On July 19, 2005, "President Bush nominated Roberts to the "U.S. Supreme Court to fill a vacancy that would be created by the retirement of "Justice "Sandra Day O'Connor. Roberts was the first Supreme Court nominee since "Stephen Breyer in 1994. Bush announced Roberts's nomination in a live, nationwide television broadcast from the "East Room of the "White House at 9 p.m. Eastern Time.
Chief Justice "William H. Rehnquist died on September 3, 2005, while Roberts's confirmation was still pending before the Senate. Shortly thereafter, on September 5, Bush withdrew Roberts's nomination as O'Connor's successor and announced Roberts's new nomination to the position of Chief Justice. Bush asked the Senate to expedite Roberts's confirmation hearings to fill the vacancy by the beginning of the Supreme Court's session in early October.
Roberts's testimony on his jurisprudence
During his confirmation hearings, Roberts said that he did not have a comprehensive jurisprudential philosophy, and he did "not think beginning with an all-encompassing approach to constitutional interpretation is the best way to faithfully construe the document". Roberts analogized judges to baseball umpires: "[I]t's my job to call balls and strikes, and not to pitch or bat." Roberts demonstrated an encyclopedic knowledge of Supreme Court precedent, which he discussed without notes. Among the issues he discussed were:
In Senate hearings, Roberts has stated:
Starting with McCulloch v. Maryland, Chief Justice "John Marshall gave a very broad and expansive reading to the powers of the Federal Government and explained generally that if the ends be legitimate, then any means chosen to achieve them are within the power of the Federal Government, and cases interpreting that, throughout the years, have come down. Certainly, by the time Lopez was decided, many of us had learned in "law school that it was just sort of a formality to say that "interstate commerce was affected and that cases weren't going to be thrown out that way. Lopez certainly breathed new life into the "Commerce Clause.
I think it remains to be seen, in subsequent decisions, how rigorous a showing, and in many cases, it is just a showing. It's not a question of an abstract fact, does this affect interstate commerce or not, but has this body, the Congress, demonstrated the impact on interstate commerce that drove them to legislate? That's a very important factor. It wasn't present in Lopez at all. I think the members of Congress had heard the same thing I had heard in law school, that this is unimportant—and they hadn't gone through the process of establishing a record in that case.
Roberts stated the following about "federalism in a 1999 radio interview:
We have gotten to the point these days where we think the only way we can show we’re serious about a problem is if we pass a federal law, whether it is the Violence Against Women Act or anything else. The fact of the matter is conditions are different in different states, and state laws can be more relevant is I think exactly the right term, more attune to the different situations in New York, as opposed to Minnesota, and that is what the Federal system is based on.
Reviewing Acts of Congress
At a Senate hearing, Roberts stated:
The Supreme Court has, throughout its history, on many occasions described the deference that is due to legislative judgments. Justice Holmes described assessing the constitutionality of an act of Congress as the gravest duty that the Supreme Court is called upon to perform. ... It's a principle that is easily stated and needs to be observed in practice, as well as in theory.
Now, the Court, of course, has the obligation, and has been recognized since "Marbury v. Madison, to assess the constitutionality of acts of Congress, and when those acts are challenged, it is the obligation of the Court to say what the law is. The determination of when deference to legislative policy judgments goes too far and becomes abdication of the judicial responsibility, and when scrutiny of those judgments goes too far on the part of the judges and becomes what I think is properly called "judicial activism, that is certainly the central dilemma of having an unelected, as you describe it correctly, undemocratic judiciary in a democratic republic.
On the subject of "stare decisis, referring to "Brown v. Board, the decision overturning school "segregation, Roberts said that "the Court in that case, of course, overruled a prior decision. I don't think that constitutes judicial activism because obviously if the decision is wrong, it should be overruled. That's not activism. That's applying the law correctly."
Roe v. Wade
While working as a lawyer for the Reagan administration, Roberts wrote legal memos defending administration policies on abortion. At his nomination hearing Roberts testified that the legal memos represented the views of the administration he was representing at the time and not necessarily his own. "Senator, I was a staff lawyer; I didn't have a position," Roberts said. As a lawyer in the "George H. W. Bush administration, Roberts signed a legal brief urging the court to overturn "Roe v. Wade.
