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John Hume
"KCSG
""John Hume 2008.jpg
"Leader of the Social Democratic and Labour Party
In office
6 May 1979 – 6 November 2001
Deputy "Seamus Mallon
Preceded by "Gerry Fitt
Succeeded by "Mark Durkan
"Member of the Legislative Assembly
for "Foyle
In office
25 June 1998 – 1 December 2000
Preceded by "Constituency created
Succeeded by "Annie Courtney
"Member of Parliament
for "Foyle
In office
10 June 1983 – 11 April 2005
Preceded by "Constituency created
Succeeded by "Mark Durkan
Member of the "European Parliament
for "Northern Ireland
In office
"10 June 1979 – "13 June 2004
Preceded by New creation
Succeeded by "Bairbre de Brún
Member of the "Northern Ireland Parliament
for "Foyle
In office
24 February 1969 – 30 March 1972
Preceded by "Eddie McAteer
Succeeded by Parliament abolished
Personal details
Born (1937-01-18) 18 January 1937 (age 80)
"Derry, "Northern Ireland
Nationality "Irish
Political party "SDLP
Spouse(s) Patricia Hume
Children 5
"Alma mater "St Columb's College
"St Patrick's College, Maynooth
Profession "Educator

John Hume, "KCSG (born 18 January 1937) is an "Irish former politician from "Derry, "Northern Ireland. He was a founding member of the "Social Democratic and Labour Party, and was co-recipient of the 1998 "Nobel Peace Prize, with "David Trimble.

He was the second leader of the "Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP), a position he held from 1979 until 2001. He has served as a "Member of the European Parliament and a Member of the UK Parliament, as well as a member of the "Northern Ireland Assembly.

He is regarded as one of the most important figures in the recent political history of Ireland and one of the architects of the "Northern Ireland peace process. He is also a recipient of the "Gandhi Peace Prize and the "Martin Luther King Award, the only recipient of the three major peace awards. In 2010 he was named ""Ireland's Greatest" in a public poll by Irish national broadcaster RTÉ to find the greatest person in Ireland's history.[1] In 2012, Pope "Benedict XVI made Hume a Knight Commander of the Papal "Order of St. Gregory the Great.[2]

Contents

Beginnings[edit]

John Hume was born in Derry with an Irish Catholic background. His great-grandfather was a Presbyterian immigrant from Scotland.[3] Hume was a student at "St. Columb's College and at "St. Patrick's College, Maynooth, the leading Catholic seminary in Ireland and a recognised college of the "National University of Ireland, where he intended to study for the priesthood. Among his teachers was the future "Cardinal "Tomás Ó Fiaich.

He did not complete his clerical studies, but did obtain a M.A degree from the college, and then returned home to his native city and became a teacher. He was a founding member of the "Credit Union movement in the city, and was chair of the "University for Derry Committee in 1965.[4]

Hume became a leading figure in the "civil rights movement in the late 1960s along with people such as "Hugh Logue. Hume was prominent in the unsuccessful fight to have Northern Ireland's second university established in Derry in the mid-sixties. After this campaign, John Hume went on to be a prominent figure in the Derry Citizens' Action Committee. The DCAC was set up in the wake of 5 October march through Derry which had caused so much attention to be drawn towards the situation in Northern Ireland. The purpose of the DCAC was to make use of the publicity surrounding recent events to bring to light grievances in Derry that had been suppressed by the Unionist Government for years. The DCAC, unlike "Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association (NICRA), however, was aimed specifically at a local campaign, improving the situation in Derry for all, and maintaining a peaceful stance. The committee also had a Stewards Association that was there to prevent any violence at marches or sit-downs.

Involvement in the Credit Union movement[edit]

Hume was a founder member of Derry Credit Union. At the age of 27 he became the youngest ever President of the "Irish League of Credit Unions. He served as President from 1964 to 1968. He once said that "all the things I've been doing, it's the thing I'm proudest of, because no movement has done more good for the people of Ireland, north and south, than the credit union movement."[5]

Political career[edit]

Hume became an "Independent Nationalist member of the "Parliament of Northern Ireland in 1969 at the height of the "civil rights campaign. He was elected to the "Northern Ireland Assembly in 1973, and served as Minister of Commerce in the short-lived power-sharing government in 1974. He stood unsuccessfully for the Westminster Parliament at the "Londonderry constituency in "October 1974, and was elected for "Foyle in "1983.

