Following World War II, France was in severe need of reconstruction and completely dependent on coal from Germany's main remaining coal-mining areas, the "Ruhr and the "Saar. (The German coal fields in "Upper Silesia had been handed over to Polish administration by the Allies in 1945, see "Oder-Neisse line.)
In 1945, Monnet proposed the Monnet Plan, also known as the "Theory of l'Engrenage" (not to be confused with the "Schuman plan). It included taking control of the remaining German coal-producing areas and redirecting the production away from the German industry and into the French, thus permanently weakening Germany and raising the French economy considerably above its pre-war levels. The plan was adopted by Charles de Gaulle in early 1946.
Later that year, Monnet successfully negotiated the "Blum–Byrnes agreement with the United States, which cleared France from a $2.8 billion debt (mostly World War I loans) and provided the country with an additional low-interest loan of $650 million. In return, France opened its cinemas to American movies.
In 1947 France removed the Saar from Germany, with U.S. support, and turned it into the "Saar Protectorate, which was politically independent and under complete French economic control. The area returned to German political administration in 1957 (economic reunification would take many years longer), but France retained the right to mine from its coal mines until 1981. (See: "The Europeanisation of the Saarland)
"The Ruhr Agreement was imposed on the Germans as a condition for permitting them to establish the "Federal Republic of Germany. The "IAR controlled production levels, pricing, and the sales markets, thus ensuring that France received a considerable portion of the Ruhr coal production at low prices.
When tensions between France and Germany rose over the control of the then vital coal and steel industries, Monnet and his associates conceived the idea of a European Community. On 9 May 1950, with the agreement of Chancellor "Konrad Adenauer of "West Germany, French Minister of Foreign Affairs "Robert Schuman made a declaration in the name of the French government. This declaration, prepared by Monnet for Schuman, proposed integration of the French and German coal and steel industries under joint control, a so-called "High Authority, open to the other countries of Europe. Schuman declared:
Through the consolidation of basic production and the institution of a new High Authority, whose decisions will bind France, Germany and the other countries that join, this proposal represents the first concrete step towards a European federation, imperative for the preservation of peace.
When Germany agreed to join the "European Coal and Steel Community according to the Schuman Plan in 1951, the ongoing dismantling of German industry was halted and some of the restrictions on German industrial output were lifted. West Germany joined the ECSC, alongside "Italy, "Belgium, "Luxembourg and the "Netherlands, while Britain refused, on grounds of national sovereignty.
In 1952, Jean Monnet became the first president of the High Authority and with the opening of the common market for coal under the ECSC in 1953, the last civilian production limitations placed on German industry were lifted, and the role of the IAR was taken over by the ECSC.
In 1953 Monnet was awarded the "Karlspreis by the city of "Aachen in recognition of his achievements.
In 1955, Monnet founded the Action Committee for the United States of Europe in order to revive European construction following the failure of the "European Defense Community (EDC). It brought political parties and European trade unions together to become a driving force behind the initiatives which laid the foundation for the European Union as it eventually emerged: first the European Economic Community (EEC) (1958) (known commonly as the "Common Market"), which was established by the "Treaty of Rome of 1957; later the European Community (1967) with its corresponding bodies, the "European Commission and the European Council of Ministers, British membership in the Community (1973), the European Council (1974), the "European Monetary System (1979), and the "European Parliament (1979). This process reflected Monnet's belief in a gradualist approach for constructing European unity.
On 6 December 1963, Monnet was presented with the "Presidential Medal of Freedom, with Special Distinction, by United States President "Lyndon Johnson. In 1972, Queen Elizabeth II made him an honorary "Companion of Honour.
In August 1929, during a dinner party in Paris, the 41-year-old Monnet met 22-year-old Italian painter Silvia Giannini (born in Bondini in 1907), who had recently married Francisco Giannini, an employee of Monnet when he was a representative in Italy. In April 1931, Silvia gave birth to a daughter, Anna, whose legal father was Giannini.
Since divorce wasn't allowed in most European countries, Silvia and Jean Monnet met in Moscow. In 1934, he returned from "China via the "Trans-Siberian railway, she from "Switzerland. He arranged for Silvia to obtain "Soviet "citizenship; she immediately divorced her husband and married Jean Monnet.
