When Carter entered the Democratic Party presidential primaries in 1976, he was considered to have little chance against nationally better-known politicians; his "name recognition was two percent. As late as January 26, 1976, Carter was the first choice of only four percent of Democratic voters, according to a "Gallup poll.["citation needed] Yet "by mid-March 1976 Carter was not only far ahead of the active contenders for the Democratic presidential nomination, he also led President "Ford by a few percentage points," according to Shoup. As the "Watergate scandal of President Nixon was still fresh in the voters' minds, Carter's position as an outsider, distant from Washington, D.C., became an asset. He promoted government reorganization. Carter published Why Not the Best? in June 1976 to help introduce himself to the American public.
Carter became the front-runner early on by winning the "Iowa caucuses and the "New Hampshire primary. He used a two-prong strategy: in the South, which most had tacitly conceded to Alabama's "George Wallace, Carter ran as a moderate favorite son. When Wallace proved to be a spent force, Carter swept the region. In the North, Carter appealed largely to conservative Christian and rural voters; he had little chance of winning a majority in most states. He won several Northern states by building the largest single bloc. Carter's strategy involved reaching a region before another candidate could extend influence there. He had traveled over 50,000 miles, visited 37 states, and delivered over 200 speeches before any other candidate announced that he was in the race. Initially dismissed as a regional candidate, Carter proved to be the Democrat with the most effective national strategy, and he clinched the nomination.
The national news media discovered and promoted Carter, as Lawrence Shoup noted in his 1980 book The Carter Presidency and Beyond:
What Carter had that his opponents did not was the acceptance and support of elite sectors of the mass communications media. It was their favorable coverage of Carter and his campaign that gave him an edge, propelling him rocket-like to the top of the opinion polls. This helped Carter win key primary election victories, enabling him to rise from an obscure public figure to President-elect in the short space of 9 months.
1976 general election
He chose Senator "Walter F. Mondale as his running mate. He attacked Washington in his speeches, and offered a religious salve for the nation's wounds.
Carter and Gerald Ford faced off in three televised debates during the 1976 election. The debates were the first Presidential debates since 1960.
Carter was interviewed by "Robert Scheer of "Playboy for the November 1976 issue, which hit the newsstands a couple of weeks before the election. While discussing his religion's view of pride, Carter said: "I've looked on a lot of women with lust. I've committed adultery in my heart many times." This and his admission in another interview that he didn't mind if people uttered the word "fuck" led to a media feeding frenzy and critics lamenting the erosion of boundary between politicians and their private intimate lives.
Carter began the race with a sizable lead over Ford, who narrowed the gap during the campaign, but lost to Carter in a narrow defeat on November 2, 1976. Carter won the popular vote by 50.1 percent to 48.0 percent for Ford, and received 297 "electoral votes to Ford's 240. Carter carried fewer states than Ford—23 states to the defeated Ford's 27—yet Carter won with the largest percentage of the popular vote (50.1 percent) of any non-incumbent since "Dwight Eisenhower.["citation needed]
Carter's tenure was a time of "continuing inflation and recession, as well as an "energy crisis. Among his first acts was the fulfillment of a campaign promise by issuing an "executive order declaring unconditional "amnesty for "Vietnam War-era "draft evaders. On January 7, 1980, Carter signed Law H.R. 5860 aka Public Law 96-185 known as The Chrysler Corporation Loan Guarantee Act of 1979, bailing out "Chrysler Corporation. He canceled military pay raises during a time of high inflation and government deficits.["citation needed]
Carter attempted to calm various conflicts around the world, most visibly in the Middle East with the signing of the "Camp David Accords; giving back the "Panama Canal; and signing the "SALT II nuclear arms reduction treaty with Soviet leader "Leonid Brezhnev. His final year was marred by the "Iran hostage crisis, which contributed to his losing the "1980 election to "Ronald Reagan.
Iran hostage crisis
On November 4, 1979 a group of Iranian students, belonging to the "Muslim Student Followers of the Imam's Line, who were supporting the "Iranian Revolution, took over the "U.S. Embassy in Tehran. Fifty-two American diplomats and citizens were held hostage for the next 444 days until January 20, 1981. During the crisis, Carter remained in isolation in the "White House for more than 100 days, until he left to participate in the lighting of the "National Menorah on "the Ellipse. On April 24, 1980, Carter ordered "Operation Eagle Claw to try free the hostages. The mission failed, leaving eight American servicemen dead and causing the destruction of two aircraft.
U.S. energy crisis
On April 18, 1977, Carter delivered a televised speech declaring that the U.S. energy crisis during the 1970s was the "moral equivalent of war. He encouraged energy conservation by all U.S. citizens and installed "solar water heating panels on the White House. He wore sweaters to offset turning down the heat in the White House.
EPA Love Canal Superfund
In 1978, Carter declared a federal emergency in the neighborhood of "Love Canal in the city of "Niagara Falls, New York. More than 800 families were evacuated from the neighborhood, which was built on top of a "toxic waste landfill. The "Superfund law was created in response to the situation. Federal disaster money was appropriated to demolish the approximately 500 houses, the 99th Street School, and the 93rd Street School, which were built on top of the dump; and to remediate the dump and construct a containment area for the hazardous wastes. This was the first time that such a process had been undertaken. Carter acknowledged that several more "Love Canals" existed across the country, and that discovering such hazardous dumpsites was "one of the grimmest discoveries of our modern era".
In 1977, Carter appointed "Alfred E. Kahn, a professor of "economics at "Cornell University, to be chair of the Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB). He was part of a push for deregulation of the industry, supported by leading economists, leading 'think tanks' in Washington, a civil society coalition advocating the reform (patterned on a coalition earlier developed for the truck-and-rail-reform efforts), the head of the regulatory agency, Senate leadership, the Carter administration, and even some in the airline industry. This coalition swiftly gained legislative results in 1978.["citation needed]
The "Airline Deregulation Act (Pub.L. 95–504) was signed into law by President Carter on October 24, 1978. The main purpose of the act was to "remove government control over fares, routes and market entry (of new airlines) from "commercial aviation. The "Civil Aeronautics Board's powers of regulation were to be phased out, eventually allowing market forces to determine routes and fares. The Act did not remove or diminish the FAA's regulatory powers over all aspects of airline safety.["citation needed]
In 1979, Carter deregulated the American beer industry by making it legal to sell "malt, "hops, and "yeast to American "home brewers for the first time since the effective 1920 beginning of "Prohibition in the United States. This Carter deregulation led to an increase in home brewing over the 1980s and 1990s that by the 2000s had developed into a strong craft "microbrew culture in the United States, with 3,418 micro breweries, brewpubs, and regional craft breweries in the United States by the end of 2014.
Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
Communists under the leadership of "Nur Muhammad Taraki "seized power in Afghanistan on April 27, 1978. The new regime—which was divided between Taraki's extremist "Khalq faction and the more moderate "Parcham—signed a treaty of friendship with the Soviet Union in December of that year. Taraki's efforts to improve secular education and redistribute land were accompanied by mass executions (including of many conservative religious leaders) and political oppression unprecedented in Afghan history, igniting a revolt by "mujahideen rebels. Following a general uprising in April 1979, Taraki was deposed by Khalq rival "Hafizullah Amin in September. Amin was considered a "brutal psychopath" by foreign observers; even the Soviets were alarmed by the brutality of the Afghan communists, and suspected Amin of being an agent of the U.S. "Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), although that was not the case. By December, Amin's government had lost control of much of the country, prompting the Soviet Union to "invade Afghanistan, execute Amin, and install Parcham leader "Babrak Karmal as president.