In October 1971 he joined four Westminster MPs in a 48-hour "hunger strike to protest at the "internment without trial of hundreds of suspected "Irish republicans. State papers that have been released under the 30 year rule that an Irish diplomat 8 years later in 1979 believed John Hume supported the return of internment, however the SDLP have strenuously denied this.[6]

In 1977, Hume challenged a regulation under the "Civil Authorities (Special Powers) Act (Northern Ireland) 1922 which allowed any soldier to disperse an assembly of three or more people. "Lord Chief Justice of Northern Ireland, "Lord Lowry held that the regulation was "Ultra Vires under Section 4 "Government of Ireland Act 1920 which forbade the "Parliament of Northern Ireland to make laws in respect of the army.[7]

A founding member of the "Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP), he succeeded "Gerry Fitt as its leader in 1979. He has also served as one of Northern Ireland's three "Members of the European Parliament and has served on the faculty of "Boston College, from which he received an honorary degree in 1995.

Hume was directly involved in 'secret talks' with the British government and "Sinn Féin, in effort to bring Sinn Féin to the discussion table openly. The talks are speculated to have led directly to the "Anglo-Irish Agreement in 1985.

However the vast majority of "unionists rejected the agreement and staged a massive and peaceful public rally in "Belfast City Centre to demonstrate their distaste. Many republicans and nationalists rejected it also, as they had seen it as not going far enough.[8] Hume, however, continued dialogue with both governments and Sinn Féin. The "Hume-"Adams process" eventually delivered the 1994 IRA ceasefire which ultimately provided the relatively peaceful backdrop against which the "Good Friday agreement was brokered.

Reputation[edit]

Hume is credited with being the thinker behind many of the recent political developments in "Northern Ireland, from the power-sharing "Sunningdale Agreement to the "Anglo-Irish Agreement and the "Belfast Agreement. He won the "Nobel Peace Prize in 1998 alongside the then-leader of the "Ulster Unionist Party, "David Trimble.[9]

When "David Trimble became First Minister it was expected that Hume would take the role of his deputy, being leader of the second largest party, the SDLP. Instead this role was handed to "Seamus Mallon, also of the SDLP. Some political journalists cited a bad working relationship between Hume and Trimble despite collecting the Nobel prize with him.[10]

On his retirement from the leadership of the SDLP in 2001 he was praised across the political divide, even by his longtime opponent, fellow MP and MEP, the Rev. "Ian Paisley. Hume holds the Tip O'Neill "Chair in Peace Studies at the "University of Ulster, currently funded by "The Ireland Funds.[11]

Retirement[edit]

On 4 February 2004, Hume announced his complete retirement from politics, and shepherded "Mark Durkan as his successor as SDLP leader. He did not contest the "2004 European election (when his seat was won by "Bairbre de Brún of "Sinn Féin) or the 2005 "general election, in which Mark Durkan retained the Foyle constituency for the SDLP.

Hume and his wife, Pat, continue to be active in promoting European integration, issues around global poverty and the Credit Union movement. In retirement, he continued to speak publicly, including a visit to "Seton Hall University in "New Jersey in 2005, the first Summer University of Democracy of the "Council of Europe ("Strasbourg, 10–14 July 2006), and "St Thomas University, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada, 18 July 2007. A recent building in the "National University of Ireland, Maynooth, was named after him. Hume holds the position of Club President at his local "football team, "Derry City F.C., of whom he has been a keen supporter all his life.[12] He is a patron of the children's charity Plan Ireland.[13][14]

He suffers from "dementia, which first manifested itself in the late 1990s.[15]

Awards[edit]

Ireland's greatest[edit]

On 22 October 2010 John Hume was announced as Ireland's greatest person. This was announced by "Ryan Tubridy on "The Late Late Show after a vote by "RTÉ viewers. Hume was up against "Michael Collins, "Bono, "James Connolly and "Mary Robinson for the title.[21]

