
"Over the next 5 years it is necessary to establish 12-15 rural and urban settlements per annum in Judea and Samaria, so that in five years from now the number of settlements will grow by 60-75 and the Jewish population thereof will amount to between 120,000 and 150,000 people."
- Oded Haklai, 'The Decisive Path of State Indecisiveness: Israeli Settlers in the West Bank in Comparative Perspective,' in Oded Haklai,Neophytos Loizide (eds.), Settlers in Contested Lands: Territorial Disputes and Ethnic Conflicts, Stanford University Press 2015 pp.17-38 p.19:'‘the Israel settlers reside almost solely in exclusively Jewish communities (one exception is a small enclave within the city of Hebron).'
- Michael Dumper, Jerusalem Unbound: Geography, History, and the Future of the Holy City, Columbia University Press 2014 p.85.'‘This is despite huge efforts by successive governments to fragment and encircle Palestinian residential areas with exclusively Jewish zones of residence – the settlements.'
- EU Trade with Israeli Settlements, a briefing paper
- Gershom Gorenberg (2007). The Accidental Empire: Israel and the Birth of the Settlements, 1967–1977. Macmillan. p. 363.
So argued the government of Israel before the country's Supreme Court in the spring of 2005, defending its decision to dismantle all Israeli settlements in the Gaza Strip and four in the northern West Bank.
- Gershom Gorenberg (2007). The Accidental Empire: Israel and the Birth of the Settlements, 1967–1977. Macmillan. p. 363.
- "Anthony Cordesman, Jennifer Moravitz, The Israeli-Palestinian war: escalating to nowhere, Greenwood Publishing Group, Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2005 p.432.:'Between 1993 and 1999, settlers established 42 "unofficial" settlements, only four of which were subsequently dismantled. More than a dozen new settlements were established between the 1998 Wye Accord [sic: it's the Wye River Memorandum, but Oslo Accords] and the outbreak of war, although former Prime Minister Netanyahu supposedly["who?] promised Clinton that he would halt expansion.' p.433.
- "Zeev Maoz Defending the Holy Land: a critical analysis of Israel's security & foreign policy, University of Michigan Press, 2006 p.472: 'As can be seen from the table, in 1993 there were about 110,000 settlers in the occupied territories. In 2001 there were 195,000 (Note that the number of settlers increased by 18 percent during the "Al Aqsa Intifada). This was an increase of 73 percent'
- "Marwan Bishara, Palestine/Israel: peace or apartheid Zed Books, 2003 p.133: 'The settlement expansion has continued unabated...and accelerated after the launch of the peace process.' p.133.
- Baylis Thomas, The Dark Side of Zionism: Israel's Quest for Security Through Dominance Lexington Books, 3011 p.137:'Six years after the agreement there were more Israeli settlements, less freedom of movement, and worse economic conditions." Settlement building and roads for Jewish settlers proceeded at a frenetic pace under Barak – the classic Zionist maneuver of creating of facts on the ground to preclude a Palestinian state.' p.137.
- Barahona, Ana (2013). Bearing Witness - Eight weeks in Palestine. London: Metete. p. 49. "ISBN "978-1-908099-02-0.
- "Uri Blau, 'Haaretz Investigation: U.S. Donors Gave Settlements More Than $220 Million in Tax-exempt Funds Over Five Years,' "Haaretz 7 December 2015.
- "Roberts, Adam. "Prolonged Military Occupation: The Israeli-Occupied Territories Since 1967". The American Journal of International Law. American Society of International Law. 84 (1): 85–86. "doi:10.2307/2203016.
The international community has taken a critical view of both deportations and settlements as being contrary to international law. General Assembly resolutions have condemned the deportations since 1969, and have done so by overwhelming majorities in recent years. Likewise, they have consistently deplored the establishment of settlements, and have done so by overwhelming majorities throughout the period (since the end of 1976) of the rapid expansion in their numbers. The Security Council has also been critical of deportations and settlements; and other bodies have viewed them as an obstacle to peace, and illegal under international law.
