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Main article: "Legal education in the United States

Professional doctorates were developed in the United States in the 19th century, the first being the Doctor of Medicine in 1807,[84] but the professional law degree took more time. At the time the legal system in the United States was still in development as the educational institutions were developing. The status of the legal profession was at that time still ambiguous; therefore, the development of the legal degree took much time.[85] Even when some universities offered training in law, they did not offer a degree.[85] Because in the United States there were no Inns of Court, and the English academic degrees did not provide the necessary professional training, the models from England were inapplicable, and the degree program took some time to develop.[86] At first the degree took the form of a B.L. (such as at the College of William and Mary), but then Harvard, keen on importing legitimacy through the trappings of Oxford and Cambridge, implemented an LL.B. degree.[87] This was somewhat controversial at the time because it was a professional training without any of the cultural or classical studies required of a degree in England,[88][89] where it was necessary to gain a general BA prior to an LLB or BCL until the nineteenth century.[90] Thus, even though the name of the English LL.B. degree was implemented at Harvard, the program in the U.S. was nonetheless intended as a first degree which, unlike the English B.A., gave practical or professional training in law.[91][92]

Creation of the Juris Doctor[edit]

In the mid-19th century there was much concern about the quality of legal education in the United States. "Christopher Columbus Langdell, who served as dean of "Harvard Law School from 1870 to 1895, dedicated his life to reforming "legal education in the United States. The historian Robert Stevens wrote that "it was Langdell's goal to turn the legal profession into a university educated one—and not at the undergraduate level, but through a three-year post baccalaureate degree."[18] This graduate level study would allow the intensive legal training that Langdell had developed, known as the "case method (a method of studying landmark cases) and the "Socratic method (a method of examining students on the reasoning of the court in the cases studied). Therefore, a graduate high level law degree was proposed, the Juris Doctor, implementing the case and Socratic methods as its didactic approach.[93] According to professor "J. H. Beale, an 1882 Harvard Law graduate, one of the main arguments for the change was uniformity. Harvard's four professional schools of Theology, Law, Medicine and Arts and Sciences were all graduate schools, and their degrees were therefore a second degree. Two of them conferred a doctorate and the other two a baccalaureate degree. The change from LL.B. to J.D. was intended to end "this discrimination​, the practice of conferring what is normally a first degree upon persons who have already their primary degree".[94] The J.D. was proposed as the equivalent of the J.U.D. in Germany to reflect the advanced study required to be an effective lawyer.

The "University of Chicago Law School was the first to offer it.[95] While approval was still pending at Harvard, the degree was introduced at many other law schools including at the law schools at NYU, Berkeley, Michigan and Stanford. Because of tradition, and concerns about less prominent universities implementing a J.D. program, prominent eastern law schools like those of Harvard, Yale and Columbia refused to implement the degree. Indeed, pressure from them led almost every law school (except at the University of Chicago and other law schools in Illinois) to abandon the J.D. and readopt the LL.B. as the first law degree by the 1930s.[96]

It was only after 1962 that a new push—this time begun at less-prominent law schools—successfully led to the universal adoption of the J.D. as the first law degree. Student and alumni support were key in the LL.B.-to-J.D. change, and even the most prominent schools were convinced to make the change: Columbia and Harvard in 1969, and Yale, last, in 1971.[97] Nonetheless, the LL.B. at Yale retained the didactical changes of the "practitioners courses" of 1826 and was very different from the LL.B. in common law countries other than Canada.[74]

Christopher Langdell, one of the scholars at Harvard who established the J.D.

Following standard modern academic practice, Harvard Law School refers to its "Master of Laws and "Doctor of Juridical Science degrees as its graduate level law degrees.[98] Similarly, Columbia refers to the LL.M. and the J.S.D. as its graduate program.[99] Yale Law School lists its LL.M., M.S.L., J.S.D., and Ph.D. as constituting graduate programs.[100] A distinction thus remains between professional and graduate law degrees in the United States.