In private meetings with senators before his confirmation, Roberts testified that Roe was settled law, but added that it was subject to the legal principle of "stare decisis, meaning that while the Court must give some weight to the precedent, it was not legally bound to uphold it.
In his Senate testimony, Roberts said that, while sitting on the "Appellate Court, he had an obligation to respect precedents established by the Supreme Court, including the right to an "abortion. He stated: ""Roe v. Wade is the settled law of the land. ... There is nothing in my personal views that would prevent me from fully and faithfully applying that precedent, as well as "Casey." Following the traditional reluctance of nominees to indicate which way they might vote on an issue likely to come before the Supreme Court, he did not explicitly say whether he would vote to overturn either.
On September 22, the "Senate Judiciary Committee approved Roberts's nomination by a vote of 13–5, with Senators "Ted Kennedy, "Richard Durbin, "Charles Schumer, "Joe Biden and "Dianne Feinstein casting the dissenting votes. Roberts was confirmed by the full Senate on September 29 by a margin of 78–22. All Republicans and the one Independent voted for Roberts; the Democrats split evenly, 22–22. Roberts was confirmed by what was, historically, a narrow margin for a Supreme Court justice. However, all subsequent confirmation votes have been even narrower.
On the U.S. Supreme Court
Roberts took the "Constitutional "oath of office, administered by Associate Justice "John Paul Stevens at the "White House, on September 29. On October 3, he took the judicial oath provided for by the "Judiciary Act of 1789 at the "United States Supreme Court building, prior to the first oral arguments of the 2005 term. Ending weeks of speculation, Roberts wore a plain black robe, dispensing with the gold sleeve-bars added to the Chief Justice's robes by his predecessor. Then 50, Roberts became the youngest member of the Court, and the third-youngest person to have ever become Chief Justice ("John Jay was appointed at age 44 in 1789 while "John Marshall was appointed at age 45 in 1801). However, many Associate Justices, such as "Clarence Thomas (appointed at age 43) and "William O. Douglas (appointed at age 40 in 1939), have joined the Court at a younger age than Roberts.
Justice "Antonin Scalia said that Roberts "pretty much run[s] the show the same way" as Rehnquist, albeit "let[ting] people go on a little longer at conference ... but [he'll] get over that." Roberts has been portrayed as a consistent advocate for conservative principles by analysts such as "Jeffrey Toobin.
Seventh Circuit Judge "Diane Sykes, surveying Roberts's first term on the court, concluded that his jurisprudence "appears to be strongly rooted in the discipline of traditional legal method, evincing a fidelity to text, structure, history, and the constitutional hierarchy. He exhibits the restraint that flows from the careful application of established decisional rules and the practice of reasoning from the case law. He appears to place great stock in the process-oriented tools and doctrinal rules that guard against the aggregation of judicial power and keep judicial discretion in check: jurisdictional limits, structural federalism, textualism, and the procedural rules that govern the scope of judicial review." The Chief Justice is currently ranked 65th in the Forbes ranking of "The World's Most Powerful People."
On January 17, 2006, Roberts dissented along with "Antonin Scalia and "Clarence Thomas in "Gonzales v. Oregon, which held that the "Controlled Substances Act does not allow the "United States Attorney General to prohibit physicians from prescribing drugs for the "assisted suicide of the terminally ill as permitted by an Oregon law. The point of contention in the case was largely one of statutory interpretation, not "federalism.
On March 6, 2006, Roberts wrote the unanimous decision in "Rumsfeld v. Forum for Academic and Institutional Rights that colleges accepting federal money must allow military recruiters on campus, despite university objections to the "Clinton administration-initiated ""don't ask, don't tell" policy.
Roberts wrote his first dissent in "Georgia v. Randolph (2006). The majority's decision prohibited police from searching a home if both occupants are present but one objected and the other consented. Roberts criticized the majority opinion as inconsistent with prior "case law and for partly basing its reasoning on its perception of social custom. He said the social expectations test was flawed because the Fourth Amendment protects a legitimate expectation of privacy, not social expectations.
In "Utah v. Strieff (2016), Roberts joined the majority in ruling (5-3) that a person with an outstanding "warrant may be arrested and searched, and that any evidence discovered based on that search is admissible in court; the majority opinion held that this remains true even when police act unlawfully by stopping a person without "probable cause, before learning of the existence of the outstanding warrant.