The idea for the Moscow marriage came from Dr. Ludwik Rajchman, whom Monnet had met during his time at the League of Nations (Rajchman was connected to the Soviet Ambassador to China, Bogomolov). It seems that the American and French ambassadors in Moscow, "William Bullitt and Charles Aiphand, also played a role.
The custody of Anna was a problem; in 1935 Silvia took refuge with Anna in the Soviet consulate in Shanghai, where they were living at the time, because Francisco Giannini was trying to obtain custody of the child. The legal battle was decided in favour of Silvia in 1937 in New York, but the ruling wasn't recognized by some other countries. In 1941 Monnet and Silvia had another daughter, Marianne. The Monnet family returned to France in 1945 and after the death of Francisco Giannini in 1974, the couple married canonically in the cathedral of "Lourdes.
5 years later, in 1979, Jean Monnet died at the age of 90 in his home in Houjarray, "Bazoches-sur-Guyonne, where he was writing his memoirs.
In 1988, by order of the president "François Mitterrand, Jean Monnet's remains were transferred to the "Panthéon of Paris.
"Saint-Etienne in eastern France is the site of "Jean Monnet University (Université Jean Monnet de Saint-Etienne), situated on two campuses.
Several other European universities honour Monnet and his accomplishments: the "University of Limerick, Ireland, has a lecture theatre named after him, and British educational institutions which honour Monnet include the Jean Monnet Centre of Excellence at "King's College London, the East Midlands Euro-Centre at "Loughborough University, the European Research Institute at the "University of Bath, the Jean Monnet Centre at the University of Birmingham, the Jean Monnet European Centre of Excellence at Cambridge, the Jean Monnet European Centre of Excellence at the "University of Essex, the Centre for European Union Studies at the "University of Hull, the Kent Centre for Europe at the "University of Kent, the Jean Monnet Centre of Excellence, a partnership between the "University of Manchester, "Manchester Metropolitan University and the "University of Salford, the Jean Monnet Centre at "Newcastle University, the Jean Monnet Centre for European Studies at the "University of Wales and the Jean Monnet High School in Bucharest, Romania.
The European Commission named the Jean Monnet Building in Luxembourg after him, which houses the "Directorate-General for Translation.
In April 2011, to commemorate the 60th anniversary of the signing of the Treaty of Paris, a new documentary, "Jean Monnet: Father of Europe" was produced. The documentary includes interviews with colleagues of Monnet such as Georges Berthoin, "Max Kohnstamm and Jacques-René Rabier, as well as former member of the European Court of Justice "David A.O. Edward of the United Kingdom.
The European Union itself maintains his memory with the "Jean Monnet Programme of the "Directorate-General for Education and Culture, which promotes knowledge on "European integration on a worldwide scale, especially at the university level.
"Marie-France Garaud, a "Gaullist advisor to French President "Georges Pompidou and later Prime Minister "Jacques Chirac, accused him of the destruction of the nations's sovereignty and reproached him his wish of a federal Europe. She considers he was part of an American expectancy to build Europe in order to weaken France's power, and claimed in the talkshow Ce soir (ou jamais!): "He was an American agent. We even know how much he was paid, as it's now declassified".
The Jean Monnet House
"The Jean Monnet House is located in Houjarray, Yvelines, 80 kilometers (50 miles) outside of Paris. This old farm became Jean Monnet’s property in 1945, upon his return to France. It is even here that Jean Monnet and his advisors, in the last days of April 1950, drew up the historic declaration that "Robert Schuman used to address Europe on 9 May 1950, proposing the creation of the CECA (European Coal and Steel Community) as well as creating the basis of the European Community. In his office, Robert Schuman, "Walter Hallstein, "Paul-Henri Spaak, "Konrad Adenauer, "René Pleven, "Helmut Schmidt, and many others exchanged their views with Jean Monnet on our common future. On Sundays, he had friends passing by come to his house; among them were "Dwight Eisenhower, "George Ball, and "Edward Heath. He liked fireside conversations with famous journalists such as "Walter Lippman, "Hubert Beuve-Méry, or his neighbor Pierre Viansson-Ponté. This house was also where Jean Monnet died on 16 March 1979. In 1982, even though the house had deteriorated because of a lack of upkeep, the European Parliament considered Monnet’s home to be a symbolic place loaded with memories, thus being common heritage for Europeans. The Parliament acquired it and entrusted its reconstitution, management, and organization to the Jean Monnet Association. Since 2000, a multimedia conference room has welcomed bigger groups of visitors. The Jean Monnet Association team organizes about 250 conferences on European history and current events each year.
