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Main article: "Democratic Party primary, Connecticut United States Senate election, 2006
Democratic Primary Results
Candidate Votes[32] Percentage
"Ned Lamont 146,587 52%
Joe Lieberman 136,468 48%

Lieberman sought the Democratic Party's renomination for U.S. Senate from Connecticut in 2006 but lost to the comparatively more liberal "Ned Lamont, a "Greenwich businessman and antiwar candidate.

Lieberman was officially endorsed by the Connecticut Democratic Convention, which met in May. However, Lamont received 33 percent of the delegates' votes, forcing an August primary.

In July, Lieberman announced that he would file papers to appear on the November ballot should he lose the primary, stating, "I'm a loyal Democrat, but I have loyalties that are greater than those to my party, and that's my loyalty to my state and my country."[33] He stated that he would continue to sit as a Democrat in the Senate even if he was defeated in the primary and elected on an unaffiliated line, and expressed concern for a potentially low turnout.[34] On July 10, the Lieberman campaign officially filed paperwork allowing him to collect signatures for the newly formed "Connecticut for Lieberman party ballot line.[35] On August 8, 2006, Lieberman "conceded the "Democratic primary election to Ned Lamont, saying, "For the sake of our state, our country and my party, I cannot and will not let that result stand," and announced he would run in the "2006 November election as an independent candidate on the "Connecticut for Lieberman ticket, against both Lamont and the Republican candidate, "Alan Schlesinger.[36]

General election[edit]

United States Senate election in Connecticut, 2006
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Lieberman during his re-election campaign on a third party ticket

Polls after the primary showed Lieberman ahead of "Ned Lamont by 5 points.["citation needed] Later polls showed Lieberman leading by varying margins.["citation needed] "Alan Schlesinger barely registered support["citation needed] and his campaign had run into problems based on alleged gambling debts. According to columnist "Steve Kornacki, Lieberman was therefore "able to run in the general election as the de facto Republican candidate – every major Republican office-holder in the state endorsed him – and to supplement that GOP base with strong support from independents."[37]

On August 9, 2006, "Hillary Clinton affirmed her pledge to support the primary winner, saying "voters of Connecticut have made their decision and I think that decision should be respected",[38] and "Howard Dean called for Lieberman to quit the race, saying he was being "disrespectful of Democrats and disrespectful of the Democratic Party".[39]

On August 10, in his first campaign appearance since losing the Democratic primary, referencing the "2006 transatlantic aircraft plot, Lieberman criticized Lamont, saying:[40]

If we just pick up like Ned Lamont wants us to do, get out [of Iraq] by a date certain, it will be taken as a tremendous victory by the same people who wanted to blow up these planes in this plot hatched in England. It will strengthen them and they will strike again.

Lamont noted Lieberman's position was similar to "George W. Bush and "Dick Cheney's position. Lamont said, “That comment sounds an awful lot like Vice President Cheney’s comment on Wednesday. Both of them believe our invasion of Iraq has a lot to do with 9/11. That’s a false premise.”[40] Lieberman's communications director replied that Lamont was politicizing national security by "portraying [Lieberman] as a soul mate of President Bush on Iraq".[40]

As a moderate Democrat, Lieberman earned an inordinate amount of support from some prominent conservatives in American politics. On August 17, 2006 the "National Republican Senatorial Committee stated that they would favor a Lieberman victory in the November election over Democratic nominee Ned Lamont. The NRSC did state, however, that they were not going so far as to actually support Lieberman.[41]

Former New York Mayor "Rudy Giuliani praised Lieberman at a "South Carolina campaign stop on August 18, saying he was "a really exceptional senator."[42] Other Republican supporters of Lieberman included "Mayor of New York City "Michael Bloomberg, former Representative and Republican Vice Presidential candidate "Jack Kemp, former "Speaker of the House "Newt Gingrich and "Senator "Susan Collins of "Maine.["citation needed]

Five Democratic Senators maintained their support for Lieberman, and Lieberman also received the strong support of former Senator and Democratic stalwart "Bob Kerrey, who offered to stump for him.[43] Democratic minority leader Harry Reid, while endorsing Lamont, promised Lieberman that he would retain his committee positions and seniority if he prevailed in the general election.