Major common law approaches[edit]

Legal education in the United Kingdom

The English legal system is the root of the systems of other common-law countries, such as the United States. Originally, common lawyers in England were trained exclusively in the Inns of Court. Even though it took nearly 150 years since common law education began with Blackstone at Oxford for university education to be part of legal training in England and Wales, the LL.B. eventually became the degree usually taken before becoming a lawyer. In England and Wales the LL.B. is an undergraduate scholarly program and although it (assuming it is a qualifying law degree) fulfills the academic requirements for becoming a lawyer,[101] further vocational and professional training as either a barrister (the "Bar Professional Training Course[102] followed by "Pupillage[103]) or as a solicitor (the "Legal Practice Course[104] followed by a ""period of recognised training"[105]) is required before becoming licensed in that jurisdiction.[58] The qualifying law degree in most English universities is the LLB although in some, including Oxford and Cambridge, it is the BA in Law.[106] Both of these can be taken with "senior status" in two years by those already holding an undergraduate degree in another discipline.[107] A few universities offer "exempting" degrees, usually "integrated master's degrees denominated Master in Law (MLaw), that combine the qualifying law degree with the legal practice course or the bar professional training course in a four-year, undergraduate-entry program.[108][109]

Legal education in Canada has unique variations from other Commonwealth countries. Even though the legal system of Canada is mostly a transplant of the English system (Quebec excepted), the Canadian system is unique in that there are no Inns of Court, the practical training occurs in the office of a barrister and solicitor with law society membership, and, since 1889, a university degree has been a prerequisite to initiating an articling clerkship.[110] The education in law schools in Canada was similar to that in the United States at the turn of the 20th century, but with a greater concentration on statutory drafting and interpretation, and elements of a liberal education.[111] The bar associations in Canada were influenced by the changes at Harvard, and were sometimes quicker to nationally implement the changes proposed in the United States, such as requiring previous college education before studying law.[111]

Modern variants and curriculum[edit]

Legal education is rooted in the history and structure of the legal system of the jurisdiction where the education is given, therefore law degrees are vastly different from country to country, making comparisons among degrees problematic.[112] This has proven true in the context of the various forms of the J.D. which have been implemented around the world.

Until about 1997 the J.D. was unique to law schools in the U.S. But with the rise in international success of law firms from the United States, and the rise in students from outside the U.S. attending U.S. law schools, attorneys with the J.D. have become increasingly common internationally.[113] Therefore, the prestige of the J.D. has also risen, and many universities outside the U.S. have started to offer the J.D., often for the express purpose of raising the prestige of their law school and graduates.[113] Such institutions usually aim to appropriate the name of the degree only, and sometimes the new J.D. program of study is the same as that of their traditional law degree, which is usually more scholarly in purpose than the professional training intended with the J.D. as created in the U.S. Various characteristics can therefore be seen among J.D. degrees as implemented in universities around the world.

Comparisons of J.D. variants[114]
Jurisdiction Scholarly content absent? Duration in years Different curriculum from LL.B. in jurisdiction? Requires further training for license?
United States Yes 3 No No
Australia No 3–4 Yes[115] No
Canada No 3 No Yes
Hong Kong No 2–3 No Yes
Japan No 2–3 Yes Yes
Philippines No 4 Varies Yes
Singapore No 2–3 No Yes[116]
United Kingdom No 3–4 Yes Yes

Types and characteristics[edit]

Until very recently, only law schools in the United States offered the Juris Doctor. Starting about 1997, universities in other countries began introducing the J.D. as a first professional degree in law, with differences appropriate to the legal systems of the countries in which these law schools are situated.

Standard Juris Doctor curriculum[edit]

Law school in the United States § Curriculum

As stated by James Hall and "Christopher Langdell, two people who were involved in the creation of the J.D., the J.D. is a professional degree like the "M.D., intended to prepare practitioners through a "scientific approach of analysing and teaching the law through logic and adversarial analysis (such as the "Casebook and "Socratic methods).[117] It has existed as described in the United States for over 100 years, and can therefore be termed the standard or traditional J.D. program. The J.D. program generally requires a bachelor's degree for entry, though this requirement is sometimes waived.[118][119][120][121] The program of study for the degree has remained substantially unchanged since its creation, and is an intensive study of the substantive law and its professional applications (and therefore["citation needed] requires no thesis, although a lengthy writing project is sometimes required[122]). As a professional training, it provides sufficient training for entry into practice (no apprenticeship is necessary to sit for the bar exam). It requires at least three academic years of full-time study. While the J.D. is a doctoral degree in the US, lawyers usually use the suffix of ""esquire" as opposed to the prefix "Dr." Although calling an American lawyer "doctor" would not be incorrect, provided the attorney has a J.D. or other doctoral degree (as opposed to an LL.B., which is a baccalaureate, not a doctorate), the title is more commonly used in Europe and Asia than in the U.S. or Canada.