Notice and opportunity to be heard
Although Roberts has often sided with Scalia and Thomas, Roberts provided a crucial vote against their position in "Jones v. Flowers. In Jones, Roberts sided with liberal justices of the court in ruling that, before a home is seized and sold in a tax-forfeiture sale, due diligence must be demonstrated and proper notification needs to be sent to the owners. Dissenting were "Anthony Kennedy along with "Antonin Scalia and "Clarence Thomas. "Samuel Alito did not participate, while Roberts's opinion was joined by "David Souter, "Stephen Breyer, "John Paul Stevens, and "Ruth Bader Ginsburg.
On the Supreme Court, Roberts has indicated he supports some abortion restrictions. In "Gonzales v. Carhart (2007), he voted with the majority to uphold the constitutionality of the "Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act. Justice "Anthony Kennedy, writing for a five-justice majority, distinguished "Stenberg v. Carhart, and concluded that the court's previous decision in "Planned Parenthood v. Casey did not prevent Congress from banning the procedure. The decision left the door open for future "as-applied challenges, and did not address the broader question of whether Congress had the authority to pass the law. Justice "Clarence Thomas filed a concurring opinion, contending that the Court's prior decisions in "Roe v. Wade and Casey should be reversed; Roberts declined to join that opinion.
Equal Protection Clause
Roberts opposes the use of race in assigning students to particular schools, including for purposes such as maintaining integrated schools. He sees such plans as discrimination in violation of the constitution's Equal Protection Clause and "Brown v. Board of Education. In "Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1, the court considered two voluntarily adopted school district plans that relied on race to determine which schools certain children may attend. The court had held in Brown that "racial discrimination in public education is unconstitutional," and later, that "racial classifications, imposed by whatever federal, state, or local governmental actor, ... are constitutional only if they are narrowly tailored measures that further compelling governmental interests," and that this "[n]arrow tailoring ... require[s] serious, good faith consideration of workable race-neutral alternatives." Roberts cited these cases in writing for the Parents Involved majority, concluding that the school districts had "failed to show that they considered methods other than explicit racial classifications to achieve their stated goals." In a section of the opinion joined by four other Justices, Roberts added that "[t]he way to stop discrimination on the basis of race is to stop discriminating on the basis of race."
Roberts authored the 2007 student free speech case "Morse v. Frederick, ruling that a student in a public school-sponsored activity does not have the right to advocate "drug use on the basis that the right to free speech does not invariably prevent the exercise of school discipline.
On April 20, 2010, in "United States v. Stevens, the Supreme Court struck down an "animal cruelty law. Roberts, writing for an 8–1 majority, found that a federal statute criminalizing the commercial production, sale, or possession of depictions of cruelty to animals, was an unconstitutional abridgment of the First Amendment right to freedom of speech. The Court held that the statute was substantially overbroad; for example, it could allow prosecutions for selling photos of out-of-season hunting.
Health care reform
On June 28, 2012, Roberts delivered the majority opinion in "National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, which upheld the "Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act by a 5–4 vote. The Court indicated that although the "individual mandate" component of the Act could not be upheld under the "Commerce Clause, the mandate could be construed as a tax and was therefore ruled to be valid under "Congress's authority to "lay and collect taxes." The Court overturned a portion of the law related to the withholding of funds from states that did not comply with the expansion of "Medicaid; Roberts wrote that "Congress is not free ... to penalize states that choose not to participate in that new program by taking away their existing Medicaid funding." Sources within the Supreme Court state that Roberts switched his vote regarding the individual mandate sometime after an initial vote and that Roberts largely wrote both the majority and minority opinions. This extremely unusual circumstance has also been used to explain why the minority opinion was also unsigned, itself a rare phenomenon from the Supreme Court.
Comparison to other Court members
Roberts has been compared and contrasted to other court members by commentators. Although Roberts is identified as having a conservative judicial philosophy, his vote in "National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius to uphold the "Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) caused the press to contrast him with the "Rehnquist court. Roberts is seen as having a more moderate conservative orientation, particularly when "Bush v. Gore is compared to Roberts' vote for the ACA. Roberts' judicial philosophy is seen as more moderate and conciliatory than "Antonin Scalia's and "Clarence Thomas'. Roberts is identified with his attempt to re-establish the centrist orientation of the Court. Roberts' voting pattern is most closely aligned to "Samuel Alito's.