On August 28, Lieberman campaigned at the same motorcycle rally as Republican Congressman "Christopher Shays.[44] Shays told a crowd of motorcycle enthusiasts, "We have a national treasure in Joe Lieberman."

"Mel Sembler, a former "Republican National Committee finance chairman, helped organize a reception that raised a "couple hundred thousand dollars" for Lieberman, who was personally in attendance. Sembler is a prominent Republican who chaired "I. Lewis 'Scooter' Libby's legal defense fund.[45] New York Mayor "Michael Bloomberg held a fundraiser for Lieberman at his home in November, co-hosted by former mayor "Ed Koch and former Senator "Alfonse M. D'Amato.[46] Koch called Lieberman "one of the greatest Senators we've ever had in the Senate."[47]

Despite still considering himself a Democrat, Lieberman was endorsed by numerous Republicans who actively spoke out in favor of his candidacy. Lieberman was also the focus of websites such as ConservativesforLieberman06.com.[48]

On November 7, Lieberman won re-election with 50% of the vote. "Ned Lamont garnered 40% of ballots cast and "Alan Schlesinger won 10%.[49] Lieberman received support from 33% of Democrats, 54% of independents and 70% of Republicans.[50]

Following the election, Lieberman struck a deal with Democratic leadership allowing him to keep his seniority and chairmanship of the Governmental Affairs Committee. In return, he agreed to vote with the Democrats on all procedural matters unless he asked permission of "Majority Whip "Richard Durbin.["citation needed] He was free to vote as he pleased on policy matters.["citation needed] Along with "Bernie Sanders, Lieberman's caucusing with the Democrats gave them a 51–49 majority in the Senate, leaving a slim one Senator majority to control the Senate in the "110th Congress.

Creation of Department of Homeland Security (DHS)[edit]

When control of the Senate switched from Republicans to Democrats in June 2001, Lieberman became Chairman of the "Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee, with oversight responsibilities for a broad range of government activities. He was also a member of the "Environment and Public Works Committee and chair of its "Subcommittee Clean Air, Wetlands and Private Property; the "Armed Services Committee, where he chaired the "Airland Subcommittee and sat on the "Subcommittee on Emerging Threats and Capabilities; and the "Small Business Committee. When Republicans gained control of the Senate in January 2003, Lieberman resumed his role as ranking minority member of the committees he had once chaired.[51]

In 2002, as Chairman of what was then known as the Senate Governmental Affairs Committee, Senator Lieberman led the fight to create a new "Department of Homeland Security. One month after the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, he introduced legislation to reorganize the federal government to better protect the American people from terrorism and natural disasters and steered a bipartisan plan through his committee. After months of opposing the plan, the White House eventually endorsed the concept. Legislation that passed Congress in 2002 created a department incorporating key organizational elements Senator Lieberman advocated.[52]

In 2006, Senators Lieberman and "Collins drafted legislation to reshape the "Federal Emergency Management Agency into an agency that would more effectively prepare for and respond to catastrophes, including natural disasters and terrorist attacks. The legislation elevated FEMA to special status within the Department of Homeland Security, much like the "Coast Guard and designated the head of FEMA to be the President's point person during an emergency. The bill also called for the reunification of the preparedness and response functions within FEMA, giving it responsibility for all phases of emergency management. And the measure strengthened FEMA's regional offices, creating dedicated interagency "strike teams" to provide the initial federal response to a disaster in the region. The legislation passed Congress in September 2006. As the 2007 hurricane season approached, Lieberman held an oversight hearing on implementation of the FEMA reforms on May 22, 2007. He urged FEMA to implement the reforms at a quicker pace.[52]