- Pertile, Marco (2005). "'Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory': A Missed Opportunity for International Humanitarian Law?". In Conforti, Benedetto; Bravo, Luigi. The Italian Yearbook of International Law. 14. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 141. "ISBN "978-90-04-15027-0.
the establishment of the Israeli settlements in the Occupied Palestinian Territory has been considered illegal by the international community and by the majority of legal scholars.
- "Barak-Erez, Daphne (2006). "Israel: The security barrier—between international law, constitutional law, and domestic judicial review". International Journal of Constitutional Law. Oxford University Press. 4 (3): 548. "doi:10.1093/icon/mol021.
The real controversy hovering over all the litigation on the security barrier concerns the fate of the Israeli settlements in the occupied territories. Since 1967, Israel has allowed and even encouraged its citizens to live in the new settlements established in the territories, motivated by religious and national sentiments attached to the history of the Jewish nation in the land of Israel. This policy has also been justified in terms of security interests, taking into consideration the dangerous geographic circumstances of Israel before 1967 (where Israeli areas on the Mediterranean coast were potentially threatened by Jordanian control of the West Bank ridge). The international community, for its part, has viewed this policy as patently illegal, based on the provisions of the Fourth Geneva Convention that prohibit moving populations to or from territories under occupation.
- Drew, Catriona (1997). "Self-determination and population transfer". In Bowen, Stephen. Human rights, self-determination and political change in the occupied Palestinian Hkterritories. International studies in human rights. 52. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. pp. 151–152. "ISBN "978-90-411-0502-8.
It can thus clearly be concluded that the transfer of Israeli settlers into the occupied territories violates not only the laws of belligerent occupation but the Palestinian right of self-determination under international law. The question remains, however, whether this is of any practical value. In other words, given the view of the international community that the Israeli settlements are illegal under the law if belligerent occupation...
- "International Labour Organization (2005). "The situation of workers of the occupied Arab territories" (PDF). p. 14.
The international community considers Israeli settlements within the occupied territories illegal and in breach of, inter alia, United Nations Security Council resolution 465 of 1 March 1980 calling on Israel "to dismantle the existing settlements and in particular to cease, on an urgent basis, the establishment, construction and planning of settlements in the Arab territories occupied since 1967, including Jerusalem".
- Civilian and military presence as strategies of territorial control: The Arab-Israel conflict, David Newman, Political Geography Quarterly Volume 8, Issue 3, July 1989, Pages 215–227
- "Roberts, Adam. "Prolonged Military Occupation: The Israeli-Occupied Territories Since 1967". The American Journal of International Law. American Society of International Law. 84 (1): 85–86. "doi:10.2307/2203016.
- "UN Security Council Resolution 465".
- "What next for Gaza and West Bank?". BBC. 30 August 2005. Retrieved 5 January 2010.
Most Israelis support the pullout, but some feel the government has given in to Palestinian militant groups, and worry that further withdrawals will follow. Palestinian critics point out that Gaza will remain under Israeli control, and that they are being denied a political say in the disengagement process.
- Yearbook of the United Nations 2005. United Nations Publications. 2007. p. 514.
The Israeli Government was preparing to implement an unprecedented initiative: the disengagement of all Israeli civilians and forces from the Gaza Strip and the dismantling of four settlements in the northern West Bank.
- Yael Yishai (1987). Land Or Peace. Hoover Press. p. 58.
During 1982 Israel's government stuck to its territorial policy in word and deed. All the settlements in Sinai were evacuated in accordance with the Camp David Accords, but settlement activity in the other territories continued uninterrupted. A few days after the final withdrawal from Sinai had been completed, Begin announced that he would introduce a resolution barring future governments from dismantling settlements, even as a result of peace negotiations.
- "What next for Gaza and West Bank?". BBC. 30 August 2005. Retrieved 5 January 2010.
- Donald MacIntyre, The Big Question: What are Israeli settlements, and why are they coming under pressure?, "The Independent 29 May 2009
- "Summary of the Advisory Opinion of 9 July 2004" (PDF). International Court of Justice. 9 July 2004. p. 10. Retrieved 9 November 2011.