Carter was surprised by the invasion, as the consensus of the U.S. intelligence community during 1978 and 1979—reiterated as late as September 29, 1979—was that "Moscow would not intervene in force even if it appeared likely that the Khalq government was about to collapse." Indeed, Carter's diary entries from November 1979 until the Soviet invasion in late December contain only two short references to Afghanistan, and are instead preoccupied with the ongoing hostage crisis in Iran. In the West, the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan was considered a threat to global security and the oil supplies of the "Persian Gulf. Moreover, the failure to accurately predict Soviet intentions caused American officials to reappraise the Soviet threat to both Iran and Pakistan, although it is now known that those fears were overblown. For example, U.S. intelligence closely followed Soviet exercises for an invasion of Iran throughout 1980, while an earlier warning from Carter's national security adviser "Zbigniew Brzezinski that "if the Soviets came to dominate Afghanistan, they could promote a separate "Baluchistan ... [thus] dismembering Pakistan and Iran" took on new urgency. These concerns were a major factor in the unrequited efforts of both the Carter and Reagan administrations to improve relations with Iran, and resulted in massive aid to Pakistan's "Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. Zia's ties with the U.S. had been strained during Carter's presidency due to Pakistan's nuclear program and the execution of "Ali Bhutto in April 1979, but Carter told Brzezinski and secretary of state "Cyrus Vance as early as January 1979 that it was vital to "repair our relationships with Pakistan" in light of the unrest in Iran. One initiative Carter authorized to achieve this goal was a collaboration between the CIA and Pakistan's "Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI); through the ISI, the CIA began providing some $500,000 worth of non-lethal assistance to the mujahideen on July 3, 1979—several months prior to the Soviet invasion. The modest scope of this early collaboration was likely influenced by the understanding, later recounted by CIA official "Robert Gates, "that a substantial U.S. covert aid program" might have "raise[d] the stakes" thereby causing "the Soviets to intervene more directly and vigorously than otherwise intended."
In the aftermath of the invasion, Carter was determined to respond vigorously to what he considered a dangerous provocation. In a televised speech, he announced sanctions on the Soviet Union, promised renewed aid to Pakistan, and "committed the U.S. to the Persian Gulf's defense. Carter also called for a boycott of the "1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, which raised a bitter controversy. British prime minister "Margaret Thatcher enthusiastically backed Carter's tough stance, although British intelligence believed "the CIA was being too alarmist about the Soviet threat to Pakistan." The thrust of U.S. policy for the duration of the war was determined by Carter in early 1980: Carter initiated "a program to arm the mujahideen through Pakistan's ISI and secured a pledge from Saudi Arabia to match U.S. funding for this purpose. U.S. support for the mujahideen accelerated under Carter's successor, "Ronald Reagan, at a final cost to U.S. taxpayers of some $3 billion. The Soviets were unable to quell the insurgency and "withdrew from Afghanistan in 1989, precipitating the "dissolution of the Soviet Union itself. However, the decision to route U.S. aid through Pakistan led to massive fraud, as weapons sent to "Karachi were frequently sold on the local market rather than delivered to the Afghan rebels; Karachi soon "became one of the most violent cities in the world." Pakistan also controlled which rebels received assistance: Of the "seven mujahideen groups supported by Zia's government, four espoused Islamic fundamentalist beliefs—and these fundamentalists received most of the funding. Despite this, Carter has expressed no regrets over his decision to support what he still considers the "freedom fighters" in Afghanistan.
Carter made twelve international trips to twenty-five countries during his presidency. Carter was the first president to make a state visit to Sub-Saharan Africa when he went to "Nigeria in 1978. His travel also included trips to "Europe, "Asia, and "Latin America. He made several trips to the "Middle East to broker peace negotiations. His December 31, 1977 – January 1, 1978 visit to "Iran took place less than a year before the overthrow of "Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.
1980 presidential campaign
Carter later wrote that the most intense and mounting opposition to his policies came from the liberal wing of the Democratic Party, which he attributed to "Ted Kennedy's ambition to replace him as president. Kennedy surprised his supporters by running a weak campaign, and Carter won most of the primaries and secured renomination. However, Kennedy had mobilized the liberal wing of the Democratic Party, which gave Carter weak support in the fall election.
"Carter's campaign for re-election in 1980 was one of the most difficult, and least successful, in history. He faced strong challenges from the right (Republican "Ronald Reagan), the center (independent "John B. Anderson), and the left (Democrat "Ted Kennedy). He had to run against his own ""stagflation"-ridden economy, while the hostage crisis in Iran dominated the news every week. He alienated liberal college students, who were expected to be his base, by re-instating registration for the military draft. His campaign manager and former appointments secretary, "Timothy Kraft, stepped down some five weeks before the general election amid what turned out to have been an uncorroborated allegation of "cocaine use. Carter was defeated by Ronald Reagan in a landslide, and the Senate "went Republican for the first time since 1952.
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In 1981, Carter returned to Georgia to his peanut farm, which he had placed into a "blind trust during his presidency to avoid even the appearance of a conflict of interest. He found that the trustees had mismanaged the trust, leaving him more than one million dollars in debt. In the years that followed, he has led an active life, establishing the "Carter Center, building his presidential library, teaching at "Emory University in "Atlanta, and writing numerous books. He has also contributed to the expansion of Habitat for Humanity, to build affordable housing. Since early September 2012, Carter has been alive longer after leaving the White House than any other U.S. President.
Carter Center and Nobel Prize 
Carter has been involved in a variety of national and international public policy, conflict resolution, human rights and charitable causes. In 1982, he established the Carter Center in Atlanta to advance human rights and alleviate human suffering. The non-profit, nongovernmental Center promotes democracy, mediates and prevents conflicts, and monitors the electoral process in support of free and fair elections. It also works to improve global health through the control and "eradication of diseases such as "Guinea worm disease, "river blindness, "malaria, "trachoma, "lymphatic filariasis, and "schistosomiasis. It also works to diminish the stigma of mental illnesses and improve nutrition through increased crop production in Africa.["citation needed]
A major accomplishment of The Carter Center has been the elimination of more than 99 percent of cases of "Guinea worm disease, from an estimated 3.5 million cases in 1986 to 148 reported cases in 2013 to 23 in 2015 The Carter Center has monitored 96 elections in 38 countries since 1989. It has worked to resolve conflicts in "Haiti, "Bosnia, "Ethiopia, "North Korea, "Sudan and other countries. Carter and the "Center support human rights defenders around the world and have intervened with heads of state on their behalf.["citation needed]
In 2002, President Carter received the "Nobel Peace Prize for his work "to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development" through The Carter Center. Three sitting presidents, "Theodore Roosevelt, "Woodrow Wilson, and "Barack Obama, have received the prize; Carter is unique in receiving the award for his actions after leaving the presidency. He is, along with "Martin Luther King Jr., one of only two native Georgians to receive the Nobel Prize.
In 1994, "North Korea had expelled investigators from the "International Atomic Energy Agency and was threatening to begin processing spent nuclear fuel. In response, then-President Clinton pressured for US sanctions and ordered large amounts of troops and vehicles into the area to brace for war.["citation needed]
Bill Clinton secretly recruited Carter to undertake a peace mission to North Korea, under the guise that it was a private mission of Carter's. Clinton saw Carter as a way to let North Korean President "Kim Il-sung back down without losing face.
Carter negotiated an understanding with Kim Il-sung, but went further and outlined a treaty, which he announced on CNN without the permission of the Clinton White House as a way to force the US into action.
The Clinton Administration signed a later version of the "Agreed Framework, under which North Korea agreed to freeze and ultimately dismantle its current nuclear program and comply with its "nonproliferation obligations in exchange for oil deliveries, the construction of two "light water reactors to replace its "graphite reactors, and discussions for eventual diplomatic relations.["citation needed]
The agreement was widely hailed at the time as a significant diplomatic achievement. However, in December 2002, the "Agreed Framework collapsed as a result of a dispute between the "George W. Bush Administration and the North Korean government of "Kim Jong-il.
In 2001, George W. Bush had taken a confrontational position toward North Korea. And in January 2002, Bush had named North Korea as part of an ""Axis of Evil". Meanwhile, North Korea began developing the capability to "enrich uranium.
Bush Administration opponents of the "Agreed Framework believed that the North Korean government never intended to give up a nuclear weapons program. However, supporters of the Agreed Framework believed that the agreement could have been successful, had it not been undermined by the Bush Administration.
In August 2010, Carter traveled to North Korea in an attempt to secure the release of "Aijalon Mahli Gomes. Gomes, a "U.S. citizen, was sentenced to eight years of hard labor after being found guilty of illegally entering North Korea. Carter successfully secured the release.
Carter and experts from The Carter Center assisted unofficial Israeli and Palestinian negotiators in designing a model agreement for peace—called the "Geneva Accord—in 2002–2003.
Carter has also in recent years become a frequent critic of Israel's policies in "Lebanon, the "West Bank, and "Gaza.
In 2006, at the UK "Hay Festival, Carter stated that "Israel has at least 150 "nuclear weapons. He expressed his support for Israel as a country, but criticized its domestic and foreign policy; "One of the greatest human rights crimes on earth is the starvation and imprisonment of 1.6m Palestinians," said Carter.
