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Kale
""Boerenkool.jpg
Curly kale, one of the many varieties of kale
"Species "Brassica oleracea
"Cultivar group "Acephala Group
Origin Unknown, but before the "Middle Ages
Cultivar group members Many; see text.

Kale ("/kl/) or leaf cabbage are certain "cultivars of cabbage ("Brassica oleracea) grown for their "edible leaves. A kale plant has green or purple leaves and the central leaves do not form a head (as with "headed cabbages). Kales are considered to be closer to wild cabbage than most domesticated forms of Brassica oleracea.[1]

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Children collecting leaves of red Russian kale (Brassica napus L. subsp. napus var. pabularia (DC.) Alef.) in a family vegetable garden

Contents

Etymology[edit]

Kale bears semblance to "kail", a variant of "cawul" (from Scotland and northern England) for various "cabbages.[2]

History[edit]

Until the end of the "Middle Ages, kale was one of the most common green vegetables in Europe. Curly-leaved varieties of cabbage already existed along with flat-leaved varieties in "Greece in the fourth century BC. It was also used as medicinal food source. "Disocorides wrote that it could be used to treat "bowel ailments.[3] These forms, which were referred to by the "Romans as "Sabellian kale, are considered to be the ancestors of modern kales.

Kale was brought to North America by the "colonists in the 16th century.[4] Later, Russian kale was introduced into Canada, and then into the United States, by Russian traders in the 19th century.

During "World War II, the cultivation of kale (and other vegetables) in the U.K. was encouraged by the "Dig for Victory campaign.[5] The vegetable was easy to grow and provided important nutrients missing from a diet because of "rationing.[6]

Description[edit]

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A traditional "New Years Danish dish: boiled ham, glazed potatoes and stewed kale

Some varieties can reach a height of six or seven feet, while others are compact, symmetrical and of good quality for eating. Many, however, are coarse and indigestible. Most kales are "annuals or "biennials. Kale seeds resemble those of "cabbage in size, form, and color.

Cultivars[edit]

One may differentiate between kale varieties according to the low, intermediate, or high length of the stem, along with the variety of leaf types. The leaf colours range from light green to green, to dark green and violet-green, to violet-brown.

Classification by leaf type:

Because kale can grow well into winter, one variety of rape kale is called ""hungry gap" after the period in winter in traditional agriculture when little else could be harvested. An extra-tall variety is known as "Jersey kale or cow cabbage.[7] "Kai-lan or Chinese kale is a cultivar often used in Chinese cuisine, but in English it is occasionally just called "kale". In Portugal, the bumpy-leaved kale is mostly called "couve galega" (Galician kale or Portuguese Cabbage),[8] although in some regions other names may be used.

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Ornamental kale in white and lavender

Cultivation[edit]

Kale is usually an "annual plant grown from seed with a wide range of "germination temperatures.[9] It is "hardy and thrives in wintertime,[9] and can survive in temperatures as low as -15 degrees Celsius.[4] Kale can become sweeter after a heavy frost.[10]

Ornamental kale[edit]

Many varieties of kale and cabbage are grown mainly for ornamental leaves that are brilliant white, red, pink, lavender, blue or violet in the interior of the rosette. The different types of ornamental kale are peacock kale, coral prince, kamone coral queen, color up kale and chidori kale.[11] Ornamental kale is as edible as any other variety, but potentially not as "palatable.[12] Kale leaves are increasingly used as an ingredient for "vegetable bouquets and "wedding bouquets.[13]

Nutritional value[edit]

Kale, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
"Energy 207 kJ (49 kcal)
8.8 g
"Sugars 2.3 g
"Dietary fiber 3.6 g
0.9 g
4.3 g
"Vitamins
(%DV)
Qty
"Vitamin A equiv.
(63%)
500 μg
8198 μg
"Thiamine (B1)
(10%)
0.11 mg
"Riboflavin (B2)
(11%)
0.13 mg
"Niacin (B3)
(7%)
1.0 mg
"Pantothenic acid (B5)
(18%)
0.9 mg
"Vitamin B6
(21%)
0.27 mg
"Folate (B9)
(35%)
141 μg
"Choline
(0%)
0.8 mg
"Vitamin C
(145%)
120 mg
"Vitamin E
(10%)
1.54 mg
"Vitamin K
(671%)
705 μg
"Minerals
"Calcium
(15%)
150 mg
"Iron
(12%)
1.5 mg
"Magnesium
(13%)
47 mg
"Manganese
(31%)
0.66 mg
"Phosphorus
(13%)
92 mg
"Potassium
(10%)
491 mg
"Selenium
(1%)
0.9 μg
"Sodium
(3%)
38 mg
"Zinc
(6%)
0.6 mg
Other constituents
Water 84.0 g