Non-judicial duties of the Chief Justice
Obama retakes takes the Oath of office of the President of the United States at 19:35 EST, January 21, 2009 (00:35 UTC, January 22, 2009) (Duration: 54 seconds).
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As Chief Justice, Roberts also serves in a variety of non-judicial roles, including Chancellor of the "Smithsonian Institution and leading the "Judicial Conference of the United States. Perhaps the best known of these is the custom of the Chief Justice administering the "oath of office at Presidential inaugurations. Roberts debuted in this capacity at the "inauguration of Barack Obama on January 20, 2009. (As a Senator, Obama had voted against Roberts's confirmation to the Supreme Court, making the event doubly a first: the first time a president was sworn in by someone whose confirmation he opposed.) Things did not go smoothly. According to columnist "Jeffrey Toobin:
Through intermediaries, Roberts and Obama had agreed how to divide the thirty-five-word oath for the swearing in. Obama was first supposed to repeat the clause “I, Barack Hussein Obama, do solemnly swear.” But, when Obama heard Roberts begin to speak, he interrupted Roberts before he said “do solemnly swear.” This apparently flustered the Chief Justice, who then made a mistake in the next line, inserting the word “faithfully” out of order. Obama smiled, apparently recognizing the error, then tried to follow along. Roberts then garbled another word in the next passage, before correctly reciting, “preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States.”
Part of the difficulty was that Roberts did not have the text of the oath with him but relied on his memory. On later occasions when Roberts has administered an oath, he has taken the text with him.
The Associated Press reported that "[l]ater, as the two men shook hands in the Capitol, Roberts appeared to say the mistake was his fault." The following evening in the "White House Map Room with reporters present, Roberts and Obama repeated the oath correctly. This was, according to the White House, done in "an abundance of caution" to ensure that the constitutional requirement had been met.
Roberts is one of thirteen Catholic justices—out of 111 justices total—in the history of the Supreme Court. Of those thirteen justices, five (Roberts, "Anthony Kennedy, "Clarence Thomas, "Samuel Alito, and "Sonia Sotomayor) are currently serving. Roberts married Jane Sullivan in Washington in 1996. She is an attorney, a Catholic, and a trustee (along with "Clarence Thomas) at her alma mater, the "College of the Holy Cross in "Worcester, Massachusetts. The couple adopted two children, John (Jack) and Josephine (Josie).
Roberts suffered a "seizure on July 30, 2007, while at his vacation home on Hupper Island off the village of "Port Clyde in "St. George, Maine. As a result of the seizure he fell 5 to 10 feet (1.5 to 3.0 m) on a dock near his house but suffered only minor scrapes. He was taken by private boat to the mainland (which is several hundred yards from the island) and then by ambulance to Penobscot Bay Medical Center in "Rockport, where he stayed overnight, according to Supreme Court spokesperson Kathy Arberg. Doctors called the incident a benign "idiopathic seizure, which means there was no identifiable physiological cause.
Roberts had suffered a similar seizure in 1993. After this first seizure, Roberts temporarily limited some of his activities, such as driving. According to Senator "Arlen Specter, who chaired the Senate Judiciary Committee during Roberts's nomination to be Chief Justice in 2005, senators were aware of this seizure when they were considering his nomination, but the committee did not think it was significant enough to bring up during his confirmation hearings. Federal judges are not required by law to release information about their health.
According to "neurologist Marc Schlosberg of "Washington Hospital Center, who has no direct connection to the Roberts case, someone who has had more than one seizure without any other cause is by definition determined to have "epilepsy. After two seizures, the likelihood of another at some point is greater than 60 percent. Steven Garner of "New York Methodist Hospital, who is also uninvolved with the case, said that Roberts's previous history of seizures means that the second incident may be less serious than if this were a newly emerging problem.
The Supreme Court said in a statement that Roberts has "fully recovered from the incident" and that a neurological evaluation "revealed no cause for concern." "Sanjay Gupta, a "CNN contributor and a neurosurgeon not involved in Roberts's case, said that when an otherwise healthy person has a seizure his doctor would investigate whether the patient had started any new medications and had normal electrolyte levels. If those two things were normal, then a brain scan would be performed. If Roberts does not have another seizure within a relatively short time period, Gupta said that he was unsure if Roberts would be given the diagnosis of epilepsy. He said the Chief Justice may need to take an anti-seizure medication.