He mentioned statistics showing nutritional intake of some Palestinian children was below that of the children of Sub-Saharan Africa and described the European position on Israel as "supine".
In April 2008, the London-based Arabic newspaper "Al-Hayat reported that Carter met with exiled "Hamas leader "Khaled Mashaal on his visit to "Syria. The Carter Center initially did not confirm nor deny the story. The "US State Department considers Hamas a terrorist organization. Within this Mid-East trip, Carter also laid a wreath on the grave of "Yasser Arafat in "Ramallah on April 14, 2008. Carter said on April 23 that neither "Condoleezza Rice nor anyone else in the State Department had warned him against meeting with Hamas leaders during his trip. Carter spoke to Mashaal on several matters, including "formulas for prisoner exchange to obtain the release of Corporal "Shalit."
In May 2007, while arguing that the United States should directly talk to Iran, Carter again stated that Israel has 150 nuclear weapons in its arsenal.
In December 2008, Carter visited Damascus again, where he met with Syrian President "Bashar al-Assad, and the Hamas leadership. During his visit he gave an exclusive interview to "Forward Magazine, the first ever interview for any American president, current or former, with a Syrian media outlet.
Carter visited with three officials from Hamas who have been living at the International Red Cross office in "Jerusalem since July 2010. Israel believes that these three Hamas legislators had a role in the 2006 kidnapping of Israeli soldier "Gilad Shalit, and has a deportation order set for them.
In August 2014, Carter was joined by "Mary Robinson during the "2014 Israel–Gaza conflict with the pair pressing for the inclusion of Hamas as an actor in peace talks with Israel, recognition of the group as a legitimate political entity, and the lifting of the siege of Gaza. The two "Elders, in an op-ed article in "Foreign Policy, noted the recent unity deal between Hamas and Fatah when Hamas agreed with the Palestinian Authority to denounce violence, recognize Israel and adhere to past agreements, saying it presented an opportunity. Carter and Robinson called on the UN Security Council to act on what they described as the inhumane conditions in Gaza, and mandate an end to the siege.
Carter held summits in Egypt and "Tunisia in 1995–1996 to address violence in the "Great Lakes region of Africa.
Carter played a key role in negotiation of the "Nairobi Agreement in 1999 between Sudan and "Uganda.
On June 18, 2007, Carter, accompanied by his wife, arrived in Dublin, Ireland, for talks with President "Mary McAleese and "Bertie Ahern concerning human rights. On June 19, Carter attended and spoke at the annual Human Rights Forum at "Croke Park. An agreement between Irish Aid and The Carter Center was also signed on this day.["citation needed]
Carter led a mission to "Haiti in 1994 with Senator "Sam Nunn and former chairman of the "Joint Chiefs of Staff "General Colin Powell to avert a US-led multinational invasion and restore to power Haiti's democratically elected president, "Jean-Bertrand Aristide.
Carter visited "Cuba in May 2002 and had full discussions with "Fidel Castro and the "Cuban government. He was allowed to address the Cuban public uncensored on national television and radio with a speech that he wrote and presented in Spanish. In the speech, he called on the US to end "an ineffective 43-year-old "economic embargo" and on Castro to hold free elections, improve human rights, and allow greater "civil liberties. He met with political dissidents; visited the "AIDS sanitarium, a medical school, a "biotech facility, an agricultural production cooperative, and a school for disabled children; and threw a pitch for an all-star baseball game in "Havana. The visit made Carter the first President of the United States, in or out of office, to visit the island since the "Cuban revolution of 1959.
Carter observed the "Venezuela recall elections on August 15, 2004. European Union observers had declined to participate, saying too many restrictions were put on them by the "Hugo Chávez administration. A record number of voters turned out to defeat the recall attempt with a 59 percent "no" vote. The Carter Center stated that the process "suffered from numerous irregularities," but said it did not observe or receive "evidence of fraud that would have changed the outcome of the vote". On the afternoon of August 16, 2004, the day after the vote, Carter and "Organization of American States (OAS) "Secretary General "César Gaviria gave a joint press conference in which they endorsed the preliminary results announced by the National Electoral Council. The monitors' findings "coincided with the partial returns announced today by the National Elections Council," said Carter, while Gaviria added that the OAS electoral observation mission's members had "found no element of fraud in the process." Directing his remarks at opposition figures who made claims of "widespread fraud" in the voting, Carter called on all Venezuelans to "accept the results and work together for the future". A "Penn, Schoen & Berland Associates (PSB) "exit poll had predicted that Chávez would lose by 20 percent; when the election results showed him to have won by 20 percent, "Douglas Schoen commented, "I think it was a massive fraud". US News & World Report offered an analysis of the polls, indicating "very good reason to believe that the [Penn, Schoen & Berland] exit poll had the result right, and that Chávez's election officials – and Carter and the American media – got it wrong." The exit poll and the Venezuela government's control of election machines became the basis of claims of election fraud. However an "Associated Press report states that Penn, Schoen & Berland used volunteers from pro-recall organization "Súmate for fieldwork, and its results contradicted five other opposition exit polls.
Following "Ecuador's severing of ties with "Colombia in March 2008, Carter brokered a deal for agreement between the countries' respective presidents on the restoration of low-level "diplomatic relations announced June 8, 2008.
On November 18, 2009, Carter visited Vietnam to build houses for the poor. The one-week program, known as Jimmy and Rosalynn Carter Work Project 2009, built 32 houses in Dong Xa village, in the northern province of "Hải Dương. The project launch was scheduled for November 14, according to the news source which quoted the Ministry of Foreign Affairs spokeswoman Nguyen Phuong Nga. Administered by the non-governmental and non-profit "Habitat for Humanity International (HFHI), the annual program of 2009 would build and repair 166 homes in Vietnam and some other Asian countries with the support of nearly 3,000 volunteers around the world, the organization said on its website. HFHI has worked in Vietnam since 2001 to provide low-cost housing, water, and sanitation solutions for the poor. It has worked in provinces like "Tiền Giang and "Đồng Nai as well as "Ho Chi Minh City.
On July 18, 2007, Carter joined "Nelson Mandela in Johannesburg, South Africa, to announce his participation in "The Elders, a group of independent global leaders who work together on peace and human rights issues. The Elders work globally, on thematic as well as geographically specific subjects. The organization's priority issue areas include the "Israeli–Palestinian conflict, the "Korean Peninsula, "Sudan, and "South Sudan, "sustainable development, and "equality for girls and women.
Carter has been actively involved in the work of The Elders, participating in visits to "Cyprus, the "Korean Peninsula, and the Middle East, among others In October 2007, Carter toured "Darfur with several of the Elders, including "Desmond Tutu. Sudanese security prevented him from visiting a Darfuri tribal leader, leading to a heated exchange. He returned to Sudan with fellow Elder "Lakhdar Brahimi in May 2012 as part of The Elders' efforts to encourage the presidents of Sudan and South Sudan to return to negotiations, and highlight the impact of the conflict on civilians.
In November 2008, President Carter, former UN Secretary General "Kofi Annan, and "Graça Machel, wife of Nelson Mandela, were stopped from entering "Zimbabwe, to inspect the human rights situation, by President "Robert Mugabe's government. The Elders instead made their assessment from South Africa, meeting with Zimbabwe- and South Africa-based leaders from politics, business, international organisations and civil society in Johannesburg.
Criticism of U.S. policy
In 2001, Carter criticized President Bill Clinton's controversial "pardon of "Marc Rich, calling it "disgraceful" and suggesting that Rich's financial contributions to the Democratic Party were a factor in Clinton's action.
In June 2005, Carter urged the closing of the "Guantanamo Bay Prison in Cuba, which has been a focal point for recent claims of "prisoner abuse.
In September 2006, Carter was interviewed on the BBC's current affairs program "Newsnight, voicing his concern at the increasing influence of the "Religious Right on US politics.
In September 2009, Carter put weight behind allegations by "Venezuelan President "Hugo Chávez, pertaining to United States involvement in the "2002 Venezuelan coup d'état attempt by a "civilian-military junta, saying that Washington knew about the coup and may have taken part.