Replacement for the LL.B.[edit]

An initial attempt to rename the LL.B. to the J.D. in the US in the early 20th century started with a petition at "Harvard in 1902. This was rejected, but the idea took hold at the new law school established at the "University of Chicago and other universities and by 1925 80% of US law schools gave the J.D. to graduate entrants, while restricting undergraduate entrants (who followed the same curriculum) to the LL.B. Yet the change was rejected by Harvard, Yale and Columbia, and by the late 1920s schools were moving away from the J.D. and once again granting only the LL.B, with only Illinois law schools holding out. This changed in the 1960s, by which time almost all law school entrants were graduates. The J.D. was reintroduced in 1962 and by 1971 had replaced the LL.B., again without any change in the curriculum, with many schools going as far as to offer a J.D. to their LL.B. alumni for a small fee.[123]

Canadian and Australian universities have law programs that are very similar to the J.D. programs in the United States. These include Queen's University, University of British Columbia, University of Alberta, University of Victoria, Université de Moncton, University of Calgary, University of Saskatchewan, University of Manitoba, University of Windsor, University of Ottawa, University of Western Ontario, York University[124] and University of Toronto[125] in Canada, RMIT and the University of Melbourne in Australia.[3] Therefore, when the J.D. program was introduced at these institutions, it was a mere renaming of their second-entry LL.B. program and entailed no significant substantive changes to their curricula.[126] The reason given for doing so is because of the international popularity and recognizability of the J.D., and the need to recognize the demanding graduate characteristics of the program.[127] Because these programs are in institutions heavily influenced by those in the UK, the J.D. programs often have some small scholarly element (see chart above, entitled "Comparisons of J.D. Variants"). And because the legal systems are also influenced by that of the UK, an apprenticeship is still required before being qualified to apply for a license to practice (see country sections below, under "Descriptions of the J.D. outside the U.S.").

Descriptions of the J.D. outside the U.S.[edit]

Admission to practice law


The traditional law degree in Australia was the undergraduate Bachelor of Laws ("LLB), however there has been a huge shift towards the JD in the past five years, with most Australian universities now offering a JD programme, including the country's best ranked universities (e.g. The "University of New South Wales,[128] the "University of Sydney,[129] the "Australian National University,[130] the "University of Melbourne[131]).

Generally, universities that offer the JD also offer the LLB, though at some universities, only the JD is offered, and only at postgraduate levels. Due to recent changes in undergraduate degree structuring, some universities, such as the University of Melbourne,[132] only allow law to be studied at the postgraduate level, and the JD has completely replaced the LLB.

An Australian Juris Doctor consists of three years of full-time study, or the equivalent. The course varies across different universities, though all are obliged to teach the "Priestley 11 subjects if they wish for their students to be able to practice law in Australia. As with LLB graduates, graduates of the JD need to complete the practical legal training (PLT) requirement before they are eligible for admission to practice. Some universities, such as the "University of Technology, Sydney, have begun offering PLT as part of the JD, though this is unusual, as PLT is most often undertaken in early employment.[133]

On the "Australian Qualifications Framework, the Juris Doctor is classified as a "Masters degree (Extended)", with an exception having been granted to use the title Juris Doctor (other such exceptions include Doctor of Medicine, Doctor of Dentistry and Doctor of Veterinary Medicine). It may not be described as a doctoral degree, and holders may not use the title "Doctor". Along with other extended master's degrees, the JD takes 3-4 years following a minimum of a 3-year bachelor's degree.[11][134]