Percentages are roughly approximated using "US recommendations for adults.
Kale, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
"Energy 117 kJ (28 kcal)
5.63 g
"Sugars 1.25 g
"Dietary fiber 2 g
0.4 g
1.9 g
"Vitamins
(%DV)
Qty
"Vitamin A equiv.
(85%)
681 μg
18246 μg
"Thiamine (B1)
(5%)
0.053 mg
"Riboflavin (B2)
(6%)
0.07 mg
"Niacin (B3)
(3%)
0.5 mg
"Pantothenic acid (B5)
(1%)
0.05 mg
"Vitamin B6
(11%)
0.138 mg
"Folate (B9)
(3%)
13 μg
"Choline
(0%)
0.4 mg
"Vitamin C
(49%)
41 mg
"Vitamin E
(6%)
0.85 mg
"Vitamin K
(778%)
817 μg
"Minerals
"Calcium
(7%)
72 mg
"Iron
(7%)
0.9 mg
"Magnesium
(5%)
18 mg
"Manganese
(20%)
0.416 mg
"Phosphorus
(4%)
28 mg
"Potassium
(5%)
228 mg
"Selenium
(1%)
0.9 μg
"Sodium
(2%)
23 mg
"Zinc
(3%)
0.24 mg
Other constituents
Water 91.2 g

Percentages are roughly approximated using "US recommendations for adults.

Raw kale is composed of 84% water, 9% "carbohydrates, 4% "protein, and 1% "fat (table). In a 100 gram serving, raw kale provides 49 "calories. Like "collards, it contains a large amount of "vitamin K: several times the "Daily Value (DV). It is a rich source (20% or more of the DV) of "vitamin A, "vitamin C, "vitamin B6, "folate, and "manganese (see table "Kale, raw"). Kale is a good source (10–19% DV) of "thiamin, "riboflavin, "pantothenic acid, "vitamin E and several "dietary minerals, including "iron, "calcium, "potassium, and "phosphorus (see table "Kale, raw").

Boiling raw kale diminishes most of these nutrients, while values for vitamins A, C, and K, and manganese remain substantial (see table "Kale, cooked").

Phytochemicals[edit]

Kale is a source of the "carotenoids "lutein and "zeaxanthin (tables).[14] As with "broccoli and other "cruciferous vegetables, kale contains "glucosinolate compounds such as "glucoraphanin, which contributes to the formation of "sulforaphane,[15] a compound under preliminary research for its potential to affect human health.[16] Boiling kale decreases the level of glucosinate compounds, whereas "steaming, "microwaving or "stir frying does not cause significant loss.[17] Kale contains high levels of "polyphenols, such as "ferulic acid,[18] with levels varying due to environmental and "genetic factors.[19]

Culinary uses[edit]

Flavored, "kale chips" have been produced as a "potato chip substitute.[20]

Regional uses[edit]

North America[edit]

In the "Southern United States, kale is often served "braised, either alone or mixed with greens like collard, mustard, or turnip. It is also used in salads.

South America[edit]

In Brazil, kale is a side dish for a common stew called "feijoada.

Africa[edit]

Various kale types are eaten throughout south-eastern Africa, where they are typically boiled with coconut milk and ground peanuts, and served with rice, or boiled cornmeal.

Europe[edit]

In the "Netherlands, a traditional winter dish called ""boerenkoolstamppot" is a mix of curly kale and mashed potatoes, sometimes with fried bacon, and served with "rookworst ("smoked sausage").[21]

In Italy, "cavolo nero is an ingredient of the "Tuscan soup "ribollita.[22] Kale (cavolo nero) is part of many dishes, such as "cassoeula (pork stew) and "polenta (corn porridge).

A whole culture around kale has developed in northern Germany, especially around the towns of "Bremen, "Oldenburg, "Osnabrück and "Hannover and the region of "Dithmarschen. There, most social clubs of any kind will have a "Grünkohlessen or Kohlfahrt ("kale tour") sometime between October and February, visiting a country "inn to consume kale stew, "pinkel sausage, "kassler, and "mettwurst. Most communities in the area have a yearly kale festival which includes naming a "kale king" (or queen).