On June 16, 2011, the 40th anniversary of "Richard Nixon's official declaration of America's "War on Drugs, Carter wrote an "op-ed in "The New York Times urging the United States and the rest of the world to "Call Off the Global War on Drugs", explicitly endorsing the initiative released by the "Global Commission on Drug Policy earlier that month and quoting a message he gave to Congress in 1977 saying that "[p]enalties against possession of a drug should not be more damaging to an individual than the use of the drug itself."
Criticisms of George W. Bush
Carter has criticized the "presidency of George W. Bush and the "Iraq War. In a 2003 "op-ed in "The New York Times, Carter warned against the consequences of a war in Iraq and urged restraint in use of military force. In March 2004, Carter condemned "George W. Bush and "Tony Blair for waging an unnecessary war "based upon lies and misinterpretations" to oust "Saddam Hussein. In August 2006, Carter criticized Blair for being "subservient" to the Bush administration and accused Blair of giving unquestioning support to Bush's Iraq policies. In a May 2007 interview with the "Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, he said, "I think as far as the adverse impact on the nation around the world, this administration has been the worst in history," when it comes to foreign affairs. Two days after the quote was published, Carter told "NBC's Today that the "worst in history" comment was "careless or misinterpreted," and that he "wasn't comparing this administration with other administrations back through history, but just with President Nixon's." The day after the "worst in history" comment was published, "White House spokesman "Tony Fratto said that Carter had become "increasingly irrelevant with these kinds of comments."
On May 19, 2007, Blair made his final visit to Iraq before stepping down as "British Prime Minister, and Carter criticized him afterward. Carter told the "BBC that Blair was "apparently subservient" to Bush and criticized him for his "blind support" for the Iraq war. Carter described Blair's actions as "abominable" and stated that the British Prime Minister's "almost undeviating support for the ill-advised policies of President Bush in Iraq have been a major tragedy for the world." Carter said he believes that had Blair distanced himself from the Bush administration during the run-up to the "invasion of Iraq in 2003, it might have made a crucial difference to American political and public opinion, and consequently the invasion might not have gone ahead. Carter states that "one of the defenses of the Bush administration ... has been, okay, we must be more correct in our actions than the world thinks because Great Britain is backing us. So I think the combination of Bush and Blair giving their support to this tragedy in Iraq has strengthened the effort and has made the opposition less effective, and prolonged the war and increased the tragedy that has resulted." Carter expressed his hope that Blair's successor, "Gordon Brown, would be "less enthusiastic" about Bush's Iraq policy.
Speaking to the Syrian English monthly "Forward Magazine of "Syria, Carter was asked to give one word that came to mind when mentioning President George W. Bush. His answer was: the end of a very disappointing administration. His reaction to mentioning Barack Obama was: honesty, intelligence, and politically adept.
Criticism of the Clintons
Carter and Bill Clinton did not have a good relationship, as Clinton had blamed one of President Carter's policies for losing the governorship of Arkansas in 1980. Although Clinton was the first Democrat president to be elected after Carter, the Carters were snubbed at the first Clinton inauguration. Carter has publicly criticized the morality of President Clinton's administration including the "Monica Lewinsky scandal and the Marc Rich pardon. Carter was also disenchanted with Clinton's post-presidency activities, including the latter's $350,000 speeches and "glitz of his star and billionaire studded annual Clinton Global Initiative (CGI) meetings in New York". While Clinton was seen as a "rock star" who made "his trips to Africa on board the lavish private jets of his billionaire buddies" and had an "sleek, expensive library...for being mostly about self-aggrandizement", Carter remained humble as he flew commercial airlines and founded the Carter Center to incubate good ideas.
Due to his status as former President, Carter was a "superdelegate to the 2008 "Democratic National Convention. Carter announced his endorsement of Senator "Barack Obama over Senator "Hillary Clinton. Carter cautioned against Hillary Clinton being picked for the vice president slot on the ticket, saying "I think it would be the worst mistake that could be made. That would just accumulate the negative aspects of both candidates", citing opinion polls showing 50% of US voters with a negative view of Hillary Clinton.
Criticisms of Barack Obama
Carter has criticized the Obama administration for its use of "drone strikes against suspected terrorists. Carter also said that he disagrees with President Obama's decision to keep the "Guantánamo Bay detention camp open, saying that the inmates "have been tortured by "waterboarding more than 100 times or intimidated with semiautomatic weapons, power drills or threats to sexually assault their mothers." He claimed that the U.S. government had no moral leadership, and was committing human rights violations, and is no longer "the global champion of human rights".
In July 2013, Carter expressed his criticism of current federal surveillance programs as disclosed by "Edward Snowden indicating that "America has no functioning democracy at this moment."
|Interview, President Jimmy Carter, 2003, 23:38, "American Archive of Public Broadcasting|
Carter has been a prolific author in his post-presidency, writing 21 of his 23 books. Among these is one he co-wrote with his wife, "Rosalynn, and a children's book illustrated by his daughter, "Amy. They cover a variety of topics, including humanitarian work, aging, religion, human rights, and poetry.
Palestine: Peace Not Apartheid
In a 2007 speech to Brandeis University, Carter stated: "I have spent a great deal of my adult life trying to bring peace to Israel and its neighbors, based on justice and righteousness for the Palestinians. These are the underlying purposes of my new book."
In his book "Palestine: Peace Not Apartheid, published in November 2006, Carter states:
Israel's continued control and colonization of Palestinian land have been the primary obstacles to a comprehensive peace agreement in the Holy Land.
He declares that Israel's current policies in the "Palestinian territories constitute "a system of "apartheid, with two peoples occupying the same land, but completely separated from each other, with Israelis totally dominant and suppressing violence by depriving Palestinians of their basic human rights." In an Op-Ed titled "Speaking Frankly about Israel and Palestine," published in the "Los Angeles Times and other newspapers, Carter states:
The ultimate purpose of my book is to present facts about the Middle East that are largely unknown in America, to precipitate discussion and to help restart peace talks (now absent for six years) that can lead to permanent peace for Israel and its neighbors. Another hope is that Jews and other Americans who share this same goal might be motivated to express their views, even publicly, and perhaps in concert. I would be glad to help with that effort.
While some – such as a former Special Rapporteur for both the United Nations Commission on Human Rights and the International Law Commission, as well as a member of the Israeli Knesset – have praised Carter for speaking frankly about Palestinians in "Israeli occupied lands, others – including the envoy to the Middle East under Clinton, as well as the first director of the Carter Center – have accused him of anti-Israeli bias. Specifically, these critics have alleged significant factual errors, omissions and misstatements in the book.
The 2007 documentary film, "Man from Plains, follows President Carter during his tour for the controversial book and other humanitarian efforts.
In December 2009, Carter apologized for any words or deeds that may have upset the Jewish community in an open letter meant to improve an often tense relationship. He said he was offering an Al Het, a prayer said on "Yom Kippur, the Jewish Day of Atonement.
Involvement with Bank of Credit and Commerce International
After Carter left the presidency, his interest in the developing countries led him to having a close relationship with "Agha Hasan Abedi, the founder of "Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI). Abedi was a Pakistani, whose bank had offices and business in a large number of developing countries. He was introduced to Carter in 1982 by "Bert Lance, one of Carter's closest friends. (Unknown to Carter, BCCI had secretly purchased an interest in 1978 in "National Bank of Georgia, which had previously been run by Lance and had made loans to Carter's peanut business.) Abedi made generous donations to the "Carter Center and the "Global 2000 Project.["citation needed] Abedi also traveled with Carter to at least seven countries in connection with Carter's charitable activities. The main purpose of Abedi's association with Carter was not charitable activities, but to enhance BCCI's influence, in order to open more offices and develop more business. In 1991, BCCI was seized by regulators, amid allegations of criminal activities, including illegally having control of several U.S. banks. Just prior to the seizure, Carter began to disassociate himself from Abedi and the bank.
2012 Presidential race
Despite being a Democrat, Carter endorsed former Massachusetts governor "Mitt Romney in the "Republican party 2012 Presidential primary in mid-September 2011, not because he supported Romney, but because he felt Obama's re-election bid would be strengthened in a race against Romney. Carter added that he thought Mitt Romney would lose in a match up against Obama and that he supported the president's re-election.
Carter addressed the Democratic National Convention in "North Carolina by videotape, and did not attend the convention in person.