- Regarding international organizations and courts of law, see ; regarding the UN, see UN General Assembly resolution 39/146, 14 December 1984; UN Security Council Resolution 446, 22 March 1979; and International Court of Justice Advisory Opinion, 9 July 2004, Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, para 120; Regarding the European Union position, see The Syrian Golan
- Natasha Mozgovaya, "Reuters and The "Associated Press,Palestinians call on UN to stop Israeli settlement legalization, at "Haaretz, 26 April 2012.
- Michal Shmulovich (24 April 2012). "World leaders blast legalization of three West Bank outposts". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 29 April 2012.
- Michal Shmulovich (26 April 2012). "EU urges Israel to reverse its authorization of three West Bank outposts". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 29 April 2012.
- "Israel, the Conflict and Peace: Answers to frequently asked questions". "Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. November 2007.
Are Israeli settlements legal?
- 'Ramifications of UNSC resolution: Sanctions, boycotts and ICC lawsuits,' "Ynet 24 December 2016.
- "Palestinians condemn settlements plan". "The Financial Times. 20 May 2011.
- "OIC Secretary General hails EU decision on Israeli settlements". "United Nations Information System on the Question of Palestine - OIC Statement to UN. Accessed March 14, 2015.
- "Israeli settlement plan denounced". BBC. 8 November 2009. Retrieved 16 March 2010.
- "Russia urges Israel to halt settlement construction". RIA Novosti. 2 November 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2012.
- "Britain: Israeli settlements are 'illegal' and 'obstacle' to peace". "Haaretz. 4 November 2009. Retrieved 16 March 2010.
- "France condemns Israel over settlement building decision". "Business Standard. 21 March 2014. Retrieved 5 April 2014.
- "EU's Ashton SAYS Israeli settlement plans hurt peace moves". Reuters. 15 March 2010. Retrieved 16 March 2010.
- 'The economics at the heart of Israel's illegal settlements,' "Ma'an News Agency 7 January 2015.
- Jodi Rudoren, Jeremy Ashkenas,'Netanyahu and the Settlements,' "New York Times 12 March 2015.:'the government spent about $950 supporting each West Bank resident in 2014, more than double its investment in people living in Tel Aviv or Jerusalem; in isolated settlements, it was $1,483 per capita.'
- Williams, Dan Leave or let live? Arabs move in to Jewish settlements Reuters. 7 Dec 2014
- "Israel okays 2,610 homes for Jews and Arabs in E. Jerusalem".
- Sherwood, Harriet (26 July 2012). "Population of Jewish settlements in West Bank up 15,000 in a year". The Guardian. London.
- "Facts About Jewish Settlements in the West Bank".
- "Jewish Population in Judea & Samaria Growing Significantly".
- "Report on Israeli Settlement in the Occupied Territories". "Foundation for Middle East Peace. Retrieved 2012-08-05.
- Separate and Unequal, Chapter IV. Human Rights Watch, 19 December 2010
- Akiva Eldar, A matter of a few dozen meters. Haaretz, 1 June 2008
- Knesset Website, Gush Emunim. Retrieved 27-02-2013
- Donald Macintyre, Secret memo shows Israel knew Six Day War was illegal. Independent, 26 May 2007. (on web.archive)
- Secret 1970 document confirms first West Bank settlements built on a lie (Haaretz, July 28, 2016) "In minutes of meeting in then defense minister Moshe Dayan’s office, top Israeli officials discussed how to violate international law in building settlement of Kiryat Arba, next to Hebron (...) The system of confiscating land by military order for the purpose of establishing settlements was an open secret in Israel throughout the 1970s
- Yotam Berger (7 September 2016). "Israel Used Military Censor to Conceal First Settlements From Public, Document Reveals". Haaretz.
'The seizure for military needs can easily be defended from a legal point of view,' Ben Horin writes. 'Civilian enterprises are another thing entirely.'