According to a 16-page financial disclosure form Roberts submitted to the "Senate Judiciary Committee prior to his Supreme Court confirmation hearings, his net worth was more than $6 million, including $1.6 million in stock holdings.["citation needed] At the time Roberts left private practice to join the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals in 2003, he took a pay cut from $1 million a year to $171,800; as Chief Justice, his salary is $255,500 as of 2014. Roberts also holds a one-eighth interest in a cottage in "Knocklong, an Irish village in "County Limerick.
In August 2010, Roberts sold his stock in "Pfizer, which allowed him to participate in two pending cases involving the pharmaceutical maker. Justices are required to recuse themselves in cases in which they own stock of a party.
Bibliography of articles by Roberts
The University of Michigan Law Library (External Links, below) has compiled fulltext links to these articles and a number of briefs and arguments.
- Developments in the Law—Zoning, "The Takings Clause", 91 Harv. L. Rev. 1462 (1978). (Section III of a longer article beginning on p. 1427)
- Comment, "Contract Clause—Legislative Alteration of Private Pension Agreements: Allied Structural Steel Co. v. Spannaus," 92 Harv. L. Rev. 86 (1978). (Subsection C of a longer article beginning on p. 57)
- New Rules and Old Pose Stumbling Blocks in High Court Cases, "Legal Times, February 26, 1990, co-authored with E. Barrett Prettyman Jr.
- "Article III Limits on Statutory Standing". Duke Law Journal. 42: 1219. 1993. "doi:10.2307/1372783.
- Riding the Coattails of the Solicitor General, "Legal Times, March 29, 1993.
- The New Solicitor General and the Power of the Amicus, "The Wall Street Journal, May 5, 1993.
- "The 1992–1993 Supreme Court". Public Interest Law Review. 107. 1994.
- Forfeitures: Does Innocence Matter?, New Jersey Law Journal, October 9, 1995.
- Thoughts on Presenting an Effective Oral Argument, School Law in Review (1997). Link
- The Bush Panel, 2003 BYU L. Rev. 62 (2003). (Part of a tribute to Rex. E. Lee beginning on p. 1. "The Bush Panel" contains a speech by Roberts.)
- Roberts, JOHN G. (2005). "Oral Advocacy and the Re-emergence of a Supreme Court Bar". Journal of Supreme Court History. 30 (1): 68–81. "doi:10.1111/j.1059-4329.2005.00098.x.
- "What Makes the D.C. Circuit Different? A Historical View" (PDF). Virginia Law Review. 92 (3): 375. 2006.
- "A Tribute to Chief Justice Rehnquist" (PDF). Harvard Law Review. 119: 1. 2005.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: John Roberts|
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- See 149 Cong. Rec. S5980 (2003).
- Roberts Nominated for Supreme Court, NBC News (July 19, 2005).
- Hedgepeth v. Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority, DC 03-7149 ("United States District Court for the District of Columbia 2004).
- "Lawyer says Hamden not al-Qaeda – Yemeni was bin Laden's driver – local". Yemen Times. Archived from the original on June 8, 2011. Retrieved August 26, 2010.
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- "FindLaw's United States Supreme Court case and opinions.". Findlaw. Retrieved January 7, 2016.
- See also: "Chief Justice Roberts—Constitutional Interpretations of Article III and the Commerce Clause: Will the 'Hapless Toad' and 'John Q. Public' Have Any Protection in the Roberts Court?" Paul A. Fortenberry and Daniel Canton Beck. 13 U. Balt. J. Envtl. L. 55 (2005)
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- Greenburg, Jan Crawford (2007). Supreme Conflict: The Inside Story of the Struggle for Control of the United States Supreme Court. New York: Penguin Press. p. 232.
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- Greenburg, Jan Crawford (2007). Supreme Conflict: The Inside Story of the Struggle for Control of the United States Supreme Court. New York: Penguin Press. p. 233.
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- "Roll call vote on the Nomination (Confirmation Samuel A. Alito, Jr., of New Jersey, to be an Associate Justice )". United States Senate. January 31, 2006. Archived from the original on August 29, 2008. Retrieved August 5, 2010.
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- "Roll call vote on the Nomination (Confirmation Elena Kagan of Massachusetts, to be an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the U.S. )". United States Senate. August 5, 2010. Retrieved August 5, 2010.
