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A Judensau ("German for "Jews' sow"[1]),[2][3] is a "folk art[4] image of "Jews in obscene contact with a large sow (female "pig), which in "Judaism is an "unclean animal, that appeared during the 13th century in "Germany[1] and some other European countries; its popularity lasted for over 600 years.[5] In "Nazi Germany, classes of German schoolchildren were sent to see the Judensau on German churches[6] and the term remains extant as a "neo-Nazi insult.[1]["better source needed]

Contents

Background and images[edit]

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Woodcut from "Kupferstichkabinet, Munich, ca. 1470, showing a Judensau. The Jews (identified by the "Judenhut) are suckling from a pig and eating its excrement. The "banderoles display rhymes mocking the Jews.

The Jewish prohibition against eating pork comes from Torah, in the "Book of Leviticus Chapter 11, verses 2 through 8.[7][8] The arrangement of "Jews surrounding, suckling, and having intercourse with the animal (sometimes regarded as the "devil[4]), is a mockery of Judaism and example of "antisemitic "propaganda.[9]

The image appears in the "Middle Ages, mostly in carvings on "church or "cathedral walls,[1] often outside where it could be seen from the street (for example at "Wittenberg and "Regensburg), but also in other forms. The earliest appearance seems to be on the underside of a wooden choir-stall seat in "Cologne Cathedral, dating to about 1210. The earliest example in stone dates to ca. 1230 and is located in the cloister of the cathedral at "Brandenburg. In about 1470 the image appeared in "woodcut form, and thereafter was often copied in "popular prints, often with antisemitic commentary. A wall painting on the "bridge tower of "Frankfurt am Main, constructed between 1475 and 1507 near the gateway to the Jewish "ghetto and demolished in 1801, was an especially notorious example and included a scene of the "ritual murder of "Simon of Trent.[10]

Judensau in Wittenberg[edit]

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The Judensau at "Wittenberg.

The city of "Wittenberg contains a Judensau from 1305, on the facade of the "Stadtkirche, the church where "Martin Luther preached. It portrays a rabbi who looks under the sow's tail, and other Jews drinking from its teats. An inscription reads "Rabini Schem HaMphoras," gibberish which presumably "bastardizes "shem ha-meforasch" (see "Shemhamphorasch). The sculpture is one of the last remaining examples in Germany of "medieval Jew baiting." In 1988, on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the "Kristallnacht, debate sprung up about the monument, which resulted in the addition of a sculpture recognizing that during the "Holocaust six million Jews were murdered "under the "sign of the cross".[11]

In "Vom Schem Hamphoras (1543), Luther comments on the Judensau sculpture at Wittenberg, echoing the antisemitism of the image and locating the "Talmud in the sow's bowels:

In July, 2016, Dr. Richard Harvey, a Messianic Jewish theologian from the United Kingdom, initiated a petition on change.org to have the Wittenberg Judensau removed.[12]

Partial list[edit]

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Map listing (in "German) the presence of Judensau images on churches of central Europe; in red, the ones that were removed

Some of these sculptures can be found at some churches today.

Image gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "The Judensau (Jews' sow) on mediaeval churches". concordatwatch.eu. Retrieved 7 February 2015. 
  2. ^ a b "Wolffsohn, Michael (1993). Eternal Guilt?: Forty Years of German-Jewish-Israeli Relations. "Columbia University Press. p. 194. "ISBN "978-0-231-08275-4. 
  3. ^ "Shachar, Isaiah (1974). The Judensau : a medieval anti-Jewish motif and its history. Warburg Institute, University of London. "ISBN "0854810498. 
  4. ^ a b "Zionism and Israel - Encyclopedic Dictionary: Judensau". zionism-israel.com. Retrieved 7 February 2015. 
  5. ^ Madigan, Kevin (2005). "Judensau". In "Richard S. Levy. Antisemitism: a Historical Encyclopedia of Prejudice and Persecution. Vol 1: A-K. ABC-CLIO. pp. 387–88. "ISBN "978-1-85109-439-4. 
  6. ^ Wolfram Kastner, Feuerwehr löscht das Wort 'Judensau': Die staatliche Sau-Skulptur bleibt ohne Kommentar, haGalil.com, 5 August 2003. [1]
  7. ^ Authorized King James Bible. 1611. Retrieved 7 February 2015. Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, These [are] the beasts which ye shall eat among all the beasts that [are] on the earth. Whatsoever parteth the hoof, and is clovenfooted, [and] cheweth the cud, among the beasts, that shall ye eat. Nevertheless these shall ye not eat of them that chew the cud, or of them that divide the hoof: [as] the camel, because he cheweth the cud, but divideth not the hoof; he [is] unclean unto you. And the coney, because he cheweth the cud, but divideth not the hoof; he [is] unclean unto you. And the hare, because he cheweth the cud, but divideth not the hoof; he [is] unclean unto you. And the swine, though he divide the hoof, and be clovenfooted, yet he cheweth not the cud; he [is] unclean to you. Of their flesh shall ye not eat, and their carcase shall ye not touch; they [are] unclean to you. 
  8. ^ "Leviticus - Chapter 11 (Parshah Semini) - Tanakh Online - Torah - Bible". chabad.org. Retrieved 7 February 2015. 
  9. ^ Mellinkoff, Ruth (1988). The Devil at Isenheim: Reflections of Popular Belief In Grünewald's Altarpiece. University of California Press. pp. 64–66. "ISBN "0-520-06204-3. 
  10. ^ Schreckenburg, Heinz (1996). The Jews in Christian Art. New York: Continuum. pp. 331-337, Cologne illustrated p. 332, Frankfurt pp. 335-7. "ISBN "0-8264-0936-9.
  11. ^ Lopez, Billie; Peter Hirsch (1997). Traveler's Guide to Jewish Germany. "Pelican Publishing Company. pp. 258–60. "ISBN "978-1-56554-254-9. 
  12. ^ http://www.mz-web.de/wittenberg/evangelische-akademie-kritiker-von-schmaehplastik--judensau--kommt-nach-wittenberg-25507318

External links[edit]

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