The J.D. degree is the dominant law degree in Canada, replacing the traditional LL.B. degree prominent in Commonwealth countries.[135] The "University of Toronto became the first to rename its law degree from LL.B. to J.D. in 2001. As with the second-entry LL.B., in order to be admitted to a Juris Doctor program, applicants must have completed a minimum of 2 or 3 years of study toward a bachelor's degree and scored high on the North American "Law School Admission Test.[136] As a practical matter, nearly all successful applicants have completed one or more degrees before admission to a Canadian common law school,[137] although despite this it is, along with other "first professional degrees, considered to be a bachelor's degree-level qualification.[10] All Canadian Juris Doctor programs consist of three years, and have similar content in their mandatory first year courses. The mandatory first year courses in Canadian law schools outside Quebec include public law (i.e. provincial law, constitutional law, and administrative law), property law, tort law, contract law, criminal law, and legal research and writing.[138] Beyond first year and other courses required for graduation, course selection is elective with various concentrations such as commercial and corporate law, taxation, international law, natural resources law, real estate transactions, employment law, criminal law, and Aboriginal law.[139] After graduation from an accredited law school, each province's or territory's law society requires completion of a bar admission course or examination, and a period of supervised "articling" prior to independent practice.[140]

Use of the "J.D." designation by Canadian law schools is not intended to indicate an emphasis on American law, but rather to distinguish Canadian law degrees from English law degrees, which do not require prior undergraduate study.[113] The Canadian J.D. is a degree in Canadian Law. Accordingly, United States jurisdictions other than New York and Massachusetts[141] do not recognize Canadian Juris Doctor degrees automatically.[142][143] This is equivalent to the manner in which United States J.D. graduates are treated in Canadian jurisdictions such as Ontario.[144] To prepare graduates to practise in jurisdictions on both sides of the border, some pairs of law schools, such as the New York University (NYU) Law School and Osgoode Hall Law School,[145] the University of Ottawa Law School and the Michigan State University Law School or American University,[146] and the University of Windsor Law School and the University of Detroit Mercy Law School,[147] have developed joint American-Canadian J.D programs.

Two notable exceptions are "Université de Montréal and "Université de Sherbrooke, which both offer a one-year J.D. program aimed at "Quebec civil law graduates in order to practice law either elsewhere in Canada or in the state of New York.[148][149]

"York University offered the degree of Doctor of Jurisprudence (D.Jur.) as a research degree until 2002, when the name of the program was changed to Ph.D. in Law.[150]


J.D.'s are not generally awarded in the People's Republic of China (P.R.C.) instead,a J.M. (Juris Magister) is awarded as the counterpart of JD in the United States, the professional degree in law in China.[151] The primary law degree in the P.R.C. is the bachelor of law. In the fall of 2008 the Shenzhen campus of Peking University started the School of Transnational Law, which offers a U.S.-style education and awards both a Chinese master's degree and, by special authorization of the government, a J.D.[152]</ref>

Hong Kong[edit]

The J.D. degree is currently offered at "The Chinese University of Hong Kong,[153] "The University of Hong Kong,[154] and "City University of Hong Kong. The degree is known as the 法律博士 in Chinese, and in Cantonese it is pronounced as Faat Leot Bok Si.[155] The J.D. in Hong Kong is almost identical to the LL.B. and is reserved for graduates of non-law disciplines, but the J.D. is considered to be a graduate-level degree and requires a thesis or dissertation.[156] Like the LL.B. there is much scholarly content in the required coursework. Although the universities offering the degree claim that the J.D. is a two-year program, completing the degree in two years would require study during the summer term.[157] The JD is, despite its title, considered to be a master's degree by the universities that offer it in Hong Kong,[158][159][160] and it is positioned at master's level in the Hong Kong Qualifications Framework.[161] Neither the LL.B. nor the J.D. provides the education sufficient for a license to practice, as graduates of both are also required to undertake the "PCLL course and a solicitor traineeship or a barrister pupillage.[162]


At this time the Juris Doctor does not exist in India; no official entity in India authorizes the award of such a degree.


