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Kakwa people
Regions with significant populations

 "Sudan
 "Uganda
 "South Sudan
 "DR Congo
Languages
"Bari
Religion
Islam
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The geographic distribution of the Kakwa people (approx.).

The Kakwa people are found in north-western "Uganda, south-western "South Sudan, and north-eastern "Democratic Republic of the Congo, particularly to the west of the "White Nile river.[1]

Contents

Demography[edit]

The Kakwa people are a small minority but a part of the larger "Karo people, an intermarried group that also includes the "Bari, "Pojulu, "Mundari, "Kuku and "Nyangwara. Their language, "Kutuk na Kakwa, is an "Eastern Nilotic language.[2]

The major cities of the Kakwa people are the "Yei and Morobo districts (South Sudan), "Koboko district (Uganda), Imgbokolo and "Aba, Democratic Republic of the Congo. The Kakwa people sometimes refer to themselves as "Kakwa Saliya Musala", translated directly as "kakwa three hills" a phrase they commonly use to denote their 'oneness' in spite of being politically dispersed among three countries.["citation needed]

History[edit]

According to the Kakwa "oral tradition, they migrated out of East Africa (Nubian region) from the city of "Kawa in between the "third and fourth cataracts of the Nile. First into South Sudan, and from there southwards into Uganda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.[1] The Kakwa converted to Islam, accepting the Maliki school of Sunni theology in medieval era. They were annexed into Equitoria region claimed by the Egyptian Islamic ruler "Khedive Ismail (Isma'il Pasha) by his descendant Tewfik Pasha in 1889. As the British colonial empire expanded into East Africa and Egypt, the region with Kakwa people became a part of the "Uganda Protectorate.[1]

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General "Idi Amin was born in Kakwa ethnic group.

The Kakwa people rose to international prominence when one of their descendant General "Idi Amin assumed the power in Uganda through a coup.[3] He filled important military and civil positions in his administration with his ethnic group,[3][4][5] and "Nubians.[6] He arrested and killed officials from other ethnic groups such as the Acholi and Lango people, whom he doubted.[1] Idi Amin also supplied arms and financed the Sudanese Kakwa people in the first civil war of Sudan.[7] The Kakwa officials in Idi Amin regime were later accused of many humanitarian crimes. After Amin was deposed in 1979, many Kakwa people were killed in revenge killings, causing others to leave the area and fled to Sudan.[1] However, they have now returned to their native areas in the West Nile region of northern Uganda.[8]

Ethnic violence[edit]

For most of the "South Sudanese Civil War, the fighting was focused in the "Greater Upper Nile region. After the clashes in Juba in 2016, the fighting largely shifted to the previously safe haven of "Equatoria, where the bulk of SPLM-IO forces went for shelter.[9] Accounts point to both sides targeting civilians on ethnic lines between the Dinka and the dozens of ethnic groups among the Equatorians who are historically in conflict with the Dinka, such as the Karo, who include the "Bari.[10] Witnesses report Dinka soldiers threatening villagers that they will kill all Kakwa people for their alleged support to Machar and killing "Pojulu people while sparing those who they find can speak "Dinka.[11] A UN investigation said rape was being used a tool of ethnic cleansing[12] and "Adama Dieng, the U.N.'s Special Adviser on the Prevention of Genocide, warned of "genocide after visiting areas of fighting in "Yei.[13]

Lifestyle[edit]

The traditional Kakwa livelihood has been based on cultivating "corn, "millet, "cassava, fishing and cattle. The traditional villages of Kakwa are linked by their lineage, with male forming councils of elders. Polygyny is accepted, and the Islamic traditions are a part of the Kakwa people lives.[1]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Anthony Appiah; Henry Louis Gates (2010). Encyclopedia of Africa. Oxford University Press. p. 629. "ISBN "978-0-19-533770-9. 
  2. ^ Kakwa languages, Ethnologue
  3. ^ a b Kefa M. Otiso (2006). Culture and Customs of Uganda. Greenwood. pp. 31–33. "ISBN "978-0-313-33148-0. 
  4. ^ Thabani ka Sigogo Sibanda (2011). Conflict Issues Across Disciplines: Conflict, Negotiation, and Mediation: African Experiences. Xlibris. pp. 67–68. "ISBN "978-1-4568-1761-9. 
  5. ^ Phares Mukasa Mutibwa (1992). Uganda Since Independence: A Story of Unfulfilled Hopes. Africa World Press. pp. 79–81. "ISBN "978-0-86543-357-1. 
  6. ^ Donald L. Horowitz (2001). Ethnic Groups in Conflict, Updated Edition With a New Preface. University of California Press. pp. 491–492. "ISBN "978-0-520-92631-8. 
  7. ^ Donald L. Horowitz (2001). Ethnic Groups in Conflict, Updated Edition With a New Preface. University of California Press. pp. 274–281. "ISBN "978-0-520-92631-8. 
  8. ^ The Republic of Uganda, Encyclopædia Britannica
  9. ^ "Who can stop the threat of genocide in South Sudan?". irinnews.org. 14 November 2016. 
  10. ^ "South Sudanese flee as country edges closer to 'genocide'". reuters. 1 December 2016. 
  11. ^ "US seeks sanctions on South Sudan rebel leader, army chief". washington post. 19 November 2016. 
  12. ^ "UN:Rape used as a tool of ethnic cleansing in South Sudan". CBS news. 2 December 2016. 
  13. ^ "Hatred spills beyond South Sudan along with refugees". Reuters. 15 December 2016. 
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