- Division for Palestinian Rights (DPR), Israeli settlements in Gaza and the West Bank, Part II, chapter III. "The magnitude of settlements". 1 July 1984. Part I.
- Ian S. Lustick, For the land and the Lord: Jewish fundamentalism in Israel, chapter 3, par. Gush Emunim and the Likud. 1988, the Council on Foreign Relations
- Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 23. Government statement on recognition of three settlements. 26 July 1977
- Robin Bidwell, Dictionary Of Modern Arab History, Routledge, 2012 p.442
- Division for Palestinian Rights/CEIRPP, SUPR Bulletin No. 9-10 (letters of 19 September 1979 and 18 October 1979).
Original UNGA/UNSC publication of the "Drobles Plan" in pdf: Letter dated 18 October 1979 from the Chairman of the Committee on the Exercise of the Inalienable Rights of the Palestinian People addressed to the Secretary-General, see ANNEX (doc.nrs. A/34/605 and S/13582 d.d. 22-10-1979).
- UNGA/UNSC, Letter dated 19 June 198l from the Acting Chairman of the Committee on the Exercise of the Inalienable Rights of the Palestinian People to the Secretary-General (A/36/341 and S/14566 d.d.19-06-1981).
- Cabinet seeks to limit Barak's say on settlements. Tovah Lazaroff and Herb Keinon, Jerusalem Post, 20 June 2011
- Presentation of the Oslo II Accord in the Knesset by Rabin: MFA, Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin: Ratification of the Israel-Palestinian Interim Agreement—The Knesset October 5, 1995.
- The origins and evolution of the Palestine problem, Part V (1989 – 2000), chap. III, E. CEIRPP, 2014.
- Netanyahu Presents His "Allon-Plus" Final Status Map. Settlement Report, Vol. 7 No. 4, July–August 1997. On 
- "Comprehensive Settlement Population 1972-2010". Foundation for Middle East Peace. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
- Akiva Eldar, IDF Civil Administration pushing for land takeover in West Bank Haaretz, 22 July 2011
- Akiva Eldar, Israel Defense Ministry plan earmarks 10 percent of West Bank for settlement expansion. Haaretz, 30 March 2012.
- Gershom Gorenberg, The Accidental Empire(New York: Times Books, Henry Holt and Company, 2006), 21.
- "Israel Studies An Anthology: Jewish Settlement in Israel". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 2016-06-10.
- Eytan Sat, interview, Yehudah Harel, interview; Admoni, Asor, 23.
- Gorenberg,The Accidental empire, 54.
- Gorenberg,The Accidental empire, 4.
- Avraham Yitzhak Hacohen Kook, Orot (Jerusalem: Mossad Harav Kook, 5753),9.
- A. Ben-Ami, ed., HaKol: The Peace Frontiers of Israel (Tel Aviv: Madaf, 1967), 65-75.
- Gouri,"Hashiva Le'Abu Dis."
- Mashe Shamir, "Min Haplishtiut--El Hahar," Ma'ariv, July 15, 1967.
- "Israel launches massive new West Bank settlement plans", Israel Herald. 31 August 2014.
- Joshua L. Gleis, Withdrawing Under Fire: Lessons Learned from Islamist Insurgencies, (Washington, D.C.:Potomac Books, Inc., 2011), Chapter 7.
- Erlanger, Steve (9 March 2005). "Israeli Report Condemns Support for Settlement Outposts". New York Times.
- "Silwan settlers plan Passover festival in bid to curry favor with public". Retrieved 28 July 2016.
- Katz, Yossi; Lehr, John C. (1 January 1995). "Symbolism and Landscape: The Etzion Bloc in the Judean Mountains". Middle Eastern Studies. 31 (4): 730–743. "JSTOR 4283758.
- "The hostility of Hebron". 18 February 2003. Retrieved 28 July 2016 – via bbc.co.uk.
- "Seventeen Gaza Settlements Evacuated - Fox News". 18 August 2005. Retrieved 28 July 2016.
- "Israeli Settler Population 1972-2006". "Foundation for Middle East Peace. Retrieved 15 March 2010.