Lieberman actively oversaw the government response to the "H1N1 influenza (swine flu) pandemic and held four hearings on the subject in 2009, including one in Connecticut. He has continually pressed the "United States Department of Health and Human Services to distribute "vaccines and antiviral medications at a quicker pace and to streamline the process.[52]

In the 110th Congress, Lieberman was Chairman of the Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee, which is responsible for assuring the efficiency and effectiveness of the Federal Government. In addition, he was a member of the Environment and Public Works Committee; Senate Armed Services Committee, where he was Chairman of the Subcommittee on Air Land Forces and sat on the Subcommittee on Emerging Threats and Capabilities; and the Small Business Committee.

Fundraising[edit]

Since 1989, Lieberman has received more than $31.4 million in campaign donations from specific industries and sectors. His largest donors have represented the securities and investment ($3.7 million), legal ($3.6 million), real estate ($3.1 million) and health professional ($1.1 million) industries.[53]

Committee assignments[edit]

Caucus memberships[edit]

Post-Senate career[edit]

A survey in October 2010 showed that Lieberman had an approval rating of 31% and that just 24% of Connecticut voters felt he deserved re-election.[54] Lieberman announced on January 19, 2011 that he would retire from the Senate at the end of his fourth term.[55][56] Lieberman gave his farewell address on December 12, 2012.[57] He was succeeded by Democratic representative "Chris Murphy.

Following his retirement from the Senate, Lieberman became senior counsel of the white collar criminal defense and investigations practice at "Kasowitz, Benson, Torres & Friedman, a law firm in New York City.[58] In March 2013, it was announced that Lieberman would be joining the conservative "American Enterprise Institute think tank as co-chairman of their American Internationalism Project, alongside former Republican Senator "Jon Kyl.[59] In February 2014, Lieberman was named as Counselor at the "National Bureau of Asian Research.[60] Additionally, he serves as the Lieberman Chair of Public Policy and Public Service at "Yeshiva University, where he teaches an undergraduate course in political science.

In 2015, Lieberman served as Co-chair of the "Blue Ribbon Study Panel on Biodefense, a commission that recommended changes to U.S. policy regarding biodefense.[61]

In August 2015, Lieberman became chairman of the advocacy group "United Against Nuclear Iran (UANI).[62] In early September 2015, Lieberman attended a rally outside the office of New York Senator "Kirsten Gillibrand held in the hopes that such a protest would lead the senator to retract her support for the "Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action.[63]

In March 2016, Lieberman was hired by the "Schaghticoke Tribal Nation to assist the group in challenging Connecticut laws giving exemptions to only the top two state gaming tribes to build casinos.[64][65]

In 2016, Lieberman joined the "Muslim-Jewish Advisory Council, an organization founded to address anti-Muslim and anti-Jewish bigotry in the United States.[66] Lieberman is also on the advisory board of the "Counter Extremism Project (CEP).[67]

In early 2017, Lieberman introduced Pres.-elect "Donald Trump's nominee as "Secretary of Education "Betsy DeVos to the Senate "Health, Education, Labor and Pension committee. One report on Lieberman's involvement was critical of him for failing to disclose in his testimony the extensive legal work his Kasowitz, Benson, Torres & Friedman "biglaw firm had done for Donald Trump since at least as long ago as 2001. The work included bankrupt casino restructuring and, during the 2016 campaign, threatening the "New York Times over publication of "a few 1995 Trump tax documents.[68]

Presidential politics[edit]

2000 Vice Presidential candidacy[edit]

United States presidential election, 2000

In August 2000, Lieberman was selected as the nominee for Vice President of the United States by "Al Gore, the Democratic Party nominee for President.[69] Among the last round candidates were U.S. senators "Bob Graham, "John Kerry and "John Edwards. The nomination committee was headed by "Warren Christopher.[70] Lieberman was the first Jewish candidate on a major political party ticket.[69] Of the vetting process, Lieberman related a conversation in which Christopher told him the background checks would be "like a medical procedure without an anesthesia." [29]

The Gore/Lieberman ticket won a "plurality of the "popular vote, with over half a million more votes than the Republican ticket of "George W. Bush and "Dick Cheney, but they were defeated in the "Electoral College by a vote of 271 to 266 after an intense legal battle concerning the outcome in disputed counties (see "Bush v. Gore).