Carter has participated in many ceremonial events such as the opening of his own presidential library and those of Presidents Ronald Reagan, George H. W. Bush, and Bill Clinton. He has also participated in many forums, lectures, panels, funerals and other events. In 2006 Carter delivered a eulogy at the funeral of "Coretta Scott King and, most recently, at the "funeral of his former political rival, but later his close, personal friend and diplomatic collaborator, "Gerald Ford.
President Jimmy Carter serves as an Honorary Chair for the "World Justice Project. The "World Justice Project works to lead a global, multidisciplinary effort to strengthen the "Rule of Law for the development of communities of opportunity and equity.
Carter served as Honorary Chair for the "Continuity of Government Commission from 2003 to 2011 (he was co-chair with "Gerald Ford until the latter's death). The Commission recommended improvements to "continuity of government measures for the federal government.
Although Carter was "personally opposed" to "abortion, he supported legalized abortion after the landmark "US Supreme Court decision "Roe v. Wade, 410 US 113 (1973). As president, he did not support increased federal funding for abortion services. He was criticized by the "American Civil Liberties Union for not doing enough to find alternatives.
In a March 29, 2012 interview with "Laura Ingraham, Carter expressed his current view of abortion and his wish to see the Democratic Party becoming more "pro-life:
I never have believed that Jesus Christ would approve of abortions and that was one of the problems I had when I was president having to uphold Roe v. Wade and I did everything I could to minimize the need for abortions. I made it easy to adopt children for instance who were unwanted and also initiated the program called Women and Infant Children or WIC program that's still in existence now. But except for the times when a mother's life is in danger or when a pregnancy is caused by rape or incest I would certainly not or never have approved of any abortions. I've signed a public letter calling for the Democratic Party at the next convention to espouse my position on abortion which is to minimize the need, requirement for abortion and limit it only to women whose life ["sic] are in danger or who are pregnant as a result of rape or incest. I think if the Democratic Party would adopt that policy that would be acceptable to a lot of people who are now estranged from our party because of the abortion issue.
Carter is known for his strong opposition to the death penalty, which he expressed during his presidential campaigns, as had George McGovern. Two successive nominees, "Walter Mondale and "Michael Dukakis, also opposed the death penalty. In his "Nobel Prize lecture, Carter urged "prohibition of the death penalty". He has continued to speak out against the death penalty in the US and abroad.
In a letter to the Governor of New Mexico, "Bill Richardson, Carter urged the governor to sign a bill to eliminate the death penalty and institute life in prison without parole instead. New Mexico abolished the "death penalty in 2009. Carter wrote: "As you know, the United States is one of the few countries, along with nations such as Saudi Arabia, China, and Cuba, which still carry out the death penalty despite the ongoing tragedy of wrongful conviction and gross racial and class-based disparities that make impossible the fair implementation of this ultimate punishment." In 2012, Carter wrote an "op-ed in the "LA Times supporting passage of a state referendum which would have ended the death penalty. He opened the article: "The process for administering the death penalty in the United States is broken beyond repair, and it is time to choose a more effective and moral alternative. California voters will have the opportunity to do this on election day."
Carter has also called for commutations of death sentences for many death-row inmates, including Brian K. Baldwin (executed in 1999 in "Alabama), "Kenneth Foster (sentence in "Texas commuted in 2007) and "Troy Anthony Davis (executed in Georgia in 2011).
Equality for women
In October 2000, Carter, a third-generation Southern Baptist, announced that he was severing connections to the "Southern Baptist Convention over its opposition to women as pastors. What led Carter to take this action was a doctrinal statement by the Convention, adopted in June 2000, advocating a "literal interpretation of the Bible. This statement followed a position of the Convention two years previously advocating the submission of wives to their husbands. Carter described the reason for his decision as due to: "an increasing inclination on the part of Southern Baptist Convention leaders to be more rigid on what is a Southern Baptist and exclusionary of accommodating those who differ from them." The New York Times called Carter's action "the highest-profile defection yet from the Southern Baptist Convention."
In subsequent years, Carter has joined with other world leaders who have spoken out about the subjugation of women by religious and other institutions. On July 15, 2009, Carter wrote an opinion piece about equality for women in which he stated that he chooses equality for women over the dictates of the leadership of what has been a lifetime religious commitment. He said that the view that women are inferior is not confined to one faith, "nor, tragically does its influence stop at the walls of the church, mosque, synagogue or temple." Carter stated:
The truth is that male religious leaders have had—and still have—an option to interpret holy teachings either to exalt or subjugate women. They have, for their own selfish ends, overwhelmingly chosen the latter. Their continuing choice provides the foundation or justification for much of the pervasive persecution and abuse of women throughout the world. This is in clear violation not just of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights but also the teachings of Jesus Christ, the Apostle Paul, Moses and the prophets, Muhammad, and founders of other great religions—all of whom have called for proper and equitable treatment of all the children of God. It is time we had the courage to challenge these views.
In 2014, he published A Call to Action: Women, Religion, Violence, and Power.
Carter has publicly expressed support for a ban on assault weapons and background checks of gun buyers. In May 1994, Carter and former presidents "Gerald Ford and "Ronald Reagan wrote to the "U.S. House of Representatives in support of banning "semi-automatic assault guns." In a February 2013 appearance on "Piers Morgan Tonight, Carter agreed that if the "assault weapons ban did not pass it would be mainly due to lobbying by the "National Rifle Association and its pressure on "weak-kneed" politicians.
Carter has stated that he supports "same-sex marriage in civil ceremonies. He has also stated that he believes "Jesus would also support it, saying "I believe Jesus would. I don't have any verse in scripture. ... I believe Jesus would approve gay marriage, but that's just my own personal belief. I think Jesus would encourage any love affair if it was honest and sincere and was not damaging to anyone else, and I don't see that gay marriage damages anyone else." In October 2014, Carter argued ahead of a Supreme Court ruling that legalization of same-sex marriage should be left up to the states and not mandated by federal law.
Race in politics
Carter ignited debate in September 2009 when he stated, "I think an overwhelming portion of the intensely demonstrated animosity toward President Barack Obama is based on the fact that he is a black man, that he is African-American." Obama disagreed with Carter's assessment. On CNN Obama stated, "Are there people out there who don't like me because of race? I'm sure there are ... that's not the overriding issue here."
In a 2008 interview with "Amnesty International, Carter criticized the use of torture at "Guantanamo Bay, saying that it "contravenes the basic principles on which this nation was founded." He stated that the next President should make the promise that the United States will "never again torture a prisoner."
Carter and his wife "Rosalynn are well known for their work as volunteers with "Habitat for Humanity, a Georgia-based philanthropy that helps low-income working people around the world to build and buy their own homes and access clean water.
Carter's hobbies include painting, "fly-fishing, woodworking, cycling, tennis, and skiing. He also has an interest in poetry, particularly the works of "Dylan Thomas. During a state visit to the UK in 1977, Carter suggested that Thomas should have a memorial in "Poets' Corner at "Westminster Abbey; this was an idea that came to fruition in 1982.
From a young age, Carter showed a deep commitment to "Christianity. He teaches Sunday school and is a "deacon at the Maranatha Baptist Church in his hometown of "Plains. As president, Carter prayed several times a day, and professed that "Jesus Christ was the driving force in his life. Carter had been greatly influenced by a sermon he had heard as a young man. It asked, "If you were arrested for being a Christian, would there be enough evidence to convict you?" The New York Times noted that Carter had been instrumental in moving evangelical Christianity closer to the American mainstream during and after his presidency.
In 2000, Carter severed his membership with the "Southern Baptist Convention, saying the group's doctrines did not align with his Christian beliefs. In April 2006, Carter, former President Bill Clinton, and "Mercer University President Bill Underwood initiated the "New Baptist Covenant. The broadly inclusive movement seeks to unite "Baptists of all races, cultures and convention affiliations. Eighteen Baptist leaders representing more than 20 million Baptists across North America backed the group as an alternative to the "Southern Baptist Convention. The group held its first meeting in Atlanta, January 30 through February 1, 2008.
Carter had three younger siblings, all of whom died of pancreatic cancer: sisters "Gloria Carter Spann (1926–1990) and "Ruth Carter Stapleton (1929–1983), and brother "Billy Carter (1937–1988). He was first cousin to politician "Hugh Carter and a distant cousin to the "Carter family of musicians.