No university in Italy awards a Juris Doctor degree, nor are there any plans to implement the degree. However, the law degree in Italy is longer (5 years of coursework) than a standard undergraduate program,[163] and lawyers in Italy often use the title of "doctor"[164] (Italian law authorizes all university graduates, including those from undergraduate programs, to use the title of doctor).[165]


In "Japan the J.D. is known as Homu Hakushi (法務博士).[166] The program generally lasts three years. Two year J.D. programs for applicants with legal knowledge (mainly undergraduate level law degree holders) are also offered. This curriculum is professionally oriented,[167] but does not provide the education sufficient for a license to practice as an "attorney in Japan, as all candidates for a license must have 12 month practical training by the Legal Training and Research Institute after passing the bar examination.[168] Similarly to the US, the Juris Doctor is classed as a "Professional Degree" (専門職) in Japan, which is separate from the "academic" postgraduate sequence of master's degrees and doctorates.[169][170]


To become a licensed lawyer, a person must hold the Licenciado en Derecho degree obtainable by four to five years of academic study and final examination. After these undergraduate studies it is possible to obtain a Maestría degree, equivalent to a master's degree. This degree requires two to three years of academic studies. Finally, one can study for an additional three years to obtain the Doctor en Derecho degree, which is a research degree at doctoral level.[171] Since most universities and law schools must have approval from the ministry of education (Secretaría de Educación Pública) through the general office of professions (Direccion General de Profesiones) all of the academic programs are similar throughout the country in public and private law schools.


In the "Philippines, the J.D. exists alongside the more common LL.B. Like the standard LL.B, it requires four years of study, is considered a graduate degree and requires prior undergraduate study as a prerequisite for admission, and covers the core subjects required for the bar examinations. However, the J.D. requires students to finish the core bar subjects in just 2½ years; take elective courses (such as legal theory, philosophy, and sometimes even theology); undergo an apprenticeship; and write and defend a thesis.[172][173]

The degree was first conferred in the Philippines by the "Ateneo de Manila Law School, which first developed the model program later adopted by most schools now offering the J.D.. After the Ateneo, schools such as the University of Batangas College of Law and the De La Salle Lipa College of Law[174] began offering the J.D., with schools such as the "Far Eastern University Institute of Law offering with De La Salle University's Ramon V. Del Rosario College of Business for the country's first J.D. - MBA program.[175] In 2008, the "University of the Philippines College of Law began conferring the J.D. on its graduates, the school choosing rename its LL.B. program into a J.D. because to accurately reflect the nature of education the university provides as "nomenclature does not accurately reflect the fact that the LL.B. is a professional as well as a post baccalaureate degree."[176] In 2009, the "Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila (PLM) and the "Silliman University College of Law also shifted their respective LL.B Programs to Juris Doctor -applying the change to incoming freshmen students for School Year 2009–2010.[177][178] The newly established "De La Salle University College of Law is likewise offering the J.D., although it will offer the program using a trimestral calendar, unlike the model curriculum that uses a semestral calendar. In 2014, "New Era University has renamed their Bachelor of Laws program to the Juris Doctor.


The degree of Doctor of Jurisprudence (J.D.) is offered at the "Singapore Management University (SMU), and it is treated as a qualifying law degree for the purposes of admission to the legal profession in Singapore.[116] A graduate of this programme is a "qualified person" under Singapore's legislation governing entry to the legal profession, and is eligible for admission to the Singapore Bar.[179]

However, like its counterpart the Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.), whether obtained from the "National University of Singapore, Singapore Management University or recognised overseas universities ("approved universities"),[180] the SMU J.D. is not in itself sufficient for entry into the Singapore legal profession. Qualified persons are still required to fulfill other criteria for admission to the Singapore Bar, most importantly being the completion of Part B of the Singapore Bar Examinations, and completion of the "Practice Training Contract.[181]

United Kingdom[edit]

The "Quality Assurance Agency consulted in 2014 on the inclusion of "Juris Doctor" in the UK Framework for Higher Education Qualifications as an exception to the rule that "doctor" should only be used by doctoral degrees. It was proposed that the Juris Doctor would be an award at bachelor level and would not confer the right to use the title "doctor".[182][183] This was not incorporated into the final framework published in November 2014.[184]

