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Ixchel in the "Dresden Codex

Ixchel or Ix Chel (Mayan: "[iʃˈt͡ʃel]) is the 16th-century name of the aged "jaguar goddess of "midwifery and "medicine in ancient "Maya culture. She corresponds, more or less, to "Toci Yoalticitl "Our Grandmother the Nocturnal Physician", an "Aztec earth goddess inhabiting the "sweatbath, and is related to another Aztec goddess invoked at birth, viz. "Cihuacoatl (or "Ilamatecuhtli).[1] In "Taube's revised Schellhas-Zimmermann classification of "codical deities, Ixchel corresponds to the Goddess O.



Referring to the early 16th-century, "Landa calls Ixchel “the goddess of making children”.[2] He also mentions her as the goddess of medicine, as shown by the following. In the month of Zip, the feast Ihcil Ixchel was celebrated by the physicians and "shamans (hechiceros), and divination stones as well as medicine bundles containing little idols of "the goddess of medicine whom they called Ixchel" were brought forward.[3] In the Ritual of the "Bacabs, Ixchel is once called 'grandmother'.[4] In their combination, the goddess's two principal qualities (birthing and healing) suggest an analogy with the aged Aztec goddess of midwifery, Tocî Yoalticitl.

Ixchel was already known to the Classical Maya. As Taube has demonstrated,[5] she corresponds to goddess O of the "Dresden Codex, an aged woman with jaguar ears. A crucial piece of evidence in his argument is the so-called "Birth Vase" (Kerr 5113), a Classic Maya container showing a childbirth presided over by various old women, headed by an old jaguar goddess, the codical goddess O; all have weaving implements in their headdresses. On another Classic Maya vase, goddess O is shown acting as a physician, further confirming her identity as Ixchel. The combination of Ixchel with several aged midwives on the Birth Vase recalls the "Tz'utujil assembly of midwife goddesses called the "female lords", the most powerful of whom is described as being particularly fearsome.[6]

Meaning of the name[edit]

Name glyph of Ix Chel including the prefix 'red', Dresden Codex.

The name Ixchel was in use in 16th-century "Yucatán and amongst the "Poqom in the "Baja Verapaz.[7] Its meaning is not certain. Assuming that the name originated in Yucatán, chel could mean ""rainbow". Her glyphic names in the "(Post-Classic) codices have two basic forms, one a prefix with the primary meaning of "red" (chak) followed by a "pictogram, the other one logosyllabic. Ix Chel's Classic name glyph remains to be identified. It is quite possible that several names were in use to refer to the goddess, and these need not necessarily have included her late Yucatec and Poqom name. Her codical name is now generally rendered as 'Chak Chel'. The designation 'Red Goddess' seems to have a complement in the designation of the young "goddess I as 'White Goddess'.["citation needed]

Ixchel and the moon[edit]

In the past, Ix Chel was sometimes assumed to be identical to the Classic "Maya moon goddess because of the Moon's association with fertility and procreation. Iconographically, however, such an equation is questionable, since what is considered to be the Classic Maya moon goddess, identifiable through her crescent, is always represented as a fertile young woman.[8] On the other hand, the waning moon is often called "Our Grandmother", and not inconceivably, Ixchel might have represented this particular "lunar phase associated with the diminishing fertility and eventual dryness of old age. Her codical attribute of an inverted jar could then refer to the jar of the waning moon being emptied. In any case, the moon cycle, taken alone, is of obvious importance to the work of the midwife. The equation of the "triad maid, mother, and grandmother with the three basic phases of the moon seems to be quite common among cultures around the world.["citation needed]

Ixchel as an earth and a war goddess[edit]

An entwined serpent serves as Ixchel's headdress, crossed bones may adorn her skirt, and instead of human hands and feet, she sometimes has claws. Very similar features are found with Aztec earth goddesses, of whom "Tlaltecuhtli, Tocî, and Cihuacoatl were invoked by the midwives. More in particular, the jaguar goddess Ixchel could be conceived as a female warrior, with a gaping mouth suggestive of cannibalism, thus showing her affinity with "Cihuacoatl Yaocihuatl 'War Woman'. This manifestation of Cihuacoatl was always hungry for new victims, just as her midwife manifestation helped to produce new babies viewed as captives.["citation needed]

