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John Langdon
""John langdon.jpg
"President pro tempore of the United States Senate
In office
November 5, 1792 – December 2, 1793
Preceded by "Richard Henry Lee
Succeeded by "Ralph Izard
In office
April 6, 1789 – August 9, 1789
Preceded by Position established
Succeeded by "Richard Henry Lee
"United States Senator
from "New Hampshire
In office
March 4, 1789 – March 3, 1801
Preceded by Seat established
Succeeded by "James Sheafe
2nd "Governor of New Hampshire
In office
June 1, 1785 – June 7, 1786
Preceded by "Meshech Weare
Succeeded by "John Sullivan
In office
June 4, 1788 – January 22, 1789
Preceded by John Sullivan
Succeeded by John Sullivan
In office
June 6, 1805 – June 8, 1809
Preceded by "John Taylor Gilman
Succeeded by "Jeremiah Smith
In office
June 5, 1810 – June 5, 1812
Preceded by "Jeremiah Smith
Succeeded by "William Plumer
Personal details
Born (1741-06-26)June 26, 1741
"Portsmouth, "Province of New Hampshire, "British America
Died September 18, 1819(1819-09-18) (aged 78)
"Portsmouth, New Hampshire, U.S.
Resting place North Cemetery, Portsmouth
Political party Pro-Administration
"Anti-Administration
"Democratic-Republican
Signature ""

John Langdon (June 26, 1741 – September 18, 1819) was a politician from "Portsmouth, New Hampshire, and a "Founding Father of the United States. He served as a delegate to the "Constitutional Convention, signed the "United States Constitution, and was one of the first two "United States senators from that state.

As a member of the "Continental Congress Langdon was an early supporter of the "Revolutionary War. He later served in "United States Congress for 12 years, including as the first "president pro tempore of the Senate, before becoming "governor of New Hampshire. He turned down a nomination for "Vice Presidential candidate in 1812.

Contents

Biography[edit]

Early years[edit]

Langdon's father was a prosperous farmer and local ship builder whose family had emigrated to America before 1660 from "Sheviock, "Caradon, "Cornwall. The Langdons were among the first to settle near the mouth of the "Piscataqua River, a settlement which became "Portsmouth, one of "New England's major "seaports. Langdon attended the local grammar school run by a veteran of the 1745 "Siege of Louisbourg against the "French at "Fortress Louisbourg in "New France. After finishing his primary education, he served an "apprenticeship as a clerk. He and his older brother, "Woodbury Langdon, rejected the opportunity to join in their father's successful agricultural livelihood and apprenticed themselves to local naval merchants instead.

To sea[edit]

By age 22, Langdon was "captain of a "cargo ship called the Andromache, sailing to the "West Indies. Four years later he owned his first "merchantman, and would continue over time to acquire a small fleet of vessels engaging in the "triangle trade between Portsmouth, the "Caribbean, and "London.["citation needed] His older brother was even more successful in international trade, and by 1777 both young men were among Portsmouth's wealthiest citizens.

As revolutionary[edit]

British control of the shipping industries greatly hurt Langdon's business, motivating him to become a vigorous and prominent supporter of the revolutionary movement in the 1770s. He served on the New Hampshire "Committee of Correspondence and a nonimportation committee, and also attended various "Patriot assemblies. In 1774, he participated in the seizure and confiscation of British "munitions from "Fort William and Mary.

Langdon served as a member of the "Second Continental Congress from 1775 to 1776. He resigned in June 1776 to become agent for the Continental forces against the "British and superintended the construction of several warships including the "Raleigh, the "America, and the "Ranger, which was captained by "John Paul Jones. In 1777, he equipped an expedition against the British, participating in the "Battle of Bennington and commanding "Langdon's Company of Light Horse Volunteers at "Saratoga and in "Rhode Island.

Founding father[edit]

""
""
"Governor John Langdon House, Portsmouth, New Hampshire

In 1784 he built at Portsmouth the mansion now known as the "Governor John Langdon House. Langdon was elected to two terms as "President of New Hampshire, once between 1785 and 1786 and again between 1788 and 1789. He was a member of the "Congress of the Confederation in 1787 and became a delegate to the "Constitutional Convention in 1787, serving as a member of the New Hampshire delegation. Langdon was elected to the U.S. Senate and served from March 4, 1789, to March 3, 1801. He was elected the first President pro tempore of the Senate on April 6, 1789, and also served as president pro tempore during the second Congress.

During the 1787 constitutional debates in Philadelphia, Langdon spoke out against "James Madison's proposed "negative" on state laws simply because he felt that should the Senate be granted this power and not the House of Representatives, it would "hurt the feelings" of House members.[1]["dubious ]

In 1798, Langdon assisted "Oney Judge to evade "Burwell Bassett, the nephew of "George and "Martha Washington, who had intended to kidnap Judge and return her to slavery with the Washingtons.[2]

New Hampshire statesman[edit]

Langdon later served as a member of the "New Hampshire Legislature (1801–05), with the last two terms as "speaker; he served as "governor from 1805 to 1812, except for a year between 1809 and 1810. In 1808, his niece, Catherine Whipple Langdon, married "Edmund Roberts.[3] Langdon declined the nomination to be a candidate for "Vice President with James Madison in 1812, and later retired.["citation needed] He died in Portsmouth in 1819 and was interred at the Langdon Tomb in the "North Cemetery.[4]

Legacy[edit]

The town of "Langdon, New Hampshire is named after him,[5] as well as Langdon Street in "Madison, Wisconsin, a town with numerous streets named after founding fathers.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Avalon Project – Madison Debates – July 10". Retrieved July 30, 2016. 
  2. ^ Eva Gerson, "Ona Judge Staines: Escape from Washington", 2000, Black History, SeacoastNH
  3. ^ "Calvin Howard Bell Family". extract from Bell Family History. Access Genealogy. April 23, 2012. Archived from the original on November 4, 2011. Retrieved April 19, 2012. Judge Woodbury Langdon, of Portsmouth , N. H.; Delegate to the Continental Congress, 1779; President of N. H. Senate, 1784; Judge of the Superior Court of N. H., 1782–91....(a) Catherine Whipple Langdon: m. 1808, Edmund Roberts, of Portsmouth, N. H. 
  4. ^ New Hampshire History Marker #114
  5. ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 181. 
  6. ^ "Wisconsin Historical Society". Retrieved July 30, 2016. 

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
"Meshech Weare
"Governor of New Hampshire
1785–1786
Succeeded by
"John Sullivan
Preceded by
John Sullivan
Governor of New Hampshire
1788 –1789
Succeeded by
John Sullivan
Preceded by
"John Taylor Gilman
Governor of New Hampshire
1805–1809
Succeeded by
"Jeremiah Smith
Preceded by
Jeremiah Smith
Governor of New Hampshire
1810–1812
Succeeded by
"William Plumer
Preceded by
none
"President pro tempore of the United States Senate
April 6, 1789 – August 9, 1789
Succeeded by
"Richard Henry Lee
Preceded by
Richard Henry Lee
President pro tempore of the United States Senate
November 5, 1792 – December 2, 1793
Succeeded by
"Ralph Izard
"U.S. Senate
Preceded by
None
"U.S. Senator (Class 3) from New Hampshire
1789–1801
Served alongside: "Paine Wingate, "Samuel Livermore
Succeeded by
"James Sheafe
) )