The only JD degree currently awarded by a UK university is at "Queens University Belfast. This is a 3–4 year degree specified as being a "professional doctorate at the doctoral qualifications level in the UK framework, sitting above the LLM and including a 30,000 word dissertation demonstrating "The creation and interpretation of new knowledge, through original research or other advanced scholarship, of a quality to satisfy peer review, extend the forefront of the discipline, and merit publication" that must be passed in order to gain the degree.[185][186]

Joint LLB/JD courses for a very limited number of students are offered by "University College London, "King's College London and the "London School of Economics in collaboration with "Columbia University in the US, which is responsible for the award of the JD. These are four-year undergraduate courses leading to the award of both a British LLB and a US JD.[187][188][189]

Both the "University of Southampton and the "University of Surrey offer two-year graduate-entry LLBs described as "JD Pathway" degrees, which are aimed particularly at Canadian students.[190][191]

In academia[edit]

As a professional doctorate, the Juris Doctor is the degree that prepares the recipient to enter the law profession (as do the "M.D. or "D.O. in the medical profession and the "D.D.S in the dental profession). While the J.D. is the sole degree necessary to become a professor of law or to obtain a license to practice law, it (like the M.D. or D.D.S.) is not a "research degree".[192] Research degrees in the study of law include the "Master of Laws (LL.M.), which ordinarily requires the J.D. as a prerequisite,[193] and the "Doctor of Juridical Science (S.J.D./J.S.D.), which ordinarily requires the LL.M. as a prerequisite.[193] However, the "American Bar Association has issued a Council Statement,[194] advising law schools that the J.D. should be considered equivalent to the "Ph.D. for educational employment purposes. Accordingly, while most law professors are required to conduct original writing and research in order to be awarded tenure, the majority have a J.D. as their highest degree. Research in 2015 showed an increasing trend toward hiring professors with both J.D. and Ph.D. degrees, particularly at more highly ranked schools.[195] Some international commentators have called the Council Statement "self-seeking and egocentric", pointing out that it illogically compares the J.D. only to the taught component of the US Ph.D., ignoring the research and dissertation components.[196]

The United States Department of Education and the "National Science Foundation do not include the J.D. or other professional doctorates among the degrees that are equivalent to research doctorates.[197] Among legal degrees, they accord this status only to the Doctor of Juridical Science degree.[197] In Europe, the "European Research Council follows a similar policy, stating that a first professional degree carrying the title "doctor" is not considered equivalent to a PhD.[198] The Dutch and Portuguese "National Academic Recognition Information Centres both classify the US J.D. (along with other first professional degrees) as equivalent to a master's degree,[199][200] although the National Qualifications Authority of Ireland states with respect to US practice that "The '1st professional degree' is a first degree, not a graduate degree even though it incorporates the word 'doctor' in the title"[201] and "Commonwealth countries also often consider the US J.D. equivalent to a bachelor's degree.[202] The "U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services has advised that while the J.D. is probably not at the same level as a Ph.D, it is "equivalent to, if not higher than, a master's degree".[203]

Use of the title "Doctor"[edit]