- "A conversation with Justice Antonin Scalia". Charlie Rose. Retrieved August 7, 2010.
- Toobin, Jeffrey (May 25, 2009). "No More Mr. Nice Guy". "The New Yorker. Retrieved June 28, 2009.
- Diane S. Sykes, "Of a Judiciary Nature": Observations on Chief Justice Roberts's First Opinions, 34 Pepp. L. Rev. 1027 (2007).
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- Renee E. Williams (2008). "Third Party Consent Searches After Georgia v. Randolph: Dueling Approaches to the Dueling Rommates" (PDF). Bu.edu. p. 950. Retrieved May 21, 2015.
- "The Supreme Court Just Ruled In Favor Of The Police State, And Sonia Sotomayor Is Not Having It". huffingtonpost.com. 2016-06-20. Retrieved 2016-06-20.
- "Justice Thomas wrote separately to emphasize this: "whether the Act constitutes a permissible exercise of Congress' power under the Commerce Clause is not before the Court"url=http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/05-380.ZC.html". law.cornell.edu.
- "Toobin, Jeffrey (2008). "The Nine: Inside the Secret World of the Supreme Court. New York: Doubleday. p. 389. "ISBN "978-0-385-51640-2.
- Day to Day (June 28, 2007). "Justices Reject Race as Factor in School Placement". NPR. Retrieved August 26, 2010.
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349 U.S. 294, 298 (1955) (Brown II)
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- "Grutter v. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 306, 339 (2003).
- Parents Involved, slip op. at 16.
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- Jeffrey Rosen. "Jeffrey Rosen: Big Chief - The New Republic". The New Republic.
- Marcia Coyle, The Roberts Court: The Struggle for the Constitution, 2013
- Scalia, Antonin; "Garner, Bryan A. (2008) Making Your Case: The Art of Persuading Judges (St. Paul: Thomson West) "ISBN 978-0-314-18471-9.
- "Which Supreme Court Justices Vote Together Most and Least Often". "The New York Times. Retrieved May 21, 2015.
- Associated Press - Chief Justice and Obama seal deal, with a stumble
- Jeffrey Toobin, No More Mr. Nice Guy, The New Yorker, May 2009; see also Tom LoBianco - Chief justice fumbles presidential oath
- Chief Justice stumbles giving presidential oath for first time, Associated Press - January 20, 2009 2:23 PM ET; see also Toobin, supra ("At the lunch in the Capitol that followed, the two men apologized to each other, but Roberts insisted that he was the one at fault").
- Justice "Sherman Minton converted to "Catholicism after his retirement. See Religious affiliation of Supreme Court justices
- Mears, Bill; Jeane Meserve (July 31, 2007). "Chief justice tumbles after seizure". CNN. Retrieved December 5, 2008.
- Sherman, Mark (July 31, 2007). "Chief Justice Roberts Suffers Seizures". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 5, 2008.
- Maine Today staff (July 30, 2007). "Chief Justice John Roberts hospitalized in Maine". Maine Today. Retrieved December 5, 2008.
- McCaleb, Ian; "Associated Press (July 31, 2007). "President Bush Phones Chief Justice John Roberts at Hospital". "Fox News Channel. Retrieved December 5, 2008.
- Chernoff, Alan; Bill Mears; "Dana Bash (July 31, 2007). "Chief justice leaves hospital after seizure". CNN. Archived from the original on May 15, 2008. Retrieved December 5, 2008.
- Fitzgerald, Aine (January 25, 2013). "Limerick link to Obama oath". Limerick Leader. Retrieved August 11, 2015.
- Sherman, Mark (September 29, 2010). "Pfizer stock sold; Roberts to hear company's cases". "The Washington Times. "Associated Press. Retrieved April 28, 2011.
- Lane, Charles (July 25, 2005). "Roberts Listed in Federalist Society '97–98 Directory". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 6, 2010.
- "'Full, fair' hearings pledged for court nominee - The Changing Court". MSNBC. July 20, 2005. Retrieved August 26, 2010.
- Becker, Jo; Argetsinger, Amy (July 22, 2005). "The Nominee As a Young Pragmatist". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 6, 2010.
- Baker, Peter; VandeHei, Jim (July 20, 2005). "Bush Chooses Roberts for Court". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 6, 2010.
- Smith, R. Jeffrey; Becker, Jo (July 20, 2005). "Record of Accomplishment -- And Some Contradictions". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 6, 2010.