Like Democratic VP candidates "Lyndon B. Johnson in 1960, "Lloyd Bentsen in 1988, "John Edwards in 2004, and "Joe Biden in 2008, Lieberman's Senate term was due to expire during the election cycle. He decided to run for re-election to maintain his seat, as Johnson, Bentsen and Biden did. Three won re-election to the Senate, but Johnson and Biden then gave up their Senate seats because they were also elected Vice President. Edwards did not simultaneously run for re-election to the Senate.

2004 primaries[edit]

On January 13, 2003, Lieberman announced his intention to seek the "Democratic nomination as a candidate in the "2004 presidential election.

Describing his Presidential hopes, Lieberman opined that his historically "hawkish stance would appeal to voters. Indeed, he initially led in polls of primaries, but due to his political positions he failed to win a support of "liberal Democratic voters, who dominated the primaries.[71]

Prior to his defeat in "New Hampshire, Lieberman declared that his campaign was picking up "Joementum"; however, he failed to provide such momentum during the "New Hampshire primary debates, held at "Saint Anselm College days before the primary.[72] On February 3, 2004, Lieberman withdrew his candidacy after failing to win any of the five primaries or two caucuses held that day. He acknowledged to the "Hartford Courant that his support for the war in Iraq was a large part of his undoing with voters.[73]

Lieberman's former running candidate Al Gore did not support Lieberman's Presidential run, and in December 2003 endorsed "Howard Dean's candidacy, saying "This is about all of us and all of us need to get behind the strongest candidate [Dean]."[74]

Finally Lieberman withdrew from the race without winning a single contest. In total popular vote he placed 7th behind the eventual nominee, "Massachusetts senator "John Kerry; the eventual Vice Presidential nominee, "North Carolina Senator "John Edwards; former "Governor of Vermont "Howard Dean, "Ohio "Representative "Dennis Kucinich, retired General "Wesley Clark and Reverend "Al Sharpton.[75]

2008 activism[edit]

United States presidential election, 2008
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Lieberman with Presidential Candidate "John McCain at an event in "Derry, New Hampshire

On December 17, 2007, Lieberman endorsed "Republican Senator "John McCain for president in 2008,[76] going against his party and going back on his stance in July 2006 when he stated "I want Democrats to be back in the majority in Washington and elect a Democratic president in 2008."[77] Lieberman cited his agreement with McCain's stance on the "War on Terrorism as the primary reason for the endorsement.[78]

On June 5, Lieberman launched "Citizens for McCain," hosted on the McCain campaign website, to recruit Democratic support for John McCain's candidacy. He emphasized the group's outreach to supporters of "Hillary Clinton, who was at that time broadly expected to lose the Democratic presidential nomination to "Barack Obama.[79] Citizens for McCain was prominently featured in McCain team efforts to attract disgruntled Hillary Clinton supporters such as "Debra Bartoshevich.[80][81]

Lieberman spoke at the "2008 Republican National Convention on behalf of McCain and his running mate, "Alaska Governor "Sarah Palin.[82] Lieberman was alongside McCain and Senator "Lindsey Graham during a visit to "French president "Nicolas Sarkozy on March 21, 2008.[83] Lieberman was mentioned as a possible Vice Presidential nominee on a McCain ticket,[84][85] although Lieberman had denied interest.[86] "ABC News reported that Lieberman was McCain's first choice for Vice President until several days before the selection, when McCain had decided that picking Lieberman would alienate the conservative base of the Republican Party.[87][88] Lieberman had been mentioned as a possible "Secretary of State under a McCain administration.[89]

