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J
J j "ȷ
("See below)
""Writing cursive forms of J
Usage
Writing system "Latin script
Type "Alphabetic
Language of origin "Latin language
Phonetic usage ["j]
["]~["]
["x~"h]
["ʒ]
["ɟ]
["ʝ]
["dz]
["]
["]
["t]~["]
["ʐ]
["ʃ]
["]
["i]
"//
"//
Unicode value U+004A, U+006A, U+0237
Alphabetical position 10
History
Development
D36
Time period 1524 to present
Descendants  • "Ɉ
 • "Tittle
 • "Tittle
 • "J
Sisters "І
"Ј
"י
ي
ܝ

"ی
"
"𐎊
"
"

"
"
"
Variations ("See below)
Other
Other letters commonly used with "j(x), "ij

J is the tenth "letter in the "modern English alphabet and the "ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its normal "name in English is jay "// or, now uncommonly, jy "//.[1][2] When used for the "palatal approximant, it may be called yod ("/jɒd/ or "/jd/) or yot ("/jɒt/ or "/jt/).

Contents

History[edit]

The letter J originated as a "swash letter I["citation needed], used for the letter I at the end of "Roman numerals when following another I, as in XXIIJ or xxiij instead of XXIII or xxiii for the Roman numeral representing 23. A distinctive usage emerged in "Middle High German.[3] "Gian Giorgio Trissino (1478–1550) was the first to explicitly distinguish I and J as representing separate sounds, in his Ɛpistola del Trissino de le lettere nuωvamente aggiunte ne la lingua italiana ("Trissino's epistle about the letters recently added in the Italian language") of 1524.[4] Originally, 'I' and 'J' were different shapes for the same letter, both equally representing /i/, /iː/, and /j/; but, "Romance languages developed new sounds (from former /j/ and /ɡ/) that came to be represented as 'I' and 'J'; therefore, "English J, acquired from the "French J, has a sound value quite different from /j/ (which represents the initial sound in the English word "yet").

Use in writing systems[edit]

English[edit]

In English, ⟨j⟩ most commonly represents the "affricate /"/. In "Old English, the phoneme /dʒ/ was represented orthographically with ⟨cg⟩ and ⟨cȝ⟩.[5] Under the influence of "Old French, which had a similar phoneme deriving from Latin /j/, English scribes began to use ⟨i⟩ (later ⟨j⟩) to represent word-initial /dʒ/ in Old English (for example, iest and, later jest), while using ⟨dg⟩ elsewhere (for example, hedge).[5] Later, many other uses of ⟨i⟩ (later ⟨j⟩) were added in "loanwords from French and other languages (e.g. adjoin, junta). The first "English language book to make a clear distinction between ⟨i⟩ and ⟨j⟩ was published in 1633.[6] In loan words such as raj, ⟨j⟩ may represent /ʒ/. In some of these, including raj, "Azerbaijan, "Taj Mahal, and "Beijing, the regular pronunciation /dʒ/ is actually closer to the native pronunciation, making the use of /ʒ/ an instance of a "hyperforeignism.[7] Occasionally, ⟨j⟩ represents the original /j/ sound, as in "Hallelujah and "fjord (see "Yodh for details). In words of Spanish origin, where ⟨j⟩ represents the "voiceless velar fricative ["x] (such as jalapeño), English speakers usually approximate with the "voiceless glottal fricative "/h/.

In English, ⟨j⟩ is the "fourth least frequently used letter in words, being more frequent only than ⟨"z⟩, ⟨"q⟩, and ⟨"x⟩. It is, however, quite common in proper nouns, especially personal names.