Curly kale is used in Denmark and southwestern Sweden ("Scania, Halland and Blekinge) to make (grøn-)langkål (Danish) or långkål (Swedish), an obligatory dish on the "julbord in the region, and is commonly served together with the "Christmas ham (Sweden). The leaves of the kale are separated from the stem, and then boiled with stock. The result is drained and pressed to remove the remaining liquid. The kale can then be frozen for up to 6–8 months. To make langkål, finely chop the (defrosted) kale and fry it with cream, pepper, and syrup (or sugar) for sweetening. In Sweden, it is also commonly eaten as a soup, with a base of ham broth and the addition of onion and pork sausages.

A traditional Portuguese soup, "caldo verde, combines pureed potatoes, diced kale, "olive oil and salt.[23] Additional ingredients can include broth and sliced, cooked spicy "sausage.

In "Montenegro and "Croatia, collards and kale, locally known as raštika or raštan, is a favourite vegetable. It is particularly popular in the winter, cooked with smoked mutton (kaštradina) and potatoes.[24]

In Scotland, kale provided such a base for a traditional diet that the word in some "Scots dialects is synonymous with food. To be "off one's kail" is to feel too ill to eat.[25]

In Ireland, kale is mixed with mashed potatoes to make the traditional dish "colcannon.[26] It is popular on "Halloween,[27] when it may be served with sausages.

In Turkey, especially in the eastern "Black Sea region, kale soup (karalahana çorbası), kale "sarma, kale "kavurma (sauté), and kale "turşu are common dishes.

Asia[edit]

A variety of kale, called "kai-lan or "Gai lan, is a common vegetable in "China, "Taiwan, and "Vietnam, where it may be consumed with beef dishes. In Japan and "South Korea, kale juice, known in Japan as "aojiru (AKA "green juice"), is used as a "dietary supplement.

In literature[edit]