Many Democrats wanted Lieberman to be stripped of his chairmanship of the "Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs due to his support for John McCain which went against the party's wishes.[90] Republican Minority Leader "Mitch McConnell reached out to Lieberman, asking him to caucus with the Republicans.[91] Ultimately, the "Senate Democratic Caucus voted 42 to 13 to allow Lieberman to keep chairmanship (although he did lose his membership for the "Environment and Public Works Committee). Subsequently, Lieberman announced that he will continue to caucus with the Democrats.[8] Lieberman credited "President-elect "Barack Obama for helping him keep his chairmanship. Obama had privately urged Democratic "Senate Majority Leader "Harry Reid not to remove Lieberman from his position. Reid stated that Lieberman's criticism of Obama during the election angered him, but that "if you look at the problems we face as a nation, is this a time we walk out of here saying, 'Boy did we get even'?" Senator "Tom Carper of "Delaware also credited the Democrats' decision on Lieberman to Obama's support, stating that "If Barack can move on, so can we."[92][93]

Some members of the Democratic caucus were reportedly angry at the decision not to punish Lieberman more severely. Senator "Bernie Sanders of "Vermont (who is an Independent) stated that he voted to punish Lieberman "because while millions of people worked hard for Obama, Lieberman actively worked for four more years of President Bush's policies."[93]

Lieberman's embrace of certain conservative policies and in particular his endorsement of John McCain have been cited as factors for his high approval rating among Republicans in Connecticut with 66% of Republicans approving of him along with 52% of independents also approving of his job performance, this however is also cited for his mediocre approval rating among Democrats: 44% approving and 46% disapproving.[94] As of October 2011, 51% of voters were approving of his performance along with 40% disapproving.[94]

2016 election[edit]

On August 10, 2016, Lieberman endorsed Democratic candidate "Hillary Clinton in the "2016 presidential election.[95]

Criticism[edit]

While he has long considered himself a member of the Democratic Party, Lieberman has been said by some to be more conservative than many Republicans. In February 2007, Lieberman spoke before the "Senate Foreign Relations Committee in support of the confirmation of "Sam Fox as ambassador to Belgium. Fox, a prominent Republican businessman and political donor, was a contributor to the "Swift Boat Veterans for Truth campaign in 2004.[96] Fox is also reported to have donated to Lieberman's 2006 Senate campaign.[97]

Lieberman was a supporter of the Iraq War and has urged action against Iran. In July 2008, Lieberman spoke at the annual conference of "Christians United for Israel (CUFI) then later, in July 2009, accepted from John Hagee CUFI's "Defender of Israel Award".[98] Pastor "Hagee, CUFI's founder and leader, has made a number of controversial remarks, including a statement that the Catholic Church is "the great whore" and a suggestion that God sent "Adolf Hitler to bring the Jews to "Israel.[99]

In May 2010, while favoring the "filibuster and threatening to use it in 2009 to eliminate a public health option as part of the healthcare proposal, Lieberman once strongly opposed the filibuster. In 1995, he joined with Senator "Tom Harkin to co-sponsor an amendment to kill the filibuster. “The filibuster hurts the credibility of the entire Senate and impedes progress,” Lieberman told the "Hartford Courant (January 6, 1995).[100]

In April 2010, Lieberman blasted President Obama for stripping terms like "Islamic extremism" from a key national security document, calling the move dishonest, wrong-headed and disrespectful to the majority of Muslims who are not terrorists.[101]

Lieberman has favored greater use of surveillance cameras by the federal government and referred to attempts by Congress to investigate illegal wire-tapping as "partisan gridlock". On June 19, 2010, Lieberman introduced a bill called ""Protecting Cyberspace as a National Asset Act of 2010",[102] which he co-wrote with Senator "Susan Collins (R-ME) and Senator "Thomas Carper (D-DE). If signed into law, this controversial bill, which the American media dubbed the ""Kill switch bill", would grant the "President emergency powers over the Internet. However, all three co-authors of the bill issued a statement claiming that instead, the bill "[narrowed] existing broad Presidential authority to take over telecommunications networks".[103] American "computer security specialist and author "Bruce Schneier objected to the "kill switch" proposal on the basis that it rests on several faulty assumptions and that it's "too coarse a hammer". Schneier wrote:

Defending his proposal, Sen. Lieberman pointed out that China has this capability. It's debatable whether or not it actually does, but it's actively pursuing the capability because the country cares less about its citizens. Here in the U.S., it is both wrong and dangerous to give the president the power and ability to commit Internet suicide and terrorize Americans in this way.[104]

Lieberman has been a major opponent of the "whistle-blowing website "WikiLeaks. His staff "made inquiries"[105] of "Amazon.com and other internet companies such as "PayPal, "Visa, and "MasterCard which resulted in them suspending service to WikiLeaks. Journalist "Glenn Greenwald called Lieberman's actions "one of the most pernicious acts by a U.S. Senator in quite some time," and accused Lieberman of "emulat[ing] Chinese dictators" by "abusing his position as "Homeland Security Chairman to thuggishly dictate to private companies which websites they should and should not host – and, more important, what you can and cannot read on the Internet."[106] Lieberman has also suggested that "the "New York Times and other news organisations publishing the US embassy cables being released by WikiLeaks could be investigated for breaking "US espionage laws."[107]

Along with Senators "John Ensign and "Scott Brown, Lieberman "introduced a bill to amend the "Espionage Act in order to facilitate the prosecution of folks like Wikileaks."[108] Critics have noted that "[l]eaking [classified] information in the first place is already a crime, so the measure is aimed squarely at publishers," and that "Lieberman’s proposed solution to WikiLeaks could have implications for journalists reporting on some of the more unsavory practices of the intelligence community."[109] Legal analyst "Benjamin Wittes has called the proposed legislation "the worst of both worlds," saying:

It leaves intact the current World War I-era Espionage Act provision, 18 U.S.C. 793(e), a law [with] many problems... and then takes a currently well-drawn law and expands its scope to the point that it covers a lot more than the most reckless of media excesses. A lot of good journalism would be a crime under this provision; after all, knowingly and willfully publishing material 'concerning the human intelligence activities of the United States or any foreign government' is no small part of what a good newspaper does."[108]

As a result of these statements and actions, Lieberman has been perceived as an opponent of Internet "free speech and become the target of "Anonymous attacks under "Operation Payback.[110]

Due to his opposition of violence in video games, he was directly referenced in "Postal 2, wherein the easiest difficulty mode of the game was titled "Liebermode."

Political positions[edit]

Political positions of Joe Lieberman

Lieberman was one of the Senate's strongest advocates for the "war in Iraq. He is also an outspoken supporter of the U.S.-"Israel relationship. On domestic issues, he strongly supports "free trade economics while reliably voting for pro-"trade union legislation. He has also opposed filibustering Republican judicial appointments. With "Lynne Cheney and others, Lieberman co-founded "American Council of Trustees and Alumni in 1995. Lieberman is a supporter of "abortion rights and of the "rights of gays and lesbians to "adopt children, to be protected with "hatecrime legislation, and to "serve openly in the military.[111] Lieberman is one of the Senate's leading opponents of violence in video games and on television. Lieberman describes himself as being "genuinely an Independent," saying "I agree more often than not with Democrats on "domestic policy. I agree more often than not with Republicans on "foreign and "defense policy."[112] Lieberman is also famous for championing, authoring and leading the effort that led to the repeal of "Don't ask, don't tell.["citation needed]

During debate on the "Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, Lieberman opposed the public option. As the crucial 60th vote needed to pass the legislation, his opposition to the public option was critical for its removal from the resulting bill.[9]

Lieberman was an integral part in attempting to stop "WikiLeaks from publishing further material using U.S.-based corporations in the "United States diplomatic cables leak of 2010.[113]