Ixchel as a rain goddess[edit]

In the "Dresden Codex, goddess O occurs in almanacs dedicated to the "rain deities or "Chaacs and is typically inverting a water jar. On page 74 originally preceding the New Year pages, her emptying of the water jar replicates the vomiting of water by a celestial dragon. Although this scene is usually understood["by whom?] as the Flood bringing about the end of the world and the year's end, it might also represent the onset of the rainy season. The image of the jar filled with rain water may be derived from the sac holding the amniotic liquid; turning the jar would then be equivalent to giving birth.["citation needed]


Ixchel figures in a Verapaz myth related by Las Casas, according to which she, together with her spouse, "Itzamna, had thirteen sons, two of whom created heaven and earth and all that belongs to it.[9] No other myth figuring Ixchel has been preserved. However, her mythology may once have focused on the sweatbath, the place where Maya mothers were wont to go before and after birthgiving.[10] As stated above, the Aztec counterpart to Ixchel as a patron of midwifery, Tocî, was also the goddess of the sweatbath. In myths from "Oaxaca, the aged adoptive mother of the Sun and Moon siblings is finally imprisoned in a sweatbath to become its "patron deity.[11] Several Maya myths have aged goddesses end up in the same place, in particular the Cakchiquel and Tz'utujil grandmother of Sun and Moon, called B'atzb'al ("Weaving Implement") in Tz'utujil.[12] On the other hand, in "Q'eqchi' Sun and Moon myth, an aged Maya goddess (Xkitza) who would otherwise appear to correspond closely to the Oaxacan Old Adoptive Mother, does not appear to be connected to the sweatbath.[13]

Cult of Ixchel[edit]

In the early 16th century, Maya women seeking to ensure a fruitful marriage would travel to the sanctuary of Ix Chel on the island of "Cozumel, the most important place of pilgrimage after "Chichen Itza, off the east coast of the Yucatán peninsula. There, a priest hidden in a large statue would give "oracles.[14] To the north of Cozumel is a much smaller island baptized by its Spanish discoverer, "Hernández de Córdoba, the 'Island of Women' ("Isla Mujeres) "because of the idols he found there, of the goddesses of the country, Ixchel, Ixchebeliax or Ix Chebel Yax (the creasing moon represented as a weaving young lady), Ixhunie or Ix U'h butie ? (Lady full Moon), Ixhunieta or Ix U'h jeta (Lady Moon rended), only vestured from the girdle down, and having the breast covered after the manner of the Indians".[15] On the other side of the peninsula, the head town of the "Chontal province of "Acalan (Itzamkanac) venerated Ixchel as one its main deities. One of Acalan's coastal settlements was called Tixchel 'At the place of Ixchel'. The Spanish conqueror, "Hernán Cortés, tells us about another place in Acalan where unmarried young women were sacrificed to a goddess in whom "they had much faith and hope", possibly again Ix Chel.[16]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Miller and Taube 1993: 101
  2. ^ Tozzer 1941: 129
  3. ^ Tozzer 1941: 154
  4. ^ Roys 1965: 53
  5. ^ Taube 1994:650-685
  6. ^ Tarn and Prechtel 1986: 179
  7. ^ Poqom, Miles 1957: 748
  8. ^ cf. Miller and Taube 1993: 101
  9. ^ Coe 1977: 329
  10. ^ For a full background, see Groark 1997
  11. ^ cf. Thompson 1970:358-359
  12. ^ Tarn and Prechtel 1986:177, 184n16
  13. ^ Thompson 1970:355-356
  14. ^ Tozzer 1941: 109-110n500
  15. ^ Tozzer 1941: 9-10
  16. ^ Ixchel in Acalan, see Scholes and Roys 1968: 57; 383, 395

Bibliography and references[edit]

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