Other languages[edit]

Germanic and Eastern-European languages[edit]

""
""
Pronunciation of written <j> in European languages

The great majority of "Germanic languages, such as "German, "Dutch, "Icelandic, "Swedish, "Danish and "Norwegian, use ⟨j⟩ for the "palatal approximant /"j/, which is usually represented by the letter ⟨y⟩ in English. Notable exceptions are "English, "Scots and (to a lesser degree) "Luxembourgish. ⟨j⟩ also represents /"j/ in "Albanian, and those "Uralic, "Slavic and "Baltic languages that use the Latin alphabet, such as "Hungarian, "Finnish, "Estonian, "Polish, "Czech, "Serbo-Croatian, "Slovak, "Latvian and "Lithuanian. Some related languages, such as Serbo-Croatian and "Macedonian, also adopted ⟨j⟩ into the "Cyrillic alphabet for the same purpose. Because of this standard, the "lower case letter was chosen to be used in the "IPA as the phonetic symbol for the sound.

Romance languages[edit]

In the "Romance languages, ⟨j⟩ has generally developed from its original palatal approximant value in "Latin to some kind of "fricative. In "French, "Portuguese, "Catalan, and "Romanian it has been fronted to the "postalveolar fricative /"ʒ/ (like ⟨s⟩ in English measure). In "Spanish, by contrast, it has been both "devoiced and backed from an earlier /"ʝ/ to a present-day /x ~ h/,[8] with the actual phonetic realization depending on the speaker's dialect/s.

In modern standard "Italian spelling, only "Latin words, proper nouns (such as "Jesi, "Letojanni, "Juventus etc.) or those borrowed from foreign languages have ⟨j⟩. Until the 19th century, ⟨j⟩ was used instead of ⟨i⟩ in "diphthongs, as a replacement for final -ii, and in vowel groups (as in Savoja); this rule was quite strict for official writing. ⟨j⟩ is also used to render /"j/ in dialect, e.g. Romanesque ajo for standard aglio (–/"ʎ/–) (garlic). The Italian novelist "Luigi Pirandello used ⟨j⟩ in vowel groups in his works written in Italian; he also wrote in his native "Sicilian language, which still uses the letter ⟨j⟩ to represent /"j/ (and sometimes also [dʒ] or [gj], depending on its environment).[9]

Basque[edit]

In "Basque, the "diaphoneme represented by ⟨j⟩ has a variety of realizations according to the regional dialect: [gʰ, kʰ, j, ʝ, ɟ, ʒ, ʃ, x] (the last one is typical of "Gipuzkoa).

Non-European languages[edit]

Among non-European languages that have adopted the "Latin script, ⟨j⟩ stands for /"ʒ/ in "Turkish and "Azerbaijani, for /"ʐ/ in "Tatar. ⟨j⟩ stands for /"/ in "Indonesian, "Somali, "Malay, "Igbo, "Shona, "Oromo, "Turkmen, and "Zulu. It represents a "voiced palatal plosive /"ɟ/ in "Konkani, "Yoruba, and "Swahili. In "Kiowa, ⟨j⟩ stands for a voiceless alveolar plosive, /"t/.

In "Chinese "Pinyin, ⟨j⟩ stands for /"/, the unaspirated equivalent of ⟨q⟩.

The "Royal Thai General System of Transcription does not use the letter ⟨j⟩, although it is used in some proper names and non-standard transcriptions to represent either [tɕ] or [tɕʰ] (the latter following Pali/Sanskrit root equivalents).

In romanized "Pashto, ⟨j⟩ represents ځ, pronounced [dz].

Related characters[edit]

Computing codes[edit]

Character J j ȷ
Unicode name LATIN CAPITAL LETTER J LATIN SMALL LETTER J LATIN SMALL LETTER DOTLESS J
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex
"Unicode 74 U+004A 106 U+006A 567 U+0237
"UTF-8 74 4A 106 6A 200 183 C8 B7
"Numeric character reference &#74; &#x4A; &#106; &#x6A; &#567; &#x237;
"EBCDIC family 209 D1 145 91
"ASCII 1 74 4A 106 6A
1 Also for encodings based on ASCII, including the DOS, Windows, ISO-8859 and Macintosh families of encodings.