- Wells, Sherill Brown. Jean Monnet: Unconventional Statesman (Lynne Rienner Publishers; 2011) 279 pages; a political biography
- Jean Monnet: Memoirs, London 1978.
- Jean Monnet: The First Statesman of Interdependence by Francois Duchene (1994); "ISBN 0-393-03497-6
- Christophe Le Dréau, « Quelle Europe ? Les projets d’Union franco-britannique (1938–1940) », dans Actes du Colloque RICHIE de mars 2005, Quelle(s) Europe(s) ? Nouvelles approaches en histoire de l'intégration européenne, Bruxelles, Peter Lang, 2006.
- "Jean Monnet: Father of Europe" documentary by Don C. Smith, Denver, Colorado, 2011.
- "Fransen, Frederic J. (2001). The Supranational Politics of Jean Monnet. "Praeger. "ISBN "978-0-313-31829-0.
- Jean Monnet:Father of Europe
- Times obituary
- MacMillan, Margaret. "Paris 1919". Random House, 2002, p. 183
- "Le Cercle member: Jean Monnet". Retrieved 3 May 2015.
- ""Europe's founder" Jean Monnet" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 October 2015. Retrieved 3 May 2015.
- 2003, Charles D. Ellis, James R. Vertin, 'Wall Street People: True Stories of the Great Barons of Finance', Volume 2, p. 28-30 (biography of Andre Meyer)
- Monnet, Jean (1 January 1976), Memoires, Paris: Arthème Fayard, pp. 20–21, "ISBN "2-213-00402-1
- "Le Comité français de la libération nationale". Digithèque MJP. Retrieved 2015-06-09.
- "Mr Jean Monnet", The Times, 16 November 1979
- Irwin M. Wall (1991). The United States and the Making of Postwar France, 1945–1954. Cambridge U.P. p. 55.
- Amos Yoder, "The Ruhr Authority and the German Problem", The Review of Politics, Vol. 17, No. 3 (July 1955), pp. 345–358
- Declaration of 9 May 1950 EUROPA – The official website of the European Union
- "The British foreign ministers' 1949 letter to Schuman". Cvce.eu. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
- "Information bulletin Frankfurt, Germany: Office of the US High Commissioner for Germany Office of Public Affairs, Public Relations Division, APO 757, US Army, January 1952 ''"Plans for terminating international authority for the Ruhr"'' , pp. 61–62". Digicoll.library.wisc.edu. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
- European Research Institute Archived 14 December 2007 at the "Wayback Machine.
- "Jean Monnet Centre". Jeanmonnet.bham.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 20 August 2009. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
- Jean Monnet European Centre of Excellence
- Ariadni. "Jean Monnet European Centre of Excellence". Essex.ac.uk. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
- "Centre for European Union Studies". Hull.ac.uk. 30 July 2013. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
- Kent Centre for Europe Archived 5 July 2007 at the "Wayback Machine.
- Welcome Events Details of our events (2 October 2013). "Jean Monnet Centre of Excellence". Socialsciences.manchester.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 17 October 2012. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
- Jean Monnet Centre Archived 26 February 2007 at the "Wayback Machine.
- Jean Monnet Centre for European Studies Archived 13 February 2005 at the "Wayback Machine.
- Jean Monnet High School, Bucharest, Romania
- "EU – DG Translation – Get in touch with us". Ec.europa.eu. 15 February 2012. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
- "Jean Monnet: Father of Europe". Law.du.edu. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
- Jean Monnet Programme
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- Multimedia biography
- The Monnet Plan – CVCE (Centre Virtuel de la Connaissance sur l'Europe : European Integration Studies website)
- Photograph (1953-01-10): Jean Monnet and Walter Layton – CVCE (Centre Virtuel de la Connaissance sur l'Europe : European Integration Studies website)
- Documents relating to the company ‘Monnet, Murname & Co. Shangai’ (1935–1939) can be consulted at the Historical Archives of the European Union in Florence