In June 2015, Lieberman was a signatory to a public letter written by a bipartisan group of 19 U.S. diplomats, experts, and others, on the then-pending negotiations for an "agreement between Iran and world powers over Iran's nuclear program.[114][115] That letter outlined concerns about several provisions in the then-unfinished agreement and called for a number of improvements to strengthen the prospective agreement and win the letter-writers' support for it.[114] The final agreement, concluded in July 2015, shows the influence of the letter.[114]

Electoral history[edit]

Electoral history of Joe Lieberman

Awards[edit]

In 2008, Lieberman received the U.S. Senator John Heinz Award for Greatest Public Service by an Elected or Appointed Official, an award given out annually by "Jefferson Awards.[116]

Published works[edit]

Lieberman is the author of seven books: The Power Broker (1966), a biography of the late Democratic Party chairman, "John M. Bailey; The Scorpion and the Tarantula (1970), a study of early efforts to control "nuclear proliferation; The Legacy (1981), a history of "Connecticut politics from 1930 to 1980; Child Support in America (1986), a guidebook on methods to increase the collection of "child support from delinquent fathers; In Praise of Public Life (2000); An Amazing Adventure (2003), reflecting on his 2000 vice presidential run; and The Gift of Rest: Rediscovering the Beauty of the Sabbath (2011), written with "David Klinghoffer.