Carter and "Rosalynn Smith were married in July 1946. Together, they have three sons, "one daughter, eight grandsons, three granddaughters, and two great-grandsons. They celebrated their 65th wedding anniversary in July 2011, making them the second-longest wed Presidential couple after "George and "Barbara Bush. Their eldest son "Jack Carter was the 2006 Democratic "candidate for U.S. Senate in Nevada before losing to the Republican incumbent, "John Ensign. Carter's grandson "Jason Carter is a former Georgia State Senator and in 2014 was the Democratic candidate for "governor of Georgia, losing to the Republican incumbent, "Nathan Deal. On December 20, 2015, while teaching a Sunday school class, Carter announced that his 28-year-old grandson Jeremy Carter had died from an unspecified illness.
On August 3, 2015, Carter underwent elective surgery to remove "a small mass" on his "liver, and his prognosis for a full recovery was initially said to be "excellent". On August 12, however, Carter announced he had been diagnosed with cancer that had "metastasized, without specifying where the cancer had originated. On August 20, he disclosed that "melanoma had been found in his brain and liver, and that he had begun treatment with the "immunotherapy drug "pembrolizumab and was about to start "radiation therapy. His healthcare is being managed by "Emory Healthcare of "Atlanta. The former President has an extensive family history of cancer, including both of his parents and all three of his siblings. On December 6, 2015, Carter issued a statement that his medical scans no longer showed any cancer. On January 20, 2017, at age 92, Carter became the oldest president to attend a presidential inauguration.
Funeral and burial plans
Carter has planned to be buried in front of his home in Plains, Georgia. Carter noted in 2006 that a funeral in "Washington, D.C., with visitation at the Carter Center was planned as well.
Public image and legacy
In the wake of "Nixon's "Watergate Scandal, exit polls from the 1976 Presidential election suggested that many still held "Gerald Ford's pardon of Nixon against him. By comparison Carter was a sincere, honest, and well-meaning Southerner. Carter began his term with a 66 percent approval rating which had dropped to 34 percent approval by the time he left office, with 55 percent disapproving.
In the 1980 campaign, former California "Governor "Ronald Reagan projected an easy self-confidence, in contrast to Carter's serious and introspective temperament. What many people believed to be Carter's personal attention to detail, his pessimistic attitude, his seeming indecisiveness and weakness with people were accentuated in contrast to what many people believed, Reagan's charismatic charm and delegation of tasks to subordinates. Reagan used the economic problems, "Iran hostage crisis, and lack of Washington cooperation to portray Carter as a weak and ineffectual leader. Like his immediate predecessor, Gerald Ford, Carter did not serve a second term as president. Among those who were elected as president, Carter was the first since Hoover in 1932 to lose a reelection bid.
Carter's post-Presidency activities have been favorably received. "The Independent wrote, "Carter is widely considered a better man than he was a president." His presidential approval rating was just 31 percent immediately before the 1980 election, but 64 percent approved of his performance as president in a 2009 poll.
Carter's presidency was initially viewed by some as a failure. In "historical rankings of U.S. presidents, the Carter presidency has ranged from No. 19 to No. 34. Although his presidency received mixed reception, his "peacekeeping and humanitarian efforts since he left office have made Carter renowned as one of the most successful ex-Presidents in American history.
The documentary "Back Door Channels: The Price of Peace (2009) credits Carter's efforts at Camp David, which brought peace between Israel and Egypt, with bringing the only meaningful peace to the Middle East. The film opened the 2009 Monte-Carlo Television Festival in an invitation-only royal screening on June 7, 2009 at the "Grimaldi Forum in the presence of "Albert II, Prince of Monaco.
Honors and awards
Carter has received numerous awards and accolades since his presidency, and several institutions and locations have been named in his honor. His "presidential library, "Jimmy Carter Library and Museum was opened in 1986. In 1998, the U.S. Navy named the third and "last Seawolf-class submarine honoring former President Carter and his service as a submariner officer. It became one of the few Navy vessels to be named for a person living at the time of naming. That year he also received the "United Nations Human Rights Prize, given in honor of human rights achievements, and the "Hoover Medal, recognizing engineers who have contributed to global causes. He won the 2002 "Nobel Peace Prize, which was partially a response to President "George W. Bush's "threats of war against Iraq and Carter's criticism of the Bush administration.
Carter has been nominated seven times for the "Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album for audio recordings of his books, and has won twice—for "Our Endangered Values: America's Moral Crisis (2007) and "A Full Life: Reflections at 90 (2016).
The "Souther Field Airport in "Americus, Georgia was renamed "Jimmy Carter Regional Airport in 2009.
Carter (left) with a replica of the "USS Jimmy Carter with Secretary of the Navy John H. Dalton (right) at a naming ceremony, April 28, 1998
- "Electoral history of Jimmy Carter
- "History of the United States (1964–1980)
- "History of the United States (1980–1988)
- "List of peace activists
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- "Americo Makk portrait Hawaii Gift of State.
- ""Mush From the Wimp" incident
- "Raymond Lee Harvey, assassination conspirator
- "List of Presidents of the United States
- "List of Presidents of the United States, sortable by previous experience
- Carter was the first U.S. president to be born in a hospital.
- With Carter out of the race, Maddox narrowly won the runoff ballot over Arnall, clinching the Democratic nomination. In the general election, Callaway won a plurality of the vote but came short of the 50 percent majority. The election was thus decided by the Georgia House of Representatives with its Democratic majority; they settled on Maddox.
- Warner, Greg. "Jimmy Carter says he can 'no longer be associated' with the SBC". Baptist Standard. Retrieved December 13, 2009.
He said he will remain a deacon and Sunday school teacher at Maranatha Baptist Church in Plains and support the church's recent decision to send half of its missions contributions to the "Cooperative Baptist Fellowship.
- Bourne, pp. 11–32.
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The Naval Record of James Earl Carter, Jr.: Medals and awards: American Campaign Medal, World War II Victory Medal, China Service Medal, and Natl. Defense Service Medal
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- Gates, Bob (2007). From the Shadows: The Ultimate Insider's Story of Five Presidents and How They Won the Cold War. Simon and Schuster. pp. 145–147. "ISBN "9781416543367. When asked whether he expected that the revelations in his memoir (combined with an apocryphal quote attributed to Brzezinski) would inspire "a mind-bending number of conspiracy theories which adamantly—and wrongly—accuse the Carter Administration of luring the Soviets into Afghanistan," Gates replied: "No, because there was no basis in fact for an allegation the administration tried to draw the Soviets into Afghanistan militarily." See Gates, email communication with John Bernell White, Jr., October 15, 2011, as cited in White, John Bernell (May 2012). "The Strategic Mind Of Zbigniew Brzezinski: How A Native Pole Used Afghanistan To Protect His Homeland" (PDF). pp. 45–46, 82. Retrieved September 11, 2016. cf. "Coll, Steve (2004). Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001. Penguin. p. 581. "ISBN "9781594200076.
Contemporary memos—particularly those written in the first days after the Soviet invasion—make clear that while Brzezinski was determined to confront the Soviets in Afghanistan through covert action, he was also very worried the Soviets would prevail. ... Given this evidence and the enormous political and security costs that the invasion imposed on the Carter administration, any claim that Brzezinski lured the Soviets into Afghanistan warrants deep skepticism.
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- "Simon & Schuster: Palestine Peace Not Apartheid (Hardcover) – Read an Excerpt,", "Simon & Schuster, November 2006. Retrieved April 9, 2007.
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- Julie Bosman, "Carter Book Stirs Furor With Its View of Israelis' 'Apartheid'" "The New York Times, December 14, 2006. Retrieved March 29, 2008.
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- "Could Jimmy Carter's Comments Doom Mitt Romney?". The International Business Times Inc. Retrieved September 22, 2011.
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- "Carter praises 'distinguished opponent' Ford at funeral". CBC News. CBC. January 3, 2007. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
- "Honorary Chairs". World Justice Project. Retrieved February 24, 2010.
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- "Preserving Our Institutions: The First Report of the Continuity of Government Commission". The Brookings Institution. Continuity of Government Commission. Retrieved January 14, 2012.
- John-Henry Westen (November 7, 2005). "Jimmy Carter Using Abortion to Split Support for Republicans?". LifeSiteNews.com.
- Skinner, Kudelia, Mesquita, Rice (2007). The Strategy of Campaigning. University of Michigan Press. "ISBN "978-0-472-11627-0. Retrieved October 20, 2008.
- "Jimmy Carter: Democratic Party Should Be More Pro-Life, March 29, 2012".