Unicode also has a dotless variant, ȷ (U+0237). It is primarily used in "Landsmålsalfabet and in mathematics. It is not intended to be used with diacritics since the normal j is softdotted in Unicode (that is, the dot is removed if a diacritic is to be placed above; Unicode further states that, for example i+ ¨ ≠ ı+¨ and the same holds true for j and ȷ).[13]

In Unicode, a duplicate of 'J' for use as a special phonetic character in historical "Greek linguistics is encoded in the Greek script block as ϳ (Unicode U+03F3). It is used to denote the "palatal glide /j/ in the context of Greek script. It is called "Yot" in the Unicode standard, after the German name of the letter J.[14][15] An uppercase version of this letter was added to the Unicode Standard at U+037F with the release of version 7.0 in June 2014.[16][17]

Wingdings smiley issue[edit]

In the "Wingdings font by "Microsoft, the letter "J" is rendered as a "smiley face (note this is distinct from the Unicode code point U+263A, which renders as ☺). In Microsoft applications, ":)" is automatically replaced by a smiley rendered in a specific font face when composing rich text documents or HTML email. This autocorrection feature can be switched off or changed to a Unicode smiley.[18] [19]

Other uses[edit]

Other representations[edit]

"NATO phonetic "Morse code
Juliet ·–––
""ICS Juliet.svg ""Semaphore Juliet.svg ""Sign language J.svg ""⠚
"Signal flag "Flag semaphore "American manual alphabet ("ASL "fingerspelling) "Braille
"dots-245

References[edit]

  1. ^ "J", Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989)
  2. ^ "J" and "jay", Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993)
  3. ^ "Wörterbuchnetz". Retrieved 22 December 2016. 
  4. ^ De le lettere nuωvamente aggiunte ne la lingua Italiana in Italian "Wikisource.
  5. ^ a b Hogg, Richard M.; Norman Francis Blake; Roger Lass; Suzanne Romaine; R. W. Burchfield; John Algeo (1992). The Cambridge History of the English Language. "Cambridge University Press. p. 39. "ISBN "0-521-26476-6. 
  6. ^ English Grammar, Charles Butler, 1633
  7. ^ Wells, John (1982). Accents of English 1: An Introduction. Cambridge, UN: Cambridge University Press. p. 108. "ISBN "0-521-29719-2. 
  8. ^ Penny, Ralph John (2002). A History of the Spanish Language. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. "ISBN "0-521-01184-1. 
  9. ^ "Cipolla, Gaetano (2007). The Sounds of Sicilian: A Pronunciation Guide. Mineola, NY: Legas. pp. 11–12. Retrieved 2013-03-31. 
  10. ^ a b Constable, Peter (2004-04-19). "L2/04-132 Proposal to add additional phonetic characters to the UCS" (PDF). 
  11. ^ a b "Everson, Michael; et al. (2002-03-20). "L2/02-141: Uralic Phonetic Alphabet characters for the UCS" (PDF). 
  12. ^ Ruppel, Klaas; Rueter, Jack; Kolehmainen, Erkki I. (2006-04-07). "L2/06-215: Proposal for Encoding 3 Additional Characters of the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet" (PDF). 
  13. ^ The Unicode Standard, Version 8.0, p. 293 (at the very bottom)
  14. ^ Nick Nicholas, "Yot" Archived 2012-08-05 at "Archive.is
  15. ^ "Unicode Character 'GREEK LETTER YOT' (U+03F3)". Retrieved 22 December 2016. 
  16. ^ "Unicode: Greek and Coptic" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-06-26. 
  17. ^ "Unicode 7.0.0". "Unicode Consortium. Retrieved 2014-06-26. 
  18. ^ Pirillo, Chris (26 June 2010). "J Smiley Outlook Email: Problem and Fix!". Retrieved 22 December 2016. 
  19. ^ Chen, Raymond (23 May 2006). "That mysterious J". The Old New Thing. "MSDN Blogs. Retrieved 2011-04-01. 

External links[edit]

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