The "Kailyard school of Scottish writers, which included "J. M. Barrie (creator of "Peter Pan), consisted of authors who wrote about traditional rural Scottish life (kailyard = kale field).[28] In Cuthbertson's book Autumn in Kyle and the charm of Cunninghame, he states that "Kilmaurs in "East Ayrshire was famous for its kale, which was an important foodstuff. A story is told in which a neighbouring village offered to pay a generous price for some kale seeds, an offer too good to turn down. The locals agreed, but a gentle roasting on a shovel over a coal fire ensured that the seeds never germinated.[29]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tomar, BS. VK Science – Biology. FK Publications. p. 149. "ISBN "978-81-88597-06-2. Archived from the original on 17 June 2016. 
  2. ^ "Kale". Online Etymology Dictionary, Douglas Harper. 2016. Archived from the original on 11 September 2016. Retrieved 16 August 2016. 
  3. ^ Chrysopoulos, Philip (12 April 2015). "Healthy Dolmades with Ancient Greeks' Favorite Kale and Quinoa". greekreporter.com. Archived from the original on 15 September 2015. Retrieved 10 May 2017. 
  4. ^ a b Derek B. Munro Vegetables of Canada, p. 120, at "Google Books
  5. ^ Titchmarsh, Alan (3 May 2015). "Land army: Alan Titchmarsh on how gardening became essential for survival during wartime". The Express. Retrieved 5 August 2017. 
  6. ^ "World War Two vegetable comes back as 'superfood'". Daily Mail. London. 3 October 2007. Archived from the original on 18 January 2014. 
  7. ^ Bailey, L. H., (1912, republished in 1975). Jersey kale Photo. In Cyclopedia of American Agriculture: Vol. II--crops Archived 27 April 2016 at the "Wayback Machine.. "Macmillan Publishing, New York. pp. 389–90. "ISBN "0-405-06762-3.
  8. ^ "Couve Galega (Portuguese Cabbage)". myfolia.com. Archived from the original on 28 August 2017. Retrieved 3 June 2017. 
  9. ^ a b "Growing guide for kale". Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. 2006. Archived from the original on 4 November 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2016. 
  10. ^ Watson, Benjamin (1996). Taylor's Guide to Heirloom Vegetables. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. p. 200. "ISBN "0-395-70818-4. Archived from the original on 15 April 2016. 
  11. ^ "Is Ornamental Kale Edible? Yes, But Not That Tasty". Garden.eco. 2017-12-14. Retrieved 2018-03-02. 
  12. ^ Larkcom, Joy (1 June 2003). The Organic Salad Garden. frances lincoln ltd. pp. 30–32. "ISBN "978-0-7112-2204-5. Archived from the original on 29 June 2014. Retrieved 30 August 2012. 
  13. ^ Jamieson, Sophie (30 October 2015). "Kale, broccoli and cabbage replace traditional flowers as brides opt for vegetable wedding bouquets". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 18 March 2017. Retrieved 25 March 2017. 
  14. ^ Walsh RP, Bartlett H, Eperjesi F (2015). "Variation in Carotenoid Content of Kale and Other Vegetables: A Review of Pre- and Post-harvest Effects". J Agric Food Chem. 63 (Oct 28): 9677–82. "doi:10.1021/acs.jafc.5b03691. "PMID 26477753. 
  15. ^ Kushad MM, Brown AF, Kurilich AC, Juvik JA, Klein BP, Wallig MA, Jeffery EH (1999). "Variation of glucosinolates in vegetable crops of Brassica oleracea". J Agric Food Chem. 47 (4): 1541–8. "doi:10.1021/jf980985s. "PMID 10564014. 
  16. ^ Houghton, C. A.; Fassett, R. G.; Coombes, J. S. (2013). "Sulforaphane: Translational research from laboratory bench to clinic". Nutrition Reviews. 71 (11): 709–26. "doi:10.1111/nure.12060. "PMID 24147970. 
  17. ^ Nugrahedi, P. Y.; Verkerk, R; Widianarko, B; Dekker, M (2015). "A mechanistic perspective on process-induced changes in glucosinolate content in Brassica vegetables: A review". Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 55 (6): 823–38. "doi:10.1080/10408398.2012.688076. "PMID 24915330. 
  18. ^ Korus, Anna; Lisiewska, Zofia (2011). "Effect of preliminary processing and method of preservation on the content of selected antioxidative compounds in kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) leaves". Food Chemistry. 129 (1): 149–154. "doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.04.048. 
  19. ^ Zietz, Michaela; Weckmüller, Annika; Schmidt, Susanne; Rohn, Sascha; Schreiner, Monika; Krumbein, A; Kroh, Lothar W (2010). "Genotypic and Climatic Influence on the Antioxidant Activity of Flavonoids in Kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica)". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 58 (4): 2123–2130. "doi:10.1021/jf9033909. "PMID 20095605. 
  20. ^ "A kid-friendly potato chip alternative". The Washington Post. 23 June 2015. Archived from the original on 2 April 2017. Retrieved 2 April 2017. 
  21. ^ Harvard Student Agencies, Inc. (2013). Let's Go Paris, Amsterdam & Brussels: The Student Travel Guide. Let's go travel guide. Avalon Travel Publishing. p. 503. "ISBN "978-1-61237-028-6. Retrieved April 2, 2017. 
  22. ^ Gray, R.; Rogers, R. (2013). The River Cafe Cookbook. Ebury Publishing. p. pt80. "ISBN "978-1-4464-6035-1. Retrieved April 2, 2017. 
  23. ^ The Illustrated Cook's Book of Ingredients. The Illustrated Cook's Book of Ingredients. DK Publishing. 2010. p. 193. "ISBN "978-0-7566-7673-5. Retrieved April 2, 2017. 
  24. ^ Liliana Pavicic and Gordana Pirker-Mosher Best of Croatian Cooking, p. 137, at "Google Books
  25. ^ "THE LAZY GARDENER 'Off one's kail' you'll be if you eat these winter beauties". 4 December 2009. Archived from the original on 27 August 2017. Retrieved 3 June 2017. 
  26. ^ Wise, V.; Hawken, S. (1999). The Gardeners' Community Cookbook. Workman Pub. p. 276. "ISBN "978-0-7611-1772-8. Retrieved April 2, 2017. 
  27. ^ Rogers, N. (2003). Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night. Oxford University Press. p. 47. "ISBN "978-0-19-516896-9. Archived from the original on 2 May 2016. Retrieved 2 April 2017. 
  28. ^ Scott, Maggie. "Scots Word of the Season: Kailyard". arts.gla.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 13 June 2017. 
  29. ^ Cuthbertson, David Cuningham (1945). Autumn in Kyle and the Charm of Cunninghame. London: Jenkins. Page 186

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