- "Democrats shift on death penalty", "Boston Globe, December 7, 2003
- "Carter Nobel Peace Prize speech", CNN, December 10, 2002
- Hill, Elias C. (October 9, 2012). The Mirage of Human Rights. iUniverse. p. 200. "ISBN "978-1-4759-4888-2.
- "NEW VOICES: Jimmy Carter Urges New Mexico Governor to Support Death Penalty Repeal | Death Penalty Information Center". Deathpenaltyinfo.org. Retrieved June 8, 2010.
- Carter, Jimmy, "Jimmy Carter to California: Yes on Prop. 34" (op-ed), LA Times, October 28, 2012. Retrieved March 5, 2013.
- "Brian Baldwin, Center on Wrongful Convictions". Law.northwestern.edu. Retrieved June 8, 2010.
- "Jimmy Carter, Desmond Tutu Urge Texas to Stay Execution of Kenneth Foster". Democracynow.org. Retrieved June 8, 2010.
- "Clemency | Death Penalty Information Center". Deathpenaltyinfo.org. Retrieved June 8, 2010.
- The Carter Center (September 19, 2008). "Carter Center Press Releases – President Carter Calls for Clemency for Troy Davis". The Carter Center. Retrieved June 8, 2010.
- Sengupta, Somini (October 21, 2000). "Carter Sadly Turns Back On National Baptist Body". The New York Times. Retrieved December 17, 2014.
- Losing my religion for equality, Opinion, Theage.com.au, July 15, 2009
- A Call to Action: Women, Religion, Violence, and Power. Simon & Schuster. 2014. "ISBN "978-1-4767-7395-7. "OCLC 868276576.
- Carter, Jimmy (April 26, 2009). "What Happened to the Ban on Assault Weapons?". New York Times (Op-ed). Retrieved July 4, 2014.
- Eaton, William J. (May 5, 1994). "Ford, Carter, Reagan Push for Gun Ban". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 4, 2014.
- Kurtz, Jason (February 22, 2013). "Clips From Last Night: Jimmy Carter on firearm legislation, the NRA, and the conflict in the Middle East". Cable News Network. Retrieved July 4, 2014.
- "Former US president Jimmy Carter backs 'very fine' equal marriages for gays". PinkNews. 20 March 2012. Retrieved 21 January 2017.
- Buxton, Ryan, July 7, 2015, "Jimmy Carter Says Jesus Would Approve Of Gay Marriage" (http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/07/07/jimmy-carter-gay-marriage_n_7744390.html). Huffpost Politics. Accessed May 30, 2016.
- "Jimmy Carter: Gay marriage should be up to states". USA TODAY. 27 October 2014. Retrieved 21 January 2017.
- "NBC Nightly News with Brian Williams: News and videos from the evening broadcast NBC Nightly News with Brian Williams: News and videos from the evening broadcast". MSNBC. Retrieved June 8, 2010.
- "White House disputes Carter's analysis – Capitol Hill". MSNBC. September 16, 2009. Retrieved June 8, 2010.
- O'Brien, Michael (September 19, 2009). "Obama plays down role of race in criticism – The Hill's Blog Briefing Room". Thehill.com. Retrieved June 8, 2010.
- on "YouTube
- Freedland, Jonathan (June 6, 2008). "'I have moral authority'". The Guardian. Retrieved December 28, 2014.
- "Greif, Inc. helps support Habitat for Humanity's 29th Annual Jimmy and Rosalynn Carter Work Project". Habitat for Humanity. Retrieved December 28, 2014.
- Carter, Jimmy, Letter to Artist "Mia LaBerge, February 14, 2008.
- "Jimmy Carter – Biographical". The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved December 28, 2014.
- "Jimmy Carter to welcome visitors to Dylan Thomas house". BBC News. BBC. November 9, 2011. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
- "Dylan Thomas". Westminster Abbey. The Dean and Chapter of Westminster. 2015. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
- Wilson, M.J. (June 27, 1977). "Jimmy Carter's Crusade for Dylan Thomas Wins a Supporter—his Grateful Widow, Caitlin". People. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
- Somini Sengupta, "Carter Sadly Turns Back on National Baptist Body", The New York Times, October 21, 2000. Retrieved August 4, 2008.
- Maranatha Baptist Church. Retrieved August 4, 2008.
- Carter, Jimmy; Richardson, Don (1998). Conversations with Carter. Lynne Rienner Publishers. p. 14. "ISBN "1-55587-801-6.
- Sengupta, S. (October 21, 2000). Carter Sadly Turns Back On National Baptist Body. The New York Times. Retrieved on: March 31, 2013.
- New Baptist Covenant. Retrieved August 4, 2008.
- Robert D. Hershey Jr (September 26, 1988). "Billy Carter Dies of Cancer at 51; Troubled Brother of a President". "The New York Times. Retrieved July 27, 2011.
- Cash, John R. with Patrick Carr (1997). Johnny Cash, the Autobiography. "Harper Collins.
- Hulse, Carl (May 11, 2010). "Veteran House Democrat Loses Seat in Primary". NYTimes.com. New York Times. Retrieved August 12, 2015.
- Fantz, Ashley; Hassan, Carma (December 20, 2015). "Hours after death of grandson, Jimmy Carter reveals the news to his church". CNN. Retrieved December 21, 2015.
- Pramuk, Jacob (August 12, 2015). "Former President Jimmy Carter reveals he has cancer". "New York: CNBC. Retrieved August 12, 2015.
- Olorunnipa, Toluse (August 20, 2015). "Jimmy Carter Says He's Being Treated for Cancer in Brain". Bloomberg News. Retrieved August 20, 2015.
- "Statement from Former U.S. President Jimmy Carter" (Press release). Carter Center. December 6, 2015.
- Reilly, Katie (January 20, 2017). "How Jimmy Carter Beat Cancer and Became the Oldest President to Attend an Inauguration". "Time. Retrieved January 20, 2017.
- Associated Press, "President Carter Talks of Funeral Plans", December 4, 2006. Retrieved February 11, 2017.
- "Polls: Ford's Image Improved Over Time". CBS News. December 27, 2006.
- "Jimmy Carter:39th president – 1977–1981". The Independent. London. January 22, 2009. Retrieved January 28, 2009.
- "What History Foretells for Obama's First Job Approval Rating". Gallup.com. Retrieved December 10, 2011.
- "Bush Presidency Closes With 34% Approval, 61% Disapproval". Gallup.com. Archived from the original on January 19, 2009. Retrieved December 10, 2011.
- "Disaffection of the public – Jimmy Carter – election". Presidentprofiles.com. Retrieved December 10, 2011.
- Dionne, Jr., E. J. (May 18, 1989). "Washington Talk; Carter Begins to Shed Negative Public Image". "The New York Times. Retrieved January 28, 2009.
- "The Unfinished Presidency - Jimmy Carter's Journey Beyond the White House". The New York Times. 1998. Retrieved November 27, 2015.
- "Time kind to former presidents, CNN poll finds". CNN. January 7, 2009.
- Stillwell, Cinnamon (December 12, 2006). "Jimmy Carter's Legacy of Failure". "SFGate. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
- "Jimmy Carter: Why He Failed". brookings.edu. January 21, 2000. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
- Ponnuru, Ramesh (May 28, 2008). "In Carter's Shadow". Time. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
- "Jimmy Carter's Post-Presidency". American Experience. "PBS, "WGBH. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
- "Brinkley, Douglas (Fall 1996). "The rising stock of Jimmy Carter: The 'hands on' legacy of our thirty-ninth President". Diplomatic History. 20 (4): 505–530. "doi:10.1111/j.1467-7709.1996.tb00285.x.
- Gibb, Lindsay (June 4, 2009). "Monte-Carlo TV fest opens with doc for first time". Retrieved June 12, 2012.
- "WorldScreen.com – Archives". www.worldscreen.com. Retrieved June 22, 2015. (subscription required (. ))
- Applebome, Peter (May 30, 1993). "Carter Center: More Than the Past". The New York Times. "ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
- McIntyre, Jamie (April 8, 1998). "Navy to name submarine after former president Jimmy Carter". "CNN. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
- "HR Prize – List of previous recipients". "Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
- "James Earl Carter Jr 1998 – ASME".