Despite the name of the degree, the holder of a J.D. is not ordinarily addressed as "Doctor" in the US.[204] Virtually the only context in which the holder of a J.D. is sometimes addressed as "Doctor" is in an academic setting other than a law school (e.g. teaching undergraduate courses).["citation needed] However, when the holder of a J.D. is not a member of a bar association, he/she is appropriately given the title of "Dr." or "Doctor" having duly earned a Doctoral degree.["citation needed] While many state bars now allow the use of the title, some prohibit its use where there is any chance of confusing the public about a lawyer's actual qualifications (e.g. if the public might be left with the impression that the lawyer is also a medical doctor).[205] There has been discussion on whether it is permissible in some other limited instances. For example, in June 2006 the Florida Bar Board of Governors ruled that a lawyer could refer to himself as a "doctor en leyes" (doctor in laws) in a Spanish-language advertisement, reversing an earlier decision.[206] The decision was reversed again in July 2006, when the board voted to only allow the names of degrees to appear in the language used on the diploma, without translation.[207]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ University of California, Berkeley. "General Catalog – Graduate Education – Graduate Degrees and Certificates". Retrieved 2008-05-25. 
  2. ^ University of Southern California (1995). "Undergraduate and Graduate Degree Programs". Archived from the original on 2008-04-22. Retrieved 2008-05-25. 
  3. ^ a b University of Melbourne. "About Use - The Melbourne JD". Retrieved 2008-05-26. 
  4. ^ U.S. Department of Education (2008). "USNEI-Structure of U.S. Education - Graduate/Post Education Levels". Archived from the original on 2007-12-14. Retrieved 2008-05-25. 
  5. ^ College Blue Book (1999). Degrees Offered by College and Subject. New York: MacMillan. p. 817. 
  6. ^ Kirsten McMahon (January 2008). "Making the grade" (PDF). Canadian Lawyer. 
  7. ^ Lisa Jemison; Rosel Kim (29 November 2007). "A law degree by any other name". Queen's Journal. Retrieved 15 April 2017. 
  8. ^ "Admissions". Faculty of Law. "University of Toronto. Retrieved 15 April 2017. 
  9. ^ "Juris Doctor Program". Faculty of Law Calendar 2011-2012 Academic Year. "Queen's University. Retrieved 15 April 2017. 
  10. ^ a b "Canadian Degree Qualifications Framework" (PDF). Ministerial Statement on Quality Assurance of Degree Education in Canada. Council of Ministers of Education, Canada. Retrieved 2016-09-16. Programs with a professional focus ... Some of them are first-entry programs, others are second-entry programs ... Though considered to be bachelor's programs in academic standing, some professional programs yield degrees with other nomenclature. Examples: DDS (Dental Surgery), MD (Medicine), LLB, or JD (Juris Doctor) 
  11. ^ a b "AQF qualification titles" (PDF). Australian Qualifications Framework Council. June 2013. Retrieved 16 September 2016. 
  12. ^ Association of American Universities Data Exchange. "Glossary of Terms for Graduate Education". Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  13. ^ National Science Foundation (2006). "Time to Degree of U.S. Research Doctorate Recipients" (PDF). InfoBrief, Science Resource Statistics. NSF. 06-312: 7.  Under "Data notes" this article mentions that the J.D. is a professional doctorate.
  14. ^ San Diego County Bar Association (1969). "Ethics Opinion 1969-5". Retrieved 2008-05-26. . Under "other references" differences between academic and professional doctorates, and contains a statement that the J.D. is a professional doctorate
  15. ^ University of Utah (2006). "University of Utah – The Graduate School – Graduate Handbook". Retrieved 2008-05-28. 
  16. ^ German Federal Ministry of Education. "U.S. Higher Education / Evaluation of the Almanac Chronicle of Higher Education" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on April 13, 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-26.  Report by the German Federal Ministry of Education analysing the Chronicle of Higher Education from the U.S. and stating that the J.D. is a professional doctorate.
  17. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. 3. 2002. p. 962:1a. 
  18. ^ a b Stevens, R. (1971). "Two Cheers For 1870: The American Law School", in Law in American History, eds. Donald Fleming and Bernard Bailyn. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1971, p. 427.
  19. ^ University of Washington School of Law. "JD Program & Policies". Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  20. ^ Russo, Eugene (2004). "The Changing Length of PhDs". Nature. 431 (7006): 382–383. "doi:10.1038/nj7006-382a. "PMID 15372047. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  21. ^ "North Carolina Board of Law Examiners |NCBLE 919-848-4229". 2017-03-20. Retrieved 2017-04-17. 
  22. ^ "VBBE - Welcome". Retrieved 2017-04-17. 
  23. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-09-14. Retrieved 2010-09-24. 