- "Population by year in West Bank settlements". "B'Tselem. Retrieved 14 March 2010.
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- Heruti, Tali (2011-06-19). "Cabinet Votes to Curtail Barak's Power to Veto West Bank Settlement Construction". Haaretz. Retrieved 2016-06-10.
- Netanyahu would let West Bank settlements expand. By Mark Levie. "Yahoo! News. Published 26 January 2009.
- Netanyahu: Israel and U.S. have resolved settlements row
- Peace Now, 1 August 2012 The Government Secretly Approved another Outpost: Nofei Nehemia.
- Peace Now, 11 June 2012, The Compensation Package for the Settlers: 851 Units to Undermine the Two States Solution
- "Israel to build more West Bank homes". Al Jazeera. 7 June 2012. Retrieved 7 June 2012.
- Israel Approves Construction of 1,700 New Settlement Homes. Reuters, 3 November 2013
- Israel Plans 24,000 New Homes for Jewish Settlers. Reuters, 12 November 2013
- Netanyahu instructs housing minister to 'reconsider' plans for 24,000 units beyond Green Line. Jerusalem Post, 13 November 2013
- Potential settlement plans would create first blocs outside barrier route. Tovah Lazaroff, Jerusalem Post, 14 November 2013
- Israeli Settlements interactive map and Israeli land use from "The Guardian
- Israeli Settlements. "Bloomberg News
- Israeli settlements: Where, when, and why they're built, Ilene R. Prusher, "Christian Science Monitor, 15 September 2009
- Text of the Fourth 1949 Geneva Convention from icrc.org
- The legal status of Israeli settlements under IHL (International Humanitarian Law), "Reuters "ReliefWeb, 31 January 2004
- The Humanitarian Impact on Palestinians of Israeli Settlements and Other Infrastructure in the West Bank from "UN OCHA, "Palestinian territories
- Israeli Communities in Yesha & Jordan Valley
- The Illegal Settlements—slideshow by "The First Post
- Bearing Witness, Metete Publications
- Viewpoints and commentary
- Monitoring Israeli Colonization Activities in the Palestinian Territory, The Applied Research Institute Jerusalem
- Land Expropriation and Settlements from "B'tselem
- Israel and The Palestinian Territories, "The Carter Center
- Israeli Confiscation and Settlement on Palestinian Land from "If Americans Knew
- Myths about the settlements and A compilation of facts on the settlements, "Jewish Virtual Library
- Settlements and Settlements and U.S. Policy, "Americans for Peace Now
- "Bregman, Ahron Elusive Peace: How the Holy Land Defeated America
- 'The Wye River Memorandum and Israeli Settlements", Geoffrey Aronson, "The Jerusalem Fund, 4 August 1999
- For Israel, Land or Peace Jimmy Carter, "The Carter Center, 26 November 2000
- Backgrounder: Jewish settlements and the Media from the "Committee for Accuracy in Middle East Reporting in America, 5 October 2001
- From "occupied territories" to "disputed territories", Dore Gold, "Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, 16 January 2002
- Ottoman Land Registration Law as a Contributing Factor in the Israeli-Arab Conflict by Rabbi Jon-Jay Tilsen, 2003
- Diplomatic and Legal Aspects of the Settlement Issue from the "Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, 19 January 2003
- Jewish Settlements in "the Territories" Aren't the Problem, "Chaim Herzog, FrontPageMag.com, 9 April 2003
- Occupation and Settlement: The Myth and Reality, David Meir-Levi, Think-Israel.org, 24 June 2005
- "At Israeli Outpost, Showdown Looms for Settlers, Government Gershom Gorenberg, Forward.com, 27 January 2006
- Settlements 'violate Israeli law', "BBC News, 21 November 2006
- Backgrounder: The debate about settlements from the "Committee for Accuracy in Middle East Reporting in America, 13 June 2007
- "Israel's Settlers Are Here to Stay" op-ed by "Dani Dayan in The New York Times 25 July 2012
"" Media related to Israeli settlements in occupied territories at Wikimedia Commons) )