- "The Nobel Peace Prize for 2002 to Jimmy Carter" (Press release). Nobelprize.org. October 11, 2002. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
- "Jimmy Carter wins Nobel Peace Prize". "CNN. October 11, 2002. Archived from the original on November 21, 2009. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
- Gregory Krieg (February 15, 2016). "Former President Jimmy Carter wins Grammy Award". CNN.
- Leeds, Jeff; Manly, Lorne (February 12, 2007). "Defiant Dixie Chicks Are Big Winners at the Grammys". The New York Times. "ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
- Judy Kurtz, Jimmy Carter up for another Grammy, The Hill (December 7, 2015).
- "Jimmy Carter Regional Airport Becomes a Reality". Fox News. Associated Press. October 11, 2009. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
- "Allen, Gary (1976). Jimmy Carter, Jimmy Carter. '76 Press. "ISBN "978-0-89245-006-0.
- Annual register of the United States Naval Academy. 1946–1947. Annapolis, Maryland: United States Naval Academy. June 6, 1946.
- Berggren, D. Jason; Rae, Nicol C. (2006). "Jimmy Carter and George W. Bush: Faith, Foreign Policy, and an Evangelical Presidential Style". Presidential Studies Quarterly. 36 (4): 606–632. "doi:10.1111/j.1741-5705.2006.02570.x. "ISSN 0360-4918. (subscription required (. ))
- "Bourne, Peter G. (1997). Jimmy Carter: A Comprehensive Biography From Plains to Post-Presidency. New York: Scribner. "ISBN "0-684-19543-7.
- Busch, Andrew E. (2005). Reagan's Victory: The Presidential Election of 1980 and the Rise of the Right. University Press of Kansas.
- Clymer, Kenton (2003). "Jimmy Carter, Human Rights, and Cambodia". Diplomatic History. 27 (2): 245–278. "doi:10.1111/1467-7709.00349. "ISSN 0145-2096. (subscription required (. ))
- Dumbrell, John (1995). The Carter Presidency: A Re-evaluation (2nd ed.). Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press. "ISBN "0-7190-4693-9.
- Fink, Gary M.; Graham, Hugh Davis, eds. (1998). The Carter Presidency: Policy Choices in the Post-New Deal Era. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas. "ISBN "0-7006-0895-8.
- Flint, Andrew R.; Porter, Joy (March 2005). "Jimmy Carter: The re-emergence of faith-based politics and the abortion rights issue". Presidential Studies Quarterly. 35 (1): 28–51. "doi:10.1111/j.1741-5705.2004.00234.x.
- Freedman, Robert (2005). "The Religious Right and the Carter Administration". The Historical Journal. Cambridge University Press. 48 (1): 231–260. "doi:10.1017/S0018246X04004285. "ISSN 0018-246X. (subscription required (. ))
- Gillon, Steven M. (1992). The Democrats' Dilemma: Walter F. Mondale and the Liberal Legacy. New York: Columbia University Press. "ISBN "0-231-07630-4.
- Glad, Betty (1980). Jimmy Carter: In Search of the Great White House. New York: W. W. Norton. "ISBN "0-393-07527-3.
- Godbold, Jr., E. Stanly (2010). Jimmy and Rosalynn Carter: The Georgia Years, 1924–1974. Oxford University Press. "ISBN "978-0-19-977962-8.
- Hahn, Dan F. (1992). "The rhetoric of Jimmy Carter, 1976–1980". In Windt, Theodore; Ingold, Beth. Essays in Presidential Rhetoric (3rd ed.). Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt. pp. 331–365. "ISBN "0-8403-7568-9.
- Hargrove, Erwin C. (1988). Jimmy Carter as President: Leadership and the Politics of the Public Good. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press. "ISBN "0-8071-1499-5.
- "Harris, David (2004). The Crisis: the President, the Prophet, and the Shah – 1979 and the Coming of Militant Islam. Little, Brown. "ISBN "978-0-316-32394-9.
- Jones, Charles O. (1988). The Trusteeship Presidency: Jimmy Carter and the United States Congress. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press. "ISBN "0-8071-1426-X.
- Jorden, William J. (1984). Panama Odyssey. Austin: University of Texas Press. "ISBN "0-292-76469-3.
- Kaufman, Burton I. (1993). The Presidency of James Earl Carter, Jr. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas. "ISBN "0-7006-0572-X.
- Keys, Barbara J. (2014). Reclaiming American Virtue: The Human Rights Revolution of the 1970s. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. "ISBN "978-0-674-72603-1.
- Kucharsky, David (1976). The Man From Plains: The Mind and Spirit of Jimmy Carter. New York: Harper & Row. "ISBN "0-06-064891-0.
- Mattson, Kevin (2010). 'What the Heck Are You Up To, Mr. President?'. Bloomsbury. "ISBN "978-1-60819-206-9.
- Morgan, Iwan (2004). "Jimmy Carter, Bill Clinton, and the New Democratic Economics". The Historical Journal. Cambridge University Press. 47 (4): 1015–1039. "doi:10.1017/S0018246X0400408X. "ISSN 0018-246X. (subscription required (. ))
- Morris, Kenneth Earl (1996). Jimmy Carter, American Moralist. University of Georgia Press.
- Ribuffo, Leo P. (1989). "God and Jimmy Carter". In M. L. Bradbury and James B. Gilbert. Transforming Faith: The Sacred and Secular in Modern American History. New York: Greenwood Press. pp. 141–159. "ISBN "0-313-25707-8.
- Ribuffo, Leo P. (1997). "'Malaise' revisited: Jimmy Carter and the crisis of confidence". In John Patrick Diggins (ed.). The Liberal Persuasion: Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. and the Challenge of the American Past. Princeton: Princeton University Press. pp. 164–185. "ISBN "0-691-04829-0.
- Rosenbaum, Herbert D.; Ugrinsky, Alexej, eds. (1994). The Presidency and Domestic Policies of Jimmy Carter. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. pp. 83–116. "ISBN "0-313-28845-3.
- Schram, Martin (1977). Running for President, 1976: The Carter Campaign. New York: Stein and Day. "ISBN "0-8128-2245-5.
- Schmitz, David F.; Walker, Vanessa (2004). "Jimmy Carter and the Foreign Policy of Human Rights: the Development of a Post-cold War Foreign Policy". Diplomatic History. 28 (1): 113–143. "doi:10.1111/j.1467-7709.2004.00400.x. "ISSN 0145-2096. (subscription required (. ))
- Strong, Robert A. (Fall 1986). "Recapturing leadership: The Carter administration and the crisis of confidence". Presidential Studies Quarterly. 16 (3): 636–650.
- Strong, Robert A. (2000). Working in the World: Jimmy Carter and the Making of American Foreign Policy. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press. "ISBN "0-8071-2445-1.
- "Topics; Thermostatic Legacy". The New York Times. January 1, 1981. Section 1, Page 18, Column 1.
- Vogel, Steve (May 4, 2000). "Remembering Failed Iranian Mission". Washington Post – via ArlingtonNationalCemetary.net.
- "White, Theodore H. (1982). America in Search of Itself: The Making of the President, 1956–1980. New York: Harper & Row. "ISBN "0-06-039007-7.
- Witcover, Jules (1977). Marathon: The Pursuit of the Presidency, 1972–1976. New York: Viking Press. "ISBN "0-670-45461-3.
- Califano, Joseph A., Jr. (2007) . Governing America: An insider's report from the White House and the Cabinet. Simon and Schuster. "ISBN "978-1-4165-5211-6.
- Jordan, Hamilton (1982). Crisis: The Last Year of the Carter Presidency. Putnam. "ISBN "978-0-399-12738-0.
- Lance, Bert (1991). The Truth of the Matter: My Life in and out of Politics. Summit. "ISBN "978-0-671-69027-4.
- White House biography
- Jimmy Carter Presidential Library & Museum
- Jimmy Carter National Historic Site
Books and movies
- Works by Jimmy Carter at "Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about Jimmy Carter at "Internet Archive
- Works by Jimmy Carter at "Open Library
Interviews, speeches and statements
- Full audio of a number of Carter speeches at the "Miller Center of Public Affairs
- Oral History Interview with Jimmy Carter (1974) at the "Southern Oral History Program
- Carter Nobel lecture, "Oslo, Norway (December 10, 2002)
- Appearances on "C-SPAN
- Jimmy Carter at "TED
- "Jimmy Carter collected news and commentary". "The New York Times.
- "Jimmy Carter collected news and commentary". "The Guardian.