- Stout, David; Bumiller, Elisabeth (July 19, 2005). "President's Choice of Roberts Ends a Day of Speculation". The New York Times. Retrieved May 6, 2010.
- "Bush picks conservative Roberts for Supreme Court". Reuters. Archived from the original on September 16, 2005.
- "Nominee Gave Quiet Advice on Recount" The New York Times, July 21, 2005
- Lane, Charles (July 21, 2005). "Federalist Affiliation Misstated". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 6, 2010.
- Lane, Charles (July 21, 2005). "Short Record as Judge Is Under a Microscope". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 6, 2010.
- Groppe, Maureen (July 20, 2005). "Indianapolis Crime/Courts | Indianapolis Star". Indystar.com. Retrieved May 21, 2015.
- "Bush nominates John G. Roberts Jr. for Supreme Court". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. July 19, 2005. Archived from the original on September 11, 2005.
- "Federal Judge Roberts Is Bush's Choice".
- Colleagues call high court nominee a smart, self-effacing 'Eagle Scout'. New York Times. July 20, 2005.
- "Who Is John G. Roberts Jr.?". ABC News. July 19, 2005. Retrieved May 21, 2015.
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- "USDOJ: OLP: Roberts Bio". usdoj.gov. Archived from the original on July 21, 2005.
- "U.S. Court of Appeals - D.C. Circuit - Home". Cadc.uscourts.gov. Retrieved August 26, 2010.
- "HEARING BEFORE THE COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY UNITED STATES SENATE: ONE HUNDRED EIGHTH CONGRESS" (PDF). Access.gpo.gov. Retrieved May 21, 2015.
- "Shannen W. Coffin on John Roberts on National Review Online". Nationalreview.com. July 19, 2005. Retrieved August 26, 2010.
- "Former Hogan & Hartson Partner Nominated for the U.S. Supreme Court". Hoganlovells.com. July 20, 2005. Retrieved May 21, 2015.
- "John G. Roberts, Jr.". Oyez.org. Retrieved April 26, 2016.
- "LaLumiere School - About Us - Judge John Roberts, Jr., Class of 1973". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on October 23, 2005. Retrieved May 21, 2015.
- "NEWSMEAT ▷ John G Roberts's Federal Campaign Contribution Report". Newsmeat.com. August 5, 2010. Retrieved August 26, 2010.
- "Judge Roberts". Judge Roberts. Archived from the original on July 23, 2005. Retrieved August 7, 2010.
- "Report of the Alliance for Justice: Opposition to the Confirmation of John G. Roberts to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit" (PDF). independentjudiciary.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 1, 2005. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
- Joel Goldstein (2008). "Not Hearing History: A Critique of Chief Justice Robert's Reinterpretation of Brown". Ohio State Law Journal. 69 (5). "SSRN .
|"Wikisource has original works written by or about:
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to John Roberts.|
- John Roberts at "Ballotpedia
- Appearances on "C-SPAN
- Issue positions and quotes at "OnTheIssues
- Judge Roberts's Published Opinions in a searchable database
- Chief Justice John Roberts at About.com
- List of Circuit Judge Roberts's opinions for the DC Circuit
- Federalist Society
- A summary of media-related cases handled by Supreme Court nominee John G. Roberts Jr. from The Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press, July 21, 2005
- List of Chief Justices, including John Roberts, Jr.
- On first day, Roberts sets no-nonsense tone – "The Boston Globe
- Nomination and confirmation
- Transcript of Senate Judiciary Committee hearing on the nomination of John Roberts to the D.C. circuit (Roberts Q&A on pages 17–79) plain text available here
- Supreme Court Nomination Blog
- Senate Vote on the Roberts nomination
- Experts Analyze Supreme Court Nominee John Roberts's Legal Record
- Profile of the Nominee – "The Washington Post
- A Senate Hearing Primer – "The New York Times
- Video and Transcripts From the Roberts Confirmation Hearings – "The New York Times
- Search and browse the transcripts from Judge Roberts's confirmation hearing
|"Chief Justice of the United States
"James L. Buckley
|Judge of the "United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit
"Patricia Ann Millett
|"United States order of precedence (ceremonial)|
as "Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives
|"Order of Precedence of the United States
as Chief Justice of the United States
as Former "President of the United States