  24. ^ "Bole- Official Page New York State Bar Examination". Retrieved 2017-04-17. 
  25. ^ "JD". Oxford Living Dictionaries. "Oxford University Press. Retrieved 15 April 2017. 
  26. ^ "Doctor of Jurisprudence". University of Texas. Retrieved 13 February 2017. 
  27. ^ "Doctor of Jurisprudence". "Stanford University. Retrieved 13 February 2017. 
  28. ^ "Higher doctorates". University of Cambridge. Retrieved 14 February 2017. 
  29. ^ García y García, A. (1992). "The Faculties of Law," A History of the University in Europe, London: Cambridge University Press. Accessed May 26, 2008.
  30. ^ Noble, Keith Allen (1992). An International Prognostic Study, Based on an Acquisition Model, of Degree Philosophiae Doctor (Ph. D.). (PDF) (Ph.D.). "University of Ottawa. p. 18. 
  31. ^ Some sources have the first doctorates in theology at Paris being awarded prior to the doctorates in law at Bologna.[30]
  32. ^ Verger, J. (1999). "Licentia". "Lexikon des Mittelalters. Stuttgart: J.B. Metzler. 5. 
  33. ^ Verger, J. (1999). "Doctor, doctoratus". "Lexikon des Mittelalters. Stuttgart: J.B. Metzler. 3. 
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  114. ^ Verification of the data in this table can be found in the subsequent paragraphs of this section.
  115. ^ "No" as originally introduced, but the JD is now at master's degree level
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  127. ^ idem
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  139. ^ "Bachelor of Law Degree Programs in Canada". Retrieved 2017-04-17. 
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  145. ^ [7]["dead link]
  146. ^ [8]["dead link]
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  148. ^ University of Montreal J.D. (Programme No 2-328-1-1) Accessed December 31, 2013.
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  158. ^ "FAQ: JURIS DOCTOR (JD)". CUHK Law. Chinese University of Hong Kong. Retrieved 2016-09-16. Is the JD Programme a doctoral or a master's degree?
    The JD Programme is formally classified as a taught master's degree programme and it is not customary for JD graduates to use the title "Doctor"
  159. ^ "Masters Degrees". Calendar 2016–2017. University of Hong Kong. Retrieved 2016-09-16. 
  160. ^ "Juris Doctor (JD) - Information for entrants to be admitted in 2013-14 & thereafter". School of Law. City University of Hong Kong. Retrieved 2016-09-16. Although the award has the word 'Doctor' in its title, this is a traditional usage and it is not generally regarded as equivalent to the PhD degree or other doctoral awards. It is a first law degree for students who are already graduates in a non-law discipline. 
  161. ^ "Qualifications Framework: Award Titles Scheme" (PDF). Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Retrieved 2016-09-16.
    8. Providers may continue to adopt titles traditionally used for degree and sub-degree qualifications in the mainstream education (i.e. Associate at Level 4, Bachelor at Level 5, Master at Level 6, and Doctor at Level 7).
    9. The following qualifications currently offered by the university sector are recognised globally. These award titles will continue to be recognised under QF although they do not conform to ATS:
    * Juris Doctor (JD) at QF Level 6
  162. ^ Hong Kong Bar Association. General Admission. Accessed June 1, 2008.
  163. ^ The "Laurea Magistrale in Giurisprudenza is a second level (master's) degree, which does not require a previous bachelor's degree for the admission
  164. ^ Studio Misuraca, Franceschin and Associates Archived August 4, 2009, at the "Wayback Machine.. Accessed February 16, 2009.
  165. ^ Regio Decreto 4 giugno 1938, n.1269, art. 48 (in Italian). Accessed February 16, 2009.
  166. ^ Justice System Reform Council (2001). For a Justice System to Support Japan in the 21st Century.
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  170. ^ "Kobe University Degree Regulations" (PDF). "Kobe University. Retrieved 2016-09-16. 
  171. ^ "Doctorado en Derecho". UNAM. Retrieved 2016-09-16. 
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    •the award of a Juris Doctor is an exception to the principle that the title doctor should only be used for qualifications meeting the qualification descriptor for FHEQ level 8/SCQF level 12 on the FQHEIS in full
    •the Juris Doctor is not a doctoral qualification at level 8 of the FHEQ/SQCF level 12 but at level 6 of the FHEQ/SCQF level 10 on the FQHEIS (with some modules at level 7 of the FHEQ/SCQF level 11 on the FQHEIS)
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  188. ^ "English Law & American Law LLB and JD". King's College London. Retrieved 16 September 2016. 
  189. ^ "Double Degree Programme: Columbia Law School". London School of Economics. Retrieved 16 September 2016. 
  190. ^ "M101 LLB Accelerated Graduate Programme (2 yrs)". University of Southampton. Retrieved 2016-09-17. 
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External links[edit]

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