Further reading[edit]

Quotes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "John Hume proud of 'Ireland's Greatest' award". RTÉ News. 26 October 2010. 
  2. ^ "John Hume knighted by Pope Benedict". BBC News. 6 July 2012. 
  3. ^ McCrystal, Cal (4 September 1994). "Ceasefire: It's all just coming together for the fixer: John Hume risked all when he met Sinn Fein. Now there's talk of a Nobel Peace Prize. Cal McCrystal reports". 
  4. ^ Gerald McSheffrey, Planning Derry: Planning and Politics in Northern Ireland, p.110
  5. ^ John Hume Interview – page 3 / 8 – Academy of Achievement Archived 29 June 2013 at the "Wayback Machine.
  6. ^ "Top diplomat thought Hume wanted return of internment". Archived from the original on 2012-07-20. 
  7. ^ Robert Lynd Erskine Lowry; ODNB
  8. ^ Northern Ireland: Conflict and ChangeJonathan Tonge (2002)
  9. ^ Peace 1998
  10. ^ Abstracts: From process to procession. Calling John Hume. Waiting for a breakthrough – Business, international
  11. ^ "Tip O' Neill Chair: John Hume". University of Ulster. Archived from the original on 3 March 2009. Retrieved 8 April 2009. 
  12. ^ "Who's Who?". Derry City FC. Archived from the original on 16 May 2016. Retrieved 2016-05-13. 
  13. ^ "Girls offer key to achieving Millennium Goals". Plan Ireland. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 24 September 2010. 
  14. ^ "Our Supporters". Plan Ireland. Retrieved 24 September 2010. 
  15. ^ "Wife speaks about John Hume's struggle with dementia". "RTÉ News. 2015-11-23. Retrieved 2016-05-30. 
  16. ^ St. Thomas University – Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada Archived 28 September 2007 at the "Wayback Machine.
  17. ^ [1] Archived 26 May 2009 at the "Wayback Machine.
  18. ^ Irish News, 6 January 1999 Archived 16 May 2012 at the "Wayback Machine.
  19. ^ "John Hume receives freedom of Derry". RTÉ. Retrieved Jan 5, 2015. 
  20. ^ "'Peace warrior' Hume gets the freedom of Cork". Irish Independent. Retrieved Jan 5, 2015. 
  21. ^ "John Hume in running to be named 'Ireland's Greatest'". BBC News. 22 October 2010. 
  22. ^ "John Hume Profile". Academy of Achievement. 2009-10-24. Archived from the original on 12 May 2013. Retrieved 2013-08-15. 
  23. ^ "John Hume Interview". Academy of Achievement. 2002-06-08. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 2013-08-15. 

External links[edit]

"Parliament of Northern Ireland
Preceded by
"Eddie McAteer
Member of Parliament for "Foyle
1969–1973
Parliament abolished
"Northern Ireland Assembly (1973)
New assembly "Assembly Member for "Londonderry
1973–1974
Assembly abolished
"Northern Ireland Constitutional Convention
New convention Member for "Londonderry
1975–1976
Convention dissolved
"European Parliament
New constituency "MEP for "Northern Ireland
"1979–"2004
Succeeded by
"Bairbre de Brún
"Northern Ireland Assembly (1982)
New assembly "MPA for "Londonderry
1982–1986
Assembly abolished
"Parliament of the United Kingdom
New constituency Member of Parliament for "Foyle
"1983–"2005
Succeeded by
"Mark Durkan
"Northern Ireland Forum
New forum Member for "Foyle
1996–1998
Forum dissolved
"Northern Ireland Assembly
New assembly "MLA for "Foyle
1998–2000
Succeeded by
"Annie Courtney
Party political offices
New political party "Deputy Leader of the Social Democratic and Labour Party
1970–1979
Succeeded by
"Seamus Mallon
Preceded by
"Gerry Fitt
"Leader of the Social Democratic and Labour Party
1979–2001
Succeeded by
"Mark Durkan
) )