In his book Ticking Time Bomb: Counter-Terrorism Lessons from the U.S. Government's Failure to Prevent the Fort Hood Attack (2011), he described Australian Muslim preacher "Feiz Mohammad, American-Yemeni imam "Anwar al-Awlaki, Muslim cleric "Abdullah el-Faisal, and Pakistani-American "Samir Khan as "virtual spiritual sanctioners" who use the internet to offer religious justification for Islamist terrorism.[117]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "The Lieberman Phenomenon" (PDF). Dr. Samuel Heilman – The Edah Journal Volume 1:1. Retrieved December 31, 2011. 
  2. ^ "Joseph Lieberman". Washington Times. Retrieved September 3, 2008. ["dead link]
  3. ^ Supreme Court of the US (December 12, 2000). "George W. Bush, et al., Petitioners v. Albert Gore, Jr., et al., 531 U.S. 98 (2000)". "Cornell Law School. Retrieved June 26, 2010. 
  4. ^ Klarman, Michael J. (December 2001). "Bush v. Gore Through the Lens of Constitutional History". California Law Review. "California Law Review. 89, No. 6 (6): 1721–1765. "JSTOR 3481248. 
  5. ^ MacEachern, Frank (September 18, 2007). "Lieberman registers to vote as a Democrat, wife and daughter unaffiliated" ( – Scholar search). The Stamford Times. ["dead link]
  6. ^ "Senators of the 110th Congress". "U.S. Senate. January 3, 2006. 
  7. ^ "The Hill". The Hill. Retrieved May 24, 2010. 
  8. ^ a b Hulse, Carl (November 19, 2008). "Democrats Gain as Stevens Loses Race". The New York Times. Retrieved March 27, 2010. 
  9. ^ a b Halpin, Helen A.; Harbage, Peter (June 1, 2010). "The Origins And DemiseOf The Public Option". Health Aff. 29 (6): 1117–1124. "doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2010.0363. "PMID 20530340 – via content.healthaffairs.org. 
  10. ^ "Lieberman to Announce He Will Not Seek Re-Election, Aide Says – Fox News". January 18, 2011. 
  11. ^ Feinberg, Barbara Silberdick (January 1, 2001). "Joseph Lieberman: Keeping the Faith". Lerner Publications – via Google Books. 
  12. ^ "Ancestry of Joseph Lieberman (b. 1942)". 
  13. ^ Picard, Ken (December 12, 2012). "The Wondering Jew: For UVM prof Richard Sugarman, life's big questions are the sweetest pursuit". "Seven Days. Retrieved January 18, 2016. At Yale, Sugarman roomed with another future U.S. senator: Joe Lieberman, whose mother encouraged Sugarman’s religious observances. 
  14. ^ Lieberman: A history-making candidate. CNN.com. Retrieved October 10, 2006.
  15. ^ a b You Go, Joe. "New York Magazine November 18, 2002.
  16. ^ Merida, Kevin. Lieberman's Morality Concerns Not New. "The Washington Post September 5, 1998.
  17. ^ Conason, Joe (September 1, 2006). "In bed with Big Pharma". Salon. Retrieved November 14, 2009. 
  18. ^ Jacobson, Judie. "Jewish Geography". www.jewishledger.com. Archived from the original on June 23, 2009. Retrieved February 21, 2008. 
  19. ^ a b Goodstein, Laurie. Lieberman Balances Private Faith With Life in the Public Eye "New York Times August 18, 2000.
  20. ^ "Capitol Briefing – Senate clears way for passage of spending bill". 
  21. ^ Gold, Matea. Lieberman and religion seem to be an easy mix. "Los Angeles Times August 28, 2000.
  22. ^ "Joseph Lieberman: The Historic Choice". "Hartford Courant. August 8, 2000. 
  23. ^ "Reflection on the Rebbe by Senator Joseph Lieberman – Commemorating the Rebbe's 15th Yahrtzeit". 
  24. ^ Review of THE LEGACY: Connecticut Politics 1930–1980 Book by Joseph I. Lieberman. Introduction by Jack Zaiman. Cartoons by Ed Valtman. 215 pages. Spoonwood Press. Review in The New York Times, December 20, 1981. Retrieved September 24, 2010.
  25. ^ The official web site of the Connecticut Attorney General's office is at http://www.ct.gov/ag/site/default.asp.
  26. ^ Kornacki, Steve (January 19, 2011) The making (and unmaking) of Joe Lieberman, "Salon.com
  27. ^ "Buckleys Are Backing A Democrat?". The New York Times. August 16, 1988. 
  28. ^ Toobin, Jeffrey. Joe Lieberman looks hopefully toward the White House. "The New Yorker December 16, 2002.
  29. ^ a b c d "Joe Lieberman on Conversations with Bill Kristol". 
  30. ^ "75 Power Players: The Watcher". "Next Generation. "Imagine Media (11): 67. November 1995. 
  31. ^ Senator Joe Lieberman Attacks Clinton. AustralianPolitics.com September 3, 1998. Retrieved October 10, 2006.
  32. ^ Election results. "Hartford Courant August 10, 2006.
  33. ^ Klein, Rick. Lieberman crafts backup plan: Says he'll run even if he loses primary. "The Boston Globe July 4, 2006.
  34. ^ Murray, Shailagh. Lieberman May Run as Independent. "The Washington Post July 4, 2006.
  35. ^ Haigh, Susan. Lieberman campaign files forms to run as petitioning candidate. "The Boston Globe July 10, 2006.
  36. ^ Barry, Ellen. Lieberman Is Defeated in Primary. "Los Angeles Times August 9, 2006. pg. A1.
  37. ^ Kornacki, Steve (January 24, 2011) The most cowardly act of a retiring politician, "Salon.com
  38. ^ Fouhy, Beth. Clinton Reiterates Pledge to Back Lamont. "The Washington Post August 10, 2006.
  39. ^ Nagourney, Adam.PRIMARY IN CONNECTICUT: NEWS ANALYSIS; A Referendum On Iraq Policy. "New York Times August 9, 2006.
  40. ^ a b c Healy, Patrick and Medina, Jennifer. Lieberman Goes on the Offensive, Linking the Terror Threat to Iraq. "New York Times August 11, 2006.
  41. ^ NRSC Takes Lieberman.. Retrieved October 10, 2006.
  42. ^ First Read. MSNBC.com. August 17, 2006.
  43. ^ Kerrey for Lieberman.. Retrieved October 10, 2006.
  44. ^ As Outsider, Lieberman Walks a Tricky Path New